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Archives Center Wild West Collection

Names:
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Pawnee Bill, 1860-1942  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Comic books
Design drawings
Itineraries
Programs
Sheet music
Date:
1884-1917, undated
1884-1917
Summary:
The collection includes assorted printed materials and ephemera on "Wild West" shows.
Content Description:
The collection includes assorted printed materials and ephemera on "Wild West" shows. It consists primarily of includes dime novels, programs, sheet music, advertisements, artwork, and publications.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series and in chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
Wild West shows, a popular American form of entertainment, were performed for audiences across the United States from circa 1870-1920. The shows were intended to introduce the American West to a wider audience. Shows primarily featured cowboys and Native Americans and were partly based on history. In addition, Wild West shows presented actors with opportunities to display skills of showmanship.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Anthony Sapienza in 2018.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cowboys -- United States  Search this
Illustrated books, Children's  Search this
Rodeos -- United States  Search this
Western shows  Search this
Wild west shows  Search this
Genre/Form:
Comic books
Design drawings
Itineraries
Programs
Sheet music -- 20th century
Citation:
Archives Center Wild West Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1466
See more items in:
Archives Center Wild West Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1466

Lucky Nickel

Physical Description:
nickel (overall material)
circular (overall shape)
double-sided (overall pattern)
Measurements:
overall: 3/16 in x 2 13/16 in; .47625 cm x 7.14375 cm
Object Name:
medallion
coin, novelty
Subject:
U.S. Capitol Building  Search this
Souvenirs  Search this
Novelty  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
ID Number:
2011.0227.222
Accession number:
2011.0227
Catalog number:
2011.0227.222
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Coins, Currency and Medals
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-9ba5-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1420652

Lucky Nickel

Physical Description:
nickel (overall material)
circular (overall shape)
double-sided (overall pattern)
Measurements:
overall: 1/4 in x 2 3/4 in; .635 cm x 6.985 cm
Object Name:
medallion
coin, novelty
Subject:
U.S. Capitol Building  Search this
Souvenirs  Search this
Novelty  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
ID Number:
2011.0227.223
Accession number:
2011.0227
Catalog number:
2011.0227.223
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Coins, Currency and Medals
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-9ba6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1420653

Lucky Nickel

Physical Description:
nickel (overall material)
circular (overall shape)
double-sided (overall pattern)
Measurements:
overall: 3/16 in x 2 7/8 in; .47625 cm x 7.3025 cm
Object Name:
medallion
coin, novelty
Subject:
U.S. Capitol Building  Search this
Souvenirs  Search this
Novelty  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
ID Number:
2011.0227.224
Accession number:
2011.0227
Catalog number:
2011.0227.224
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Coins, Currency and Medals
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-9bc2-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1420654

Lucky Penny

Physical Description:
copper (overall material)
circular (overall shape)
double-sided (overall pattern)
Measurements:
overall: 1/4 in x 2 3/4 in; .635 cm x 6.985 cm
Object Name:
medallion
coin, novelty
Date made:
1918
Subject:
U.S. Capitol Building  Search this
Souvenirs  Search this
Novelty  Search this
Native Americans  Search this
ID Number:
2011.0227.226
Accession number:
2011.0227
Catalog number:
2011.0227.226
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Government, Politics, and Reform
Coins, Currency and Medals
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-7729-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1420658

Mola : Person Riding Fish

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
47.5 cm
Width:
35.7 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433505-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ad005818-4d76-4ae6-b882-a7fd1e8e2e73
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479740
Online Media:

Mola : Number 15

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
49.4 cm
Width:
40.2 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433507-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3aa14170e-90cb-45de-bc02-468fe2f656bf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479742
Online Media:

Mola : Man Riding A Large Fish, Surrounded By Smaller Fish

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
44.5 cm
Width:
39.7 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433509-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3aa5b2a9d-fc1b-44a9-b676-114e80560918
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479744
Online Media:

Mola : Man Riding A Large Fish, Surrounded By Smaller Fish

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
47.9 cm
Width:
39 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433510-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/39147ca61-a692-4542-ae1f-d3339f875e94
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479745
Online Media:

Mola : Creature (Lizard?)

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
53.2 cm
Width:
40.6 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433515-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a81ea545-da54-4516-aeb9-dd7aab7b70ed
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479750
Online Media:

Mola : Lizards

Collector:
Dr. Felix W. McBryde  Search this
Donor Name:
Larry McBryde  Search this
Length:
44.1 cm
Width:
35.9 cm
Culture:
Kuna (Guna)  Search this
Object Type:
Mola
Place:
San Blas Islands, Panama, Central America
Accession Date:
25 Jun 2012
Collection Date:
1964 to 1970
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
2051872
USNM Number:
E433521-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34a5b4c2f-1cee-4425-92d5-d4c7c78ea286
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_11479757
Online Media:

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

John Canfield Ewers Papers

Correspondent:
Hanson, James A.  Search this
Conner, Stuart W.  Search this
Dempsey, Hugh A.  Search this
Brasser, Ted J.  Search this
DeMallie, Raymond  Search this
Schaeffer, Claude E.  Search this
Taylor, Colin F.  Search this
Creator:
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Names:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
United States. National Park Service  Search this
Catlin, George, 1796-1872  Search this
Denig, Edwin Thompson, 1812-1858  Search this
Taylor, James E. ((Artist))  Search this
Extent:
97 Linear feet
Culture:
Chippewa  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Assiniboine Indians  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Blackfoot  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1945-1993
Scope and Contents:
The John Canfield Ewers Papers document his wide ranging anthropological interests from early White depictions of Native Americans to the material culture of the Plains tribes through correspondence, exhibit catalogs, field notes, illustrations, lectures, maps, photocopies of archival materials, photographs, and writings. The collection includes materials relating to his numerous research projects and publications such as his books on plains sculpture and Jean Louis Berlandier as well as his field research among the Assiniboin and Blackfoot tribes. Ewers' career as an ethnologist based in a museum is amply documented through correspondence, exhibit plans and scripts, notes, and reports showcasing his work for the National Park Service and his fifty plus years at the Smithsonian. The voluminous correspondence file highlights his close collaboration with individuals such as Stu Conner, Hugh Dempsey, Claude Schaeffer, and Colin Taylor. Ewers' graduate studies and his family are featured in Series XI. One special category of materials in this collection is Series XIV, the card files. Ewers pulled information from his field notes and other sources, classified them, and typed or wrote them up on 3x5 or 5x7 inch index cards. He then organized these files alphabetically by subject within large categories such as "Collecting Alpha by Collectors Name" or "Fur Trade and Trade Goods." The card files include correspondence and photographs and closely relate to materials throughout the rest of the collection. Though Ewers' papers are primarily textual in nature, there are graphic materials throughout his files. Series XIII features the graphic materials that Ewers kept separate from his files such as the contents of his slide cabinets. There is overlap within this series as Ewers kept multiple copies of his slides in various locations. This series also includes audiotapes of conferences and symposia at which Ewers spoke and three scrapbooks. Of note are original pencil and ink drawings from his book, The Horse in Blackfoot Culture, in Series XV. Transcripts of oral history interviews with John Canfield Ewers are also available at the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Arrangement note:
This collection was organized into 15 series - Correspondence, Research & Subject Files, Research Projects, Trips and Presentations, Artists of the Old West, North American Indian Art, Plains Sculpture Book, Berlandier Project, Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, Personal, Writings by Ewers, Audiovisual Materials, Card Files, and Art Work.
Biographical/Historical note:
John Canfield Ewers (1909-1997) earned a B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1931 and an M.A. in Anthropology from Yale University in 1934. Ewers began his career in museums as a Field Curator for the National Park Service. He helped design exhibits at Vicksburg National Battlefield and Ocmulgee National Monument among others. In 1941, the Bureau of Indian Affairs hired Ewers to design and establish the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning, Montana. After a short stint in the Navy during World War II, Ewers joined the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution. He worked at the Smithsonian for over fifty years in numerous capacities including Director of the National Museum of History and Technology (now called the National Museum of American History). Ewers' research dealt with the Plains Indians and the Blackfoot tribe in particular. Ewers wrote several books on a wide variety of topics including White artists depictions of Native Americans, Plains Indian sculpture, and the horse in Blackfoot Indian culture.
Restrictions:
The John Canfield Ewers papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnohistory  Search this
Carving  Search this
American Indians -- Plains  Search this
Artists -- United States -- West -- Biography  Search this
American Indians -- Clothing  Search this
American Indians -- arts and crafts  Search this
Museums -- History -- Exhibitions  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Repatriation  Search this
Artists  Search this
Citation:
John Canfield Ewers papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-35
See more items in:
John Canfield Ewers Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-35

[Jamestown 1907 Exposition Booklet Logo featuring two Native Americans : booklet]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Creator:
Jamestown Ter-centennial Exhibition (1907 : Hampton Roads, Va.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper.)
Container:
Box 12, Folder 8
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Booklets
Date:
1907
Scope and Contents:
Jamestown 1907 Exposition Booklet Logo featuring two Native Americans looking out at a ship coming into the shore where they sit.
Local Numbers:
040060193.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Jamestown (Va.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Booklets
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / JAMESTOWN
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref560
Online Media:

Codex Tetlapalco/Codex Saville

Culture/People:
probably Mexica (Aztec) (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
Dr. Marshall H. Saville (Marshall Howard Saville/M.H. Saville/MHS), Non-Indian, 1867-1935  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Thea Heye (Thea Kowne/Mrs. Dorothea Page/Mrs. George Gustav Heye), Non-Indian, 1888-1935  Search this
Title:
Codex Tetlapalco/Codex Saville
Object Name:
Tribute record
Media/Materials:
Amate (Fig tree) paper
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
146.2 x 14.0 x .3 cm
Object Type:
Indigenous Knowledge and Records
Place:
Texcoco; Texcoco Municipality, Texcoco Region; México State; Mexico (inferred)
Geographical Areas:
Valley of Mexico
Date created:
AD 1450-1557
Catalog Number:
13/6913
Barcode:
136913.000
See related items:
Mexica (Aztec) (archaeological culture)
Indigenous Knowledge and Records
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_147424

Blanket

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. David M. Nowlin, Non-Indian, 1866-1934  Search this
Fanny Nowlin Griffith (Fanny Pannill Nowlin/Mrs. Joseph Milton Griffith Jr.), Non-Indian, 1903-1998  Search this
Sue Ann Griffith, Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
Sue Ann Griffith, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Blanket
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn, aniline dye/dyes
Techniques:
Dyed, woven
Dimensions:
183.0 x 183.0 cm
Object Type:
Furnishings (Home)
Place:
Arizona or New Mexico; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1920-1935
Catalog Number:
27/67
Barcode:
270067.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Furnishings (Home)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_412966

Florida

Culture/People:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Kay WalkingStick, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, b. 1935 and Christa Wolff, Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
Kay WalkingStick, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, b. 1935  Search this
Donor:
Kay WalkingStick, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, b. 1935  Search this
Title:
Florida
Object Name:
Print
Media/Materials:
Paper, ink
Techniques:
Woodcut/Woodblock printed
Dimensions:
57.0 x 76.0 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Ithaca; Tompkins County; New York; USA
Date created:
1995
Catalog Number:
26/9963
Barcode:
269963.000
See related items:
Oklahoma Cherokee
Painting/Drawing/Print
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_412828

Clothing/garment part/fragment

Culture/People:
Cherokee  Search this
Previous owner:
Tah-yah-naw-hun-le Ratler (Tah-yah-naw-hun-le Rattler), Cherokee  Search this
Carol L. Savage, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma  Search this
Donor:
Carol L. Savage, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma  Search this
Object Name:
Clothing/garment part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Overlay beadwork, sewn
Dimensions:
29.7 x 20.0 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
Southern USA; USA
Date created:
1800-1838
Catalog Number:
27/40
Barcode:
270040.000
See related items:
Cherokee
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_412939

Cradleboard

Culture/People:
Potawatomi [Michigan]  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Kelly Church, Potawatomi [Michigan]/Odawa (Ottawa)/Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa), b. 1967  Search this
Seller:
Kelly Church, Potawatomi [Michigan]/Odawa (Ottawa)/Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa), b. 1967  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard
Media/Materials:
Birchbark
Techniques:
Bent, laced, etched
Dimensions:
55.5 x 31 x 25 cm
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
Hopkins; Allegan County; Michigan; USA
Date created:
2017
Catalog Number:
27/206
Barcode:
270206.000
See related items:
Potawatomi [Michigan]
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_415682
Online Media:

Female figure

Culture/People:
probably Quimbaya (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Charles Ratton (Charles A. Ratton), Non-Indian, 1895-1986  Search this
Alfred E. Stendahl, Non-Indian, 1915-2010  Search this
Joseph Dammann (Joseph Dammen/Joseph Dammam), Non-Indian, 1921-1971  Search this
Seller:
Stendahl Galleries (Stendahl Gallery), 1911-  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Sackler Fund  Search this
Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, Non-Indian, 1913-1987  Search this
Object Name:
Female figure
Media/Materials:
Gold
Techniques:
Cast
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Medellín; Medellín Municipality; Antioquia Department; Colombia
Date created:
AD 500-1500
Catalog Number:
23/6499
Barcode:
236499.000
See related items:
Quimbaya (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_251876
Online Media:

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