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Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show

Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Names:
Ludwig, King of Bavaria, III, 1845-1921  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear feet
37 Photographs
Culture:
Buffalo Bill  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Germany -- Bavaria -- Munich
Date:
circa 1890 - 1891
Summary:
This collection consists of 32 photographic prints of Native and non-Native peoples involved with Buffalo Bill's Wild West show in approximately 1890-1891.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show collection consists of 32 photographic prints (and 5 copy negatives created at a later date by the NMAI staff). The images portray Native and non-Native peoples involved with Buffalo Bill's Wild West show in approximately 1890-1891, and include a number of publicity and studio portrait shots. Notable photographs include King Ludwig III of Bavaria and his daughter, Princess Maria Ludwiga Theresia of Bavaria, visiting with and even photographing some of the Wild West performers in Munich, Germany, in 1890.

The specific identity of the photographers of these images is not certain. While these photographs have historically been attributed to Frank Lehner, it is more likely that he was the collector rather than the photographer. It appears that at least one image (P10215) was probably taken by Bavarian Royal Court Photographer J. Seiling, and one image (P10192) or possibly two (P10193) were taken by Charles Henry Braithwaite, a portrait photographer in Leeds, England, in 1891.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection are organized into folders.
Biographical / Historical:
William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody opened the first Wild West show in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1883. Within four years the fame of the Wild West had grown so great that Cody took his fellow performers on an international tour of Europe, performing between 1887 and 1906 in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Austria, and a host of other countries.

Undeniably, Cody's Wild West constructed and promoted inaccurate views of Native Americans, defining "real Indians" as only those who lived in tipis, rode horses, and wore feather headdresses. Such stereotypes have sadly been perpetuated in dime novels, television shows, and major motion pictures down to the present, ignoring the staggering cultural diversity of the Indigenous peoples of North America.

In spite of the Wild West show's culpability in creating and perpetuating narrow views of who Native peoples are and what they look like, several recent scholars have argued that there were some upsides for those Native Americans who chose to perform with this traveling show. One of the major bonuses was the relative freedom Wild West performers experienced compared with their community members who had to remain on the reservations. L.G. Moses in Wild West Shows and the Images of American Indians and Michelle Delaney in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Warriors both note Native performers' opportunities to not only see the world and earn an income, but also to practice their beliefs and live their days free from the interference of the ever-present missionaries, politicians, and BIA agents back at home.

In addition, Wild West performers experienced opportunities otherwise unimaginable to many Americans of their day, including being presented to Queen Victoria at her Golden Jubilee in London in 1887, attending the 1889 World's Fair in Paris with its debut of the newly constructed Eiffel Tower, and having their photograph taken by the daughter of the future King of Bavaria, Ludwig III, in Munich in 1890.
Provenance:
This collection was exchanged with Frank Lehner in 1932.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Wild west shows  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-147
Additional Online Media:

Portrait photograph of an unidentified Native American man, possibly Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)

Collection Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 5
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1891
Scope and Contents:
Studio photographic portrait of an unidentified Wild West performer, possibly of Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) culture. Photographed at Buffalo Bill's Wild West show.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147, Item P10209
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-147-ref21

Portrait photograph of an unidentified Native American man, possibly Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)

Collection Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 5
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1891
Scope and Contents:
Studio photographic portrait of an unidentified Wild West performer, possibly of Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) culture. Photographed at Buffalo Bill's Wild West show.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147, Item P10212
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-147-ref24

Portrait photograph of an unidentified Native American man, possibly Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)

Collection Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 6
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1891
Scope and Contents:
Studio photographic portrait of an unidentified Wild West performer, possibly of Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) culture. Photographed at Buffalo Bill's Wild West show.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147, Item P10214
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-147-ref26

William Wildschut Photograph Collection

Creator:
Wildschut, William  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Two Leggings, ca. 1847-1923  Search this
Extent:
183 negatives (photographic)
21 Photographic prints
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Postcards
Negatives (photographic)
Date:
1870-1930
bulk 1917-1928
Summary:
The William Wildschut photograph collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 89 post cards. From 1917 to 1928 William Wildschut studied the Apsáalooke people through interviews, photography, and the collection of cultural objects. In 1921 Wildschut was hired as a field man by George Gustav Heye the director of the Museum of the American Indian, Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum until 1928. Wildschuts photographs include portrait style photos of Apsáalooke people, special events, daily reservation life, interments, and encampments. Tribes represented in this collection are primarily Apsáalooke, the postcard collection consists of other tribes including Lakota, Arapaho, and other unidentified tribes.
Scope and Contents:
The William Wildschut collection contains 183 photographic negatives, and 21 photographic prints. The photographic negatives were made by Wildschut between 1917 and 1928. The majority of the photographs in this collection are of Apsáalooke people and their reservation, however the postcard collection consists of over 14 instances of people from unidentified tribes. Wildschut photographed Apsáalooke chiefs, leaders and their families in portrait style poses and his subjects are usually dressed in their finest. He also photographed events such as Crow fair, veteran celebrations, parades, ceremonies, and interments.

The Apsáalooke are a people of the northern plains, their ancestral territory is in Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today the Crow Indian Reservation in located in south-central Montana which covers roughly 2,300,000 acres of land and it is the fifth-largest Indian reservation in the United States. The Crow are known for their horsemanship, exquisite beadwork, clan system, historic war societies, 7th Calvary scouts, prolific chiefs, and beautiful homeland.

Series 1: Apsáalooke chiefs and leaders photographed in portrait style taken between 1917-1928. Wildschut captured images of many of the last Apsáalooke war chiefs who were, at the time, adjusting to a new life on the reservation. Many of the chiefs and leaders Wildschut photographed were dealing with new issues such as the Allotment Act, the Indian Citizenship Act, implementation of boarding schools, and government imposed regulations on traditional practices.

Series 2: Groups of Apsáalooke people in various situations. These photographs were taken at social events such as parades, dances, celebrations, and at the 45th annual Battle of the Little Big Horn.

Series 3: Apsáalooke people (individuals and families) in various situations. Some photographs are portrait style poses and others are casual instances. The Crow, who call themselves Apsáalooke or Biiluuke, are people of the Northern Plains. The Apsáalooke people continue to maintain their language and remain resilient in their cultural practices, they still identify themselves through a clan system, these clans are Ashshitchíte/the Big Lodge, Ashhilaalíoo/ Newly Made Lodge, Uuwatashe/ Greasy Mouth, Ashíiooshe/ Sore Lip, Xúhkaalaxche/ Ties the Bundle, Biliikóoshe/ Whistling Waters, Ashkápkawiia/ Bad War Deeds, and the Aashkamne/ Piegan clan.

Series 4: Photographs of the reenactment of the Battle of the Little Big Horn in Garryowen, MT in 1921. The Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought along the banks of the Little Bighorn River, in south central Montana on June 25-26, 1876. The 7th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry engaged in armed combat with the Lakota, Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes. The site of the battlefield is located on the Crow Indian reservation which is where Wildschut photographed the re-enactment. This event involved actual survivors of the event and many other re-enactors.

Series 5: Casual photographs of non-ceremonial dances, parades, fairs, races and rodeos. The Apsáalooke enjoy a very social culture, they revel in coming together to sing, dance, and celebrate as often as possible. This is called baasaxpilúua (Celebration). Baasaxpilúua allows families and clans to reunite and solidify their bonds. One such occasion is the annual Crow Fair celebration that takes place on the Crow reservation, on the third week of August. The Crow parade is a stunning exhibition of beadwork adorning people, horses and various types of floats. The beadwork of the Crow people is among the most technically proficient and visually exquisite in the world.

Series 6: Encampments with tipis (ashtáale) and tents. Wildschuts photographs of encampments are on the Crow reservation, Fort Custer, and at the Billings fair (a fair that Crows would go to parade, dance, camp and watch races and rodeos). The Apsáalooke call the tipi ashtáale, which translates to real home. Wildschut was not allowed into the tipi to photograph, there is only one photographic instance where he took photographs of a family in a tipi [N31145] and [N31146].

Series 7: Restricted Photographs of interments, ceremonies, sacred spaces and objects). As an ethnographer William Wildschut spent time studying Crow culture. He interviewed Crow people and even witnessed ceremonial events. Wildschut developed relationships with certain Crows who allowed him the honor of being present when private sacred bundles where opened. In some cases Wildschut was allowed to photograph these sacred events. Not all Apsáalooke people agree with these permissions, however the Crow people understand that those who allowed Wildschuts presence did so for their own purposes. The Apsáalooke come from a living culture and still maintain their language, culture and beliefs. They have respectfully requested that these photographs not be made public.
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into eight series by people, events, locations and postcards. Series 1: Apsáalooke Chiefs (Bacheeítche), Series 2: Apsáalooke Groupings, Series 3: Apsáalooke People, Series 4: 45th Annual Battle of the Little Big Horn, Series 5: Parades, Dances, and Events, Series 6: Encampments, Series 7: Restricted Content, Series 8: Postcards.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Wildschut was born Willem Wildschut on March 30, 1883, in Jisp, Holland. He married in 1909 in Leicester, England, and moved with his wife to Trier, Germany, where he was in charge of a cigarette factory. This began a long period during which Wildschut and his family moved frequently between Holland, Canada, and the western United States, usually while Wildschut was managing factories. In 1917 Wildschut moved his family to Billings, Montana where he worked in Farm Mortgages, this work took him to Hardin, Mt. (a small farming community 43 miles east of Billings), which borders the Crow Indian reservation and once served as an economic hub for the Apsáalooke people. William was fascinated with the Crow and began purchasing medicine bundles, war shirts, and various other items from the Crow which he found a market for with George Gustav Heye the founding Director of the Museum of the American Indian. In 1922, Heye purchased Wildschut's medicine bundle collection and hired him as a field man. From 1921 to 1928 Wildschut officially collected and conducted field expeditions in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum. Wildschut was also a collector of photographs. In the late 1920's he distributed a series of postcards that featured Native American people. These postcards featured his own photos as well as those of other photographers. During his employment with the Museum of the American Indian he was made a member of the Explorer's Club, and published several articles in the Museum's series "Indian Notes". On May 1, 1928, after the death of two of Heye's major benefactors, Wildschut was let go. In 1929 Wildschut and his family relocated to California where he worked for different mortgage companies. 1936 he was transferred to Oakland, California where he remained until his passing on January 7, 1955.

According to letters from him wife, William Wildschut was given a Crow name and was close friends with many Crow people. She also wrote that he believed it was his calling to do the work with Indians, however when he was released from employment with MAI he became distraught and never spoke of Indian people again. There are few stories about William Wildschut that remain in Crow Country, one is that his name was "Xaapaliiashilish" (Bundle Buyer) which is fitting considering he purchased and hundreds of sacred bundles from the Crow, which are now in Museums and Private Collections all over the world.

William Wildschut wrote several book manuscripts during his time with the Crow, three were later edited and published, these include: Crow Indian Beadwork (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1959), Crow Indian Medicine Bundles (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation: 1960) and Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior which was published in 1967.
Related Materials:
Additional William Wildschut papers (WA MSS S-2386) are located at Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, and The Yale Collection of Western Americana, New Haven, Connecticut.

The National Museum of the American Indian holds additional William Wildschut material such as letters, notes, receipts, and objects descriptions in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records, 1890-1989. They can be found in Series 6: Collectors, Box 284, Folder 14 to Box 286, Folder 6.
Separated Materials:
Originally, a collection of Fred E. Miller photographs purchased by William Wildschut were marked as William Wildschut photographs and were included in this collection. They have since been identified by Dorothy Munson, curator of the Fred E. Miller Collection, in Housatonic, Massachusetts, and have been processed separately as the Fred E. Miller photograph collection.
Provenance:
The Wildschut photograph collection was purchased from William P. Wreden of Palo Alto, California, by Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, in 1964. Mrs. Wildschut had given the negative collection to Frederick Moore, a friend of the Wildschuts, for his personal collection. However, when Moore's bookselling business went bankrupt the Wildschut images ended up as part of the bankruptcy sale and were purchased by Wreden. Many of the postcards in this collection were taken years after Wildschuts death, these post cards were possibly added to the collection by Fredrick Moore or William P. Wreden.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Certain photographs have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Crow Indians -- Social life and customs -- Photographs  Search this
Crow Indians -- Dances -- Photographs  Search this
Historical reenactments  Search this
Crow Indians -- Montana -- Crow Indian Reservation -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William Wildschut photograph collection, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.033
See more items in:
William Wildschut Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-033
Additional Online Media:

Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation ethnographic film collection

Creator:
Cadzow, Donald A., 1894-1960  Search this
Cattell, Owen  Search this
Coffin, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), b. 1883  Search this
Ford, James B., 1844-1928  Search this
Gilmore, Melvin R. (Melvin Randolph), 1868-1940  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Landini, Louis  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Names:
Chaves, Lorenzo  Search this
Drags Wolf  Search this
Foolish Bear  Search this
Heye, Thea  Search this
Mandan, Arthur  Search this
Waihusiwa  Search this
Extent:
147 motion picture films
25 videocassettes (digital betacam)
58 electronic discs (dvd)
Culture:
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Pilagá  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Motion picture films
Videocassettes (digital betacam)
Electronic discs (dvd)
Date:
1917-1938
Scope and Contents note:
This collection of films produced and acquired by the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) contains materials created by and for the MAI as ethnographic studies and as documentation of its own activities (including archaeological expeditions and cultural exchanges) between 1917 and 1938. Tribes represented include: Arikara, Crow, Navajo, Pilaga, Pueblo, Shoshone, and Zuni. Also included is footage of Hidatsa representatives and Zuni translators in Washington, D.C. and at the MAI; footage of MAI founder and director George Gustav Heye; and footage of the Hawikku (Hawikuh) and Kechipauan archaeological sites, Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. The collection consists mainly of successive 16mm and 35mm negative film duplicates and prints of now-destroyed original 35mm nitrate negatives. Series 4 gathers paper records directly pertaining to the collection. Preservation copies of the films exist on 35mm polyester film and Digital Betacam video tape. Access copies are available on DVDs.

The first series in this collection includes film, video, and DVD duplicates of ethnographic films funded, overseen, and filmed by agents of the MAI throughout the Western and Southwestern United States. The second series includes ethnographic films acquired rather than produced by the MAI of the Navajo and Pilaga. The third series consists of film produced by the MAI documenting its own activities, including an excavation at Hawikuh and Kechipauan, New Mexico; footage of MAI founder and director George Gustav Heye; and footage of Native visitors to the MAI and to Washington, D.C.
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into four series and chronologically within each series. Included are Series 1: Films Produced by the Museum of the American Indian, 1923-1927; Series 2: Films Acquired by the Museum of the American Indian, 1923-1924; Series 3: Documentation of Museum of the American Indian Activities, 1917-1938; and Series 4: Paper Records of the Ethnographic Film Collection. Titles within subseries are generally arranged alphabetically, with unrestricted titles listed before those restricted due to culturally sensitive content.

Within the collection, each unit of motion picture film (reel, videotape, or DVD) is assigned an identifying number. In this system, the final four appended numbers correspond to a title and a format. The full identifying number will appear as such: NMAI.AC.001.001.XX.YY, where XX corresponds to a numbered title and YY indicates the format of the print, as follows:

01: 35mm print (1917–1938, circa the original film dates)

02: 16mm dupe neg (made circa 1961 from XX.01 35mm)

03: 16mm print (from XX.02 for release, circa 1961)

04: 16mm print (from XX.02 for file/work or research, circa 1961)

05: 35mm dupe neg (preservation copy, made 2012–2014 from XX.01 and XX.02)

06: 35mm answer print (made 2012-2014 from XX.05)

07: Digital Betacam (preservation copy, made 2012-2014 from XX.06)

08, 09, 10 (if applicable): DVD (access copy, made 2012-2014 from XX.06)

11 and up: other copies and prints (see title-level notes for explanations)

Thus, for instance, the item with the number NMAI.AC.001.001.02.03 is the 16mm release print copy of the title "Deerskin Tanning and Wrapping the Leggings."

The content of each print or negative corresponding to the same title (XX) may be identical or similar. The content of the 1917-1938-era 35mm prints and the 1960s-era 16mm films differ. As the 35mm prints had deteriorated, damaged footage was removed prior to producing the 16mm negatives. After the 16mm negatives were produced, nitrate intertitles and additional damaged footage were also removed from the 35mm prints. The 2012-2014-era 35mm films were made by combining the existing 35mm prints with footage from the 16mm negatives in order to restore the most complete existing content to its highest possible quality. The Digital Betacam and DVD copies reproduce this restored footage.

This preservation and restoration effort was made possible by funding from the National Film Preservation Foundation, Save America's Treasures, and the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund, as well as support from the National Museum of the American Indian.
Historical Note:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was founded by George Gustav Heye in 1908 as a repository for his extensive collection of American Indian artifacts. Through the MAI, Heye funded extensive archaeological and anthropological fieldwork throughout the Americas. This collection represents a series of ethnographic films made in the course of MAI expeditions throughout the Western and Southwestern United States, as well as similar films purchased by the museum. The films record a variety of American Indian traditions, including crafts, foodways, games, and ceremonies, and were spurred by the era's perception of Native communities as "fast-disappearing" and vulnerable to dramatic change. The activities recorded range from quotidian to highly culturally sensitive, as followed Heye's all-encompassing collecting strategy.

The MAI's motion picture expeditions took place between 1923 and 1927 and were carried out by a number of agents of the museum, usually in the course of gathering artifacts. Many of these agents were anthropologists accompanied by professional photographers, but other footage is amateur. The MAI treated the series in full as technical educational material, noting in their 1962 motion picture film catalog that "they are not suitable for general entertainment."

The moving image collection of the MAI included these self-produced films as well as similar films purchased by the museum and film shot in the course of the museum's activities, including documentation of archaeological digs, staff, and Native visitors. In 1961-1962, recognizing the educational potential of its collection, the MAI received a grant from the National Science Foundation to transfer the original deteriorating nitrate prints to safety film, discarding film and editing prints in the process. In 2012-2014, the National Museum of the American Indian completed a transfer of the titles to Digital Betacam and DVD formats, combining footage from both original and 1961-1962-era prints to salvage as much content as possible. This work was completed with funding from the National Film Preservation Foundation, Save America's Treasures, and the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday–Thursday, 9:30 am–4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

Ceremonial images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity. Consult the archivist for further information.
Rights:
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Archeology -- Hawikuh -- New Mexico  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Antiquities  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian Ethnographic Film Collection, Call Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.001
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation ethnographic film collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-001

Crow Indians of Montana

Creator:
Wildschut, William  Search this
Collection Creator:
Cadzow, Donald A., 1894-1960  Search this
Cattell, Owen  Search this
Coffin, Edwin F. (Edwin Francis), b. 1883  Search this
Ford, James B., 1844-1928  Search this
Gilmore, Melvin R. (Melvin Randolph), 1868-1940  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Landini, Louis  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Extent:
3 videocassettes (digital betacam)
9 electronic discs (dvd)
15 Film reels
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Videocassettes (digital betacam)
Electronic discs (dvd)
Film reels
Date:
1927
Scope and Contents note:
In 1961, the 16mm negatives (XX.02) in this subseries were cut to match the approved, edited File/Work Print (XX.04) of each title; the unspliced Release Print (XX.03) was then taken from the cut negative. Thus, the salvaged 35mm print (XX.01) is the closest record to the title's original 35mm negative.
Arrangement note:
Unrestricted titles are listed before those restricted due to culturally sensitive content.
Restrictions:
Ceremonial images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity. Consult the archivist for further information.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian Ethnographic Film Collection, Call Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.001, Subseries 1.5
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation ethnographic film collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-001-ref35

Fred E. Miller photograph collection

Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Plenty Coups, 1848-1932  Search this
Two Leggings, ca. 1847-1923  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet
132 glass plate negatives
65 Photographic prints
145 acetate negatives (copy negatives)
148 contact prints
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Acetate negatives
Contact prints
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Place:
Montana
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Summary:
This collection contains photographs depicting Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people on the reservation in Montana. The photographs were shot by Fred E. Miller, a Bureau of Indian Affairs clerk circa 1898-1910.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 132 glass plate negatives and 65 prints (plus 145 acetate copy negatives and 148 contact prints) that were shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 and depict Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people and their reservation in Montana. The bulk of the photographs depict outdoor portraits of individuals and families. Other photographs depict encampments and scenes of daily life and activities on the reservation. Most individuals in the photographs are identified, including Chief Plenty Coups, Chief Holds the Enemy, Chief Two Leggings, and Chief Medicine Crow. Other portraits depict Apsáalooke scouts from General George Armstrong Custer's 7th Cavalry including Curley, White Swan, and Harry Moccasin. A few photographs also depict portraits of Cheyenne and Lakota people.

Some images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity, such as scenes of burials and ceremonies.

Fred Miller's negatives were often misattributed to William Wildschut who worked as a field collector for the Museum of the American Indian and photographed Apsáalooke people from 1917-1928. Please see the Immediate Source of Acquisition and Related Materials notes for more information.
Arrangement note:
This collection is intellectually arranged into 3 series by subject and restrictions.

The collection is physically arranged according to photo type. The glass plate negatives are arranged in boxes according to size; the acetate film boxes are arranged in a separate set of boxes first by collection #, then by catalog #; and the prints and contact prints are organized first by collection #, then in folders by catalog #.
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Chicago in 1868, Fred E. Miller learned photography in Iowa and went on to operate a photo studio in Nebraska and Iowa. In 1896 he moved to Helena, Montana and served as a civil service clerk for the Bureau of Indian Affairs on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation and 1898 he became the land clerk for the Crow Agency. Miller lived among and photographed the Apsáalooke people, learned to speak the language, and was officially adopted into the nation in 1905. He also acted in other roles periodically including as superintendent, U.S. commissioner, and justice of the peace.

He married Emma Smith Miller (1883-1920, Shawnee) in 1905 and they had four children Hulda Mignon Miller (1906-1991), Edwin H. Miller (1908-1988), Robert A. Miller (1910-1966), and Ruth Miller (1912-1976). In 1910, Miller left his Bureau position, and tried his hand at cattle ranching in Hardin, Montana. He died in 1936 and his collection of 500 of his glass plate negatives were sold by court order at public auction.
Related Materials:
The NMAI also holds the William Wildschut photograph collection, NMAI.AC.001.033. This collection contains photographs that were were shot by Wildschut between 1917 and 1928 and depict depict Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) people and the reservation.

The Montana Historical Society also holds a Fred E. Miller collection (collection number: MC 434)
Provenance:
Collected by William Wildschut for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1928. From 1921-1928, Wildschut was a field man for the MAI and collected material from Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Canada, and North Dakota on behalf of the Museum. Wildschut most likely collected these photographs directly from Fred Miller in Montana.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-108
Additional Online Media:

Big Ox

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 243 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Photograph depicting medicine man Big Ox [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)] posing with a feather plume. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13646
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref510

Bear Claw

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 243 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Bear Claw [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)]. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13647
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref511

Two Leggings and Plain Owl

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 243 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Chief Two Leggings (Issaatxalúash) and Plain Owl (Póopahta Xiassaash). Two Leggings was a prominent war chief and reservation-era chief. Plain Owl (Póopahta Xiassaash), a River Crow from Black Lodge (Ashshipíte), was a tribal leader, pipe carrier and war captain. They both are wearing war bonnets (óhkape). Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13648
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref512

Chief Medicine Crow

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 243 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Photograph depicting Chief Medicine Crow [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)] wearing a war bonnet. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13649
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref513

Girls in dresses

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 243 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of two girls wearing dresses, one decorated with dentalium shells. The girls wear face paint and are posed outside a tipi. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13650
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref514

Lives High with baby in cradleboard

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Lives High [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)] carrying a baby in a cradleboard. Several buildings are visible in the background. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13651
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref515

Long Ear and Lion Shows

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Long Ear and Lion Shows [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)]. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13652
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref516

Girls in dresses

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of two girls wearing dresses, one decorated with dentalium shells. The girls wear face paint and are posed outside a tipi. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13653
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref517

Louis Bompard and Takes Alone

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Louis Bompard and Takes Alone [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)]. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13655
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref518

Otter That Stays At The Water

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Otter That Stays At The Water [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)]. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13657
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref519

Blanket Bull and family

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Blanket Bull, his wife, daughter, and son posed in front of tipi. The son sits on horseback. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13658
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref520

Encampment

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 244 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Photograph overlooking an encampment with tipis. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13659
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref521

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