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Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico

Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
93 Photographic prints
9 Negatives (photographic)
24 Copy negatives
Culture:
Nahua  Search this
Guerrero Nahua  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Chinantec [Chinantla]  Search this
Cora  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Zoque  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Copy negatives
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1933-1940
Summary:
Images consist mostly of portraits of the indigenous people in the Mexican states of Michoacán, Guerrero, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz. The collection primarily contains images of Wikarika (Huichol) people, but includes images of the Purepecha (Tarasco), Guerrero Nahua, Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec peoples.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald Bush Cordry collection primarily contains photographic prints and negatives made by Cordry while he collected objects from 1935 to 1938 on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Photographic materials from his private 1933 trip to Guerreo and a few taken around 1940 are also housed in the collection. The photographs depict the native peoples of the Mexican states of Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, and Veracruz and represent people preparing food, making masks, pottery and textiles, and dressing for and participating in ceremonies. In addition there are village scenes and informal portraits of individuals. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States, includes images shot within the Purepecha (Tarasco) and Guererro Nahua communities between 1935 and 1936. (Negatives: N21118-N21126; Prints: P11986- P12008; Copy Negatives: N36725-N36731) Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States, is the largest series and includes images shot in various Wixarika (Huichol) villages in 1937 and depicts many ceremonial functions. (Prints: P12659-P12672, P12880-P12887, P13273-P13275, P13386-P13414; Copy Negatives: N36855-N36863, N41431-N41432) Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora and Mexico States, includes images from various culture groups from around 1940. These include Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec. (Prints: P15052-P15053, P15202-P15203, P15347-P15348, P16553-P16562; Copy Negatives: N37306-N37307, N37335-N37336, N37506-N37507)

The photographic prints are all silver gelatin (DOP) and are a range of sizes. The majority of the negatives are copy negatives made by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.
Arrangement note:
Arranged into three series by date and geographical location. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States: Purepecha (Tarasco), Guererro Nahua, 1933, 1935-1936; Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States: Wixarika (Huichol), 1937; Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora States: Various communities, circa 1940. Within each series the prints and negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Starting in high school, Donald Bush Cordry was deeply committed to theatrical set design and puppetry and while attending the Minneapolis Institute of Art began to carve his own wooden marionettes and hand puppets. In 1931, Cordry made his first trip to Mexico (Guerrero) and become fascinated by contemporary Mexican Indian art, especially mask making. In 1934, Cordry moved to New York to work as a marionette designer for puppeteer Tony Sarg and soon contacted George G. Heye to learn more about Mexican Indian art. From 1935 to 1938, Cordry collected Mexican masks and other art forms on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. On his first 1935 collecting trip for Heye, Cordry traveled throughout the states of Michoacán and Guerrero and collected carved and painted dance masks.

In 1936, Cordry married fellow artist Dorothy Mann. Shortly after their wedding, the newlyweds traveled by horseback for six months through Nayarit, Jalisco, and southern Sonora and extensively collected among and photographed the Huichol, Cora and Mayo Indians. The couple moved to Mexico in 1938, first settling in Oaxaca; in the mid-1940s, no longer working for Heye, they relocated to Mexico City. There Cordry established his own design business and produced decorative Mexican folk art-style crafts. His business was highly successful and his work was featured in House and Garden magazine. The couple moved to Cuernavaca, where in 1953 Cordry suffered a stroke and was forced to close his workshop. His stroke also put an end to his traveling and collecting activities. Deeply interested in the history and traditions of Mexican Indians, Cordry assembled an extensive reading library of pre- and post-conquest Mexico materials and together with his wife published "Costumes and Textiles of the Aztec Indians of the Cuetzalan Region, Puebla, Mexico" (1940); "The Costumes and Weaving of the Zoque Indians of Chiapas, Mexico" (1941); and, most importantly, "Mexican Indian Costumes" (1968). Cordry's monumental "Mexican Masks" (1980) was published shortly after his death. Cordry died in Cuernavaca, Mexico, at the age of 71.
Related Materials:
There are around 900 ethnographic items collected by Donald Cordry in Mexico in the National Museum of American Indian's ethnology collections. For more information about these materials contact NMAI Collections.

The National Anthropological Archives (National Museum of Natural History) holds several collections of Donald B. Cordry photographs. See: NAA Photo Lot 87-38, NAA Photo Lot 82-14, and NAA Photo Lot 80-3. The Donald Cordry Mexican mask collection at Natural History can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 355867.
Provenance:
The majority of the Donald Cordry photographs came to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation along with field collections in 1936 and 1938. There were additional donations of photographs made by Cordry in 1937, 1940, 1941 and 1943.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Social life and cutoms  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Nayarit (Mexico)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43995f9d3-738a-4dd3-9cf4-4b071077f0a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-008
Online Media:

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4710475fc-a6c0-427e-ad01-f83634f2caa5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

Frederick John Pratson photographs for "Land of the Four Directions"

Photographer:
Pratson, Frederick John  Search this
Names:
Barlow, Peter, Chief  Search this
Extent:
23 Photographic prints
1 Contact sheet
Culture:
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Contact sheets
Place:
Maine
New Brunswick (Canada)
Date:
circa 1970
Summary:
This collection contains 23 photographic prints and one contact sheet (36 images) made by Frederick John Pratson for his book Land of the Four Directions, published in 1970. Photographs include images of Passamaquoddy community members in Indian Township, Maine as well as Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation and Mi'kmaq community members of Big Cove and Indian Island in New Brunswick, Canada.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes one contact sheet with 36 images and 23 photographic prints of varying sizes made for Frederick John Pratson's 1970 publication Land of the Four Directions. The images on the contact sheet were most likely shot on the Mi'kmaq First Nation on Indian Island in Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada. These include portraits of Mi'kmaq Chief Peter Barrow, along with several other unidentified men. A handful of these images include Pratson himself.

A large number of the photographic prints (silver gelatin) were shot in the late 1960s among the Passamaquoddy community in Maine and were identified in 2010 by Donald G. Soctomah, Historic Preservation Officer of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. Many of the photographs include images of children, many from the Dana family, going about their daily lives. The rest of the prints are listed as being photographed among Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation in New Brunswick, Canada and also include a large number of portraits of children, many of them still unidentified.
Contact sheet catalog numbers: P25886-P25922; Photographic Print catalog numbers: P25923-P25945, P37586-P37588
Arrangement:
Arranged in six folders by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Born October 4, 1935 in Hartford Connecticut to John and Catherine Pratson, Frederick John Pratson was a historian and travel guide writer. After graduating from Boston College in 1957, he wrote for the travel section of the Boston Globe in addition to publishing a number of guidebooks which covered Canada and parts of the United States. In 1970, Pratson published Land of the Four Directions based on travels, photography and interviews among Passamaquoddy community members in Indian Township, Maine as well as Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation and Mi'kmaq community members of Big Cove and Indian Island in New Brunswick, Canada.

Pratson later returned to Indian Island Reservation in New Brunswick to interview Mi'kmaq (Micmac) Chief Peter Barlow in 1972. He also conducted interviews with William Jalbert, a lumberjack in Round Pond, Maine and with a group of Fisherman in East Dover, Nova Scotia. These interviews, done under the sponsorship of the New England-Atlantic Provinces-Quebec Center at the University of Maine (Orono) are now held in the Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History at the University of Maine.

Pratson died in December 1989, leaving a wife, four sons and two daughters.
Related Materials:
MF 042 Frederick Pratson Collection located at the Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History, University of Maine.
Provenance:
Gift Frederick John Pratson, circa 1985.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick John Pratson photographs from Land of the Four Directions, image #, NMAI.AC.341; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.341
See more items in:
Frederick John Pratson photographs for "Land of the Four Directions"
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv48707aea5-78f0-4896-9d31-13daf58e22a6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-341
Online Media:

Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs

Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
56 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1898-1901
Summary:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs were shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 and the Greater America Exposition, 1899, both held in Omaha, Nebraska.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs depict photographic portraits and scenes of sham battles shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska, from June 1 to October 31, 1898. Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) and his assistant Adolph F. Muhr were the official photographers. During the Indian Congress they photographed more than 500 individuals and groups representing the estimated thirty-six tribes represented at the Exposition. Rinehart shot the majority of the outdoor battles, dance scenes, and events, while Muhr photographed the majority of the delegate portraits. Rinehart copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899 and 1900.

Other photographs in this collection are photographic portraits of American Indian leaders that were photographed by Herman Heyn and James Matzen at the Greater America Exposition in Omaha in 1899. Heyn copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899.

Finally, the collection also contains 7 loose photomechanical prints depicting portraits by photographer William Henry Jackson. These prints were colorized and published under Jackson's company the Detroit Photographic Co. Other loose color photomechanical prints include portraits shot by photographer William H. Rau (1855-1920) for the Chicago Inter-Ocean Newspaper in 1901.

The photograph titles were assigned by the photographers.
Arrangement:
The photographs in the album are in original order. The loose prints are organized into 3 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Byron Harvey, III (1932-2005) was an anthropologist and collector specializing in southwestern American Indian tribes. He was the great-grandson of Frederick Harvey, best known as the founder of the Fred Harvey Company that ran a successful chain of gift shops, restaurants, and hotels known as Harvey Houses. The Company also amassed a collection of American Indian art and sold many collections to museums including the Museum of the American Indian (NMAI's predecessor museum).

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition World's Fair was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June 1 to October 1898. Over 500 Indian delegates from over thirty-five different tribes were present at the Fair. James Mooney (Bureau of Ethnology) and Captain William A. Mercer organized and managed the Indian Congress in conjunction with the Exposition. It included "living exhibitions," with mock Indian villages and demonstrations of dances, daily activities, and sham battles.

The official photographer of the U.S. Indian Congress was Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) with his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913). The Rinehart and Muhr photographs are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.

After the Trans-Mississippi Exposition ended, the Greater America Exposition opened on the same fair grounds from July 1, 1899 to October 31, 1899. Herman Heyn and James Matzen won the contract to be the official photographer of the new Exposition. This Exposition featured many of the same buildings and set up as the Trans-Mississippi Exposition of the previous year.
Related Materials:
The Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas has a large collection of Frank Rinehart photographs from U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including the original glass plate negatives.

The National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center also holds other photographs shot by Rinehart and Muhr at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including collection NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
Donated by Byron Harvey, III in 1966.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Greater America Exposition (1899 : Omaha, Neb.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a0d820a2-4caf-43a3-b0c2-37c49a927171
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-119
Online Media:

U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition photograph album

Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear feet
18 Photographic prints
Culture:
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Southern Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Photograph albums
Date:
1898
Summary:
This photograph album contains 18 photographic portraits of American Indian delegates at the U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska, 1898. Frank A. Rinehart and Adolph F. Muhr's photographs of the Exposition are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 18 photographs arranged in an album. The photographs depict portraits of American Indians delegates at the U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition held in Omaha, Nebraska, between June 1 and October 31, 1898. During the Congress, Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) and/or his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913) photographed more than 500 delegates and groups representing the estimated thirty-five tribes represented at the Exposition.

The photographs that Rinehart and Muhr shot during the Exposition depict the largest gathering of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century. This collection contains only 18 of the hundreds of photographs that Rinehart and Muhr shot at the event.

The photographers assigned the photograph titles.
Biographical / Historical:
The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition World's Fair was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June 1 to October 1898. Over 500 Indian delegates from over thirty-five different tribes were present at the Fair.

James Mooney (Bureau of Ethnology) and Captain William A. Mercer organized and managed the Indian Congress in conjunction with the Exposition. It included "living exhibitions," with mock Indian villages and demonstrations of dances, daily activities, and sham battles.

The official photographer of the U.S. Indian Congress was Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) with his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913). Rinehart shot the majority of the outdoor battles, dance scenes, and events, while Muhr photographed the majority of the delegate portraits. Rinehart copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899 and 1900. The Rinehart and Muhr photographs are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.
Related Materials:
The Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas has a large collection of Frank Rinehart photographs from U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including the original glass plate negatives.

The National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center also holds other photographs shot by Rinehart and Muhr at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including collection NMAI.AC.119.
Provenance:
Donated by Margaret Cross in 2001.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photograph albums
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition photograph album, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.118
See more items in:
U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition photograph album
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv44ccaa207-fa6b-4fff-a948-b4a3ae02bc3e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-118
Online Media:

Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection

Photographer:
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Extent:
43 Photographic prints
0.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Southern Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Kitchai Wichita  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Oglala Lakota [Pine Ridge]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1882-1913
Summary:
This collection consists of 43 photographic prints of Native American peoples from throughout North America. Dating from 1882 to 1913, the images in this collection document a variety of Native American communities and events, including the U.S. Indian Congress which took place at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska. Photographers include Frank A. Rinehart, Adolph F. Muhr, and Roland W. Reed, as well as a series of images by an unknown photographer who also documented American Indian life.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection consists of 43 photographic prints of Native American peoples at the turn of the twentieth century. Dating from 1882 to 1913, the images in this collection document a variety of Native American communities and events, including the U.S. Indian Congress which took place at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska. This exposition, also referred to as the 1898 World's Fair, was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June through October, 1898. Attending the U.S. Indian Congress at the fair were over 500 American Indian delegates representing more than 35 Native communities from throughout the United States.

In addition to the Rinehart and Muhr 1898 photographs are also a number of staged portrait images created by Roland W. Reed in the early decades of the twentieth century. Traveling throughout the U.S. West and Canada, Reed photographed Native communities ranging from Minnesota to Montana and Canada, and extending to Arizona in the Southwest U.S.

This collection also consists of 18 photographs contemporary to those of Rinehart and Reed, dating approximately 1882 – 1904. The photographer(s) of these images is unknown. Although specific communities are not identified, many images appear to portray Northern Plains and Central Plains American Indian peoples.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series, organized by photographer, and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: Frank A. Rinehart photographs, Series 2: Roland W. Reed photographs, Series 3: Unknown photographer
Biographical / Historical:
Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) was born in Illinois, opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska in 1885 or 1886, and is best known for his work as the official photographer of the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha. In addition to portrait photographs of Native American delegates attending the U.S. Indian Congress of 1898, Rinehart as official exposition photographer also documented the broader exhibits and events that took place at the 1898 Omaha World's Fair.

Adolph R. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913) worked as Frank A. Rinehart's assistant at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, creating a photographic record of the events and attendees. While Rinehart documented many of the outdoor sham-battles, dance scenes, and other events related to the U.S. Indian Congress, Muhr was responsible for the majority of the posed delegate portraits. Muhr in later years worked with photographer Edward S. Curtis in Seattle, until Muhr's death in 1913.

Roland W. Reed (1864-1934) was born in Wisconsin, and is best known for traveling widely throughout the western United States and Canada, photographing Native American communities. Having apprenticed with photographer Daniel Dutro in 1890s Montana, Reed later ran photography studios in both Ortonville and Bemidji, Minnesota in the early 1900s. Over the next few decades he continued to document the lives and cultures of Native peoples, opening photography studios in Kalispell, Montana in 1909, and later in San Diego, California in 1915. Many of Reed's photographs are clearly staged, representing romanticized and stereotyped images of what Reed believed Native American life to be. He died in Colorado in 1934.
Related Materials:
The NMAI Archive Center collections also include an album of 18 photographic prints of Frank A. Rinehart's U.S. Indian Congress images: U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition photograph album, NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Dakota County Historical Society, South St. Paul, MN, in 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection, NMAI.AC.289; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.289
See more items in:
Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a22f7def-a94d-45ff-a363-e5fe43bf6011
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-289
Online Media:

Elayne Zorn Collection

Author:
Zorn, Elayne  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Brooklyn Museum of Art  Search this
University of Central Florida. Department of Sociology & Anthropology  Search this
Cahlander, Adele  Search this
Former owner:
California Academy of Sciences. Anthropology Department  Search this
Textile Museum (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Cutipa Lima, Juan de Dios  Search this
Extent:
1,474 Photographic prints
11526 Negatives (photographic)
10 Videocassettes
11 Linear feet
57 Sound recordings (57 cassette tapes.)
11412 Slides (photographs)
Culture:
Quechua  Search this
Aymara  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Videocassettes
Sound recordings
Slides (photographs)
Negatives
Research
Audiocassettes
Writings
Field notes
Place:
Sacaca (Bolivia)
Potosí (Bolivia : Dept.) -- Description and travel.
Puno (Peru : Dept.)
Andes Region -- Economic integration.
Taquili (Peru) -- Economic conditions
Peru
Taquili (Peru) -- Social life and customs
Date:
1971-2010
Summary:
The Elayne Zorn Collection measures 11 linear feet and contains thousands of photographic objects including negatives, slides and prints. The collection material spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from around 1975 until 2010. The material in this collection reflects Zorn's long association with the community in Taquile, Peru which led up to the publication of her book, Weaving a Future, in 2004. Zorn also spent a significant amount of time conducting field research in Andean communities in Bolivia examining the relationships between tourism and textiles. Zorn's additional professional activities included serving as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions as well as performing academic duties at the University of Central Florida.
Scope and Contents:
The Elayne Zorn Collection spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from 1975 until 2010. This includes material from Zorn's field research in the Andean Regions of Peru and Bolivia as well as her professional activities as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions. This collection is arranged into six series with additional subseries. Series 1, Field Research, includes field notebooks, correspondence, and general research from Taquile, Peru, Sakaka, Bolivia and La Paz, Bolivia. Series 2, Professional Activities, includes presentation and lecture notes, object catalogs for various museum collections and Zorn's academic work conducted at the University of Central Florida. Series 3, Publications and Writings, contains both articles written by Zorn, including her Master's thesis and dissertation, and articles published by colleagues. Series 4, Ephemera and Miscellaneous, contains a variety of materials including posters, postcards, datebooks and calendars as well as material gathered by Zorn's former husband, Juan Cutipa. Series 5, Photographs, includes negatives, slides, prints and digital media that document Zorn's work in the field. The bulk of the photographs capture the daily lives of weavers as well as important community holidays and festivals. Series 6, Audio-Visual Materials, includes a small amount of VHS tapes as well as audio-cassettes on which Zorn recorded traditional Andean music performed at festivals she attended in Peru and Bolivia.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Field Research, 1975-2006

Subseries 1.1: Taquile, Peru, 1975-1994 [1977-1981]

Subseries 1.2: Sakaka, Bolivia, 1985-1994

Subseries 1.3: La Paz, Bolivia, 2006

Subseries 1.4: Miscellaneous Field Notes, 1976-2006

Series 2: Professional Activities, 1978-2010

Subseries 2.1: Conferences and Presentations, 1977-2009

Subseries 2.2: Museum Work, 1976-2008

Subseries 2.3: General, 1976-2010

Series 3: Publications and Writings, 1979-2009

Subseries 3.1: Elayne Zorn, 1979-2009

Subseries 3.2: Other Authors, 1979-2005

Series 4: Ephemera and Miscellaneous, 1975-2009

Series 5: Photographs, 1970-2006

Subseries 5.1: Negatives, 1976-1997

Subseries 5.2: Slides, 1970-2002

Subseries 5.3: Prints, 1978-2000

Subseries 5.4: Digital Media, 2002-2006

Series 6: Audio-Visual Materials, 1983-1994

Subseries 6.1: Cassette Tapes, 1983-1991

Subseries 6.2: Videotapes, 1991-1994
Biographical / Historical:
Elayne Leslie Zorn was born on February 3, 1952 in New York City. She attended Hunter College High School and Barnard College. She received her Bachelor's of Fine Arts degree in Textile Arts from the California College of the Arts in 1975. She then began a long association with the community on the Island of Taquile, in the Puno region of Peru, conducting fieldwork on native weaving techniques. She also began a long-term affiliation with the Museo Nacional de Etnografia y Folklore in La Paz, Bolivia and collected textiles in the Macusani region of Peru for an exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences. She received her Master's degree in Latin American Studies from the University of Texas, Austin in 1983, with fieldwork concentrated on economic development and tourism in Taquile, Peru. During her time in Peru in the 1970's and 1980's, Zorn became an accomplished musician, playing the charango and Bolivian mandolin in performances in Andean towns as well as in New York City. Zorn resumed graduate studies in 1985 at Cornell University where she received her Master of Arts degree in anthropology in 1987 followed by her Ph.D. in 1997. At Cornell she worked under the supervision of Professor Billie Jean Isbell and conducted much of her dissertation fieldwork in Sakaka, Bolivia focusing on the global transformation of cloth and identity in highland Andean regions. Zorn worked as a visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Colgate University from 1997 to 1998 and then hired as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Central Florida from 1998 until 2010. While at the University of Central Florida, Zorn received both teaching-related and research-related awards as well as grants to continue her fieldwork in the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. She also co-directed the PeruVine/PeruDigital Project, an interactive and immersive website to present field data from Peru's Institute of Ethnomusicology online. In 2004 Zorn published her book, Weaving a Future: Tourism, Cloth and Culture on an Andean Island (University of Iowa Press), an analysis of textile traditions as it relates to global change.

In addition to her academic duties, throughout her career Zorn collaborated with various museums and cultural institutions as a consultant and collector. These included, but are not limited to, The Brooklyn Museum, The Textile Museum, Smithsonian Center for Folklife Programs, UNICEF and the Inter-American Foundation. She was also a member of various professional societies including the American Anthropological Association, the Bolivian Studies Association, the Society for Latin American, Carribean, and Latino Studies as well as the Textile Society of America. Zorn passed away June 15, 2010 and was survived by her mother, Sandra Gordon, and her son, Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn.

Sources: http://anthropology.cos.ucf.edu/include/file/people/cv/zorn_elayne.pdf (Accessed May 01, 2012) http://digitalethnography.dm.ucf.edu/pv/Zorn.html (Accessed May 1, 2012)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn, Elayne Zorn's son in April of 2011.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Tourism -- Andes Region  Search this
Women weavers -- Social life and customs -- Photographs  Search this
Festivals -- Bolivia -- Potosí  Search this
Textile fabrics -- Andes Region  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research
Slides (photographs)
Audiocassettes
Writings
Field notes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.022
See more items in:
Elayne Zorn Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4782fec11-25d0-4543-98fc-6cda92209c5d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-022
Online Media:

Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona

Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Names:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Former owner:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
588 Photographic prints
190 Copy negatives
Culture:
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Cora  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Tepecano  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Arizona -- photographs
Mexico -- Photographs
Date:
1898-1902
Summary:
This collection contains photographic prints and copy negatives taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. The majority of the photographs were donated by George Pepper to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1923. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi and Yoreme (Mayo). Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in the Czech Republic moved to the United States in 1881. Hrdlicka became known as the "Father" of Physical Anthropology and worked at the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographic prints taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. It is likely that many of the photographs were taken in 1902 as a part of the Hyde exploring expeditions on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. Some of these photographs were taken by Carl Lumholtz and not Hrdlicka. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi, and Yoreme (Mayo). Locations photographed in Mexico include--Michoacán, Sonora, Mesa del Encanto and the Ruins of Totoate in Jalisco, Ruins of La Quamada and Ruins of Teul in Zacatecas, Nayarit State, and the central altiplano. Locations photographed in Arizona include--Casa Grande in Pinal County, Fort Yuma Reservation, Supai in Coconino County and the Mission San Xavier del Bac.

The photographs include a large amount of posed portraits of men and women, none of them identified in our collection. Hrdlicka often posed his subjects both facing forward and in profile so that he could better examine their physical attributes.There are some group portraits as well as scenic shots of houses, churches and village views. Hrdlicka also photographed archaeological ruins inlcuding Casa Grande, Mesa del Encanto, Totoate, La Quamada and Teul.

The copy negatives that were made from the prints in the late 1960s by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Arrangement:
The majority of the photographs have been left in the order that they were originally cataloged. Photographs from the various tribal communities in Arizona and Mexico are in Series 1-16, each community with its own series. The final series, Series 17, contains photographs from various archaeological ruins in Arizona and Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Bohemia in and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. Following this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum in 1903.

In 1905, Hrdlicka returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Native American tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Biographical note courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History. See Ales Hrdlicka Papers. Edited by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Related Materials:
The majority of Ales Hrdlicka's papers and photographs are located at the National Athropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. In addition to the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 additional Hrdlicka photographs can be found in photographic lots 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; 9, photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; 78, miscellaneous negatives; 97, Division of Ethnology collection (―USNM‖ Collection); 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs; 73-26G, miscellany; 77-48, group portraits of International Congress; 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and 92-46, anthropology lantern slides.
Provenance:
Although it is unclear when George Pepper received the photographs from Ales Hrdlicka, Pepper donated the majority of the collection of photographs to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) in 1923. The rest of the photographs were cataloged by the MAI some time in the 1920s but the provenance history is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv428a5c065-696f-4fa2-a3cd-11e427060b67
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-103
Online Media:

Huron H. Smith photograph collection

Creator:
Smith, Huron H. (Huron Herbert), 1883-1933  Search this
Names:
Milwaukee Public Museum  Search this
Satterlee, John V.  Search this
Extent:
26 Photographic prints
11 Copy negatives
Culture:
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Leech Lake, Minnesota]  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Mille Lacs, Minnesota]  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa [Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin]  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Minnesota
Wisconsin
Iowa
Date:
1921-1924
Summary:
This collection includes photographs made by Huron H. Smith during his ethnobotanical studies among Native communities in Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota between 1921 and 1924. These include photographs made among the Menominee (Menomini), Minnesota Chippewa [Mille Lacs and Leech Lake], Lake Superior Chippewa [Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin], Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) on the Mesquakie Indian Settlement in Tama, Iowa.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 26 photographic prints (11 copy negatives) made by ethnobotanist Huron H. Smith during field work for the Milwaukee Public Museum in 1921-1924. Many of the photographs are portraits of Native community members wearing traditional outifts or demonstrating local plant use, such as mat making.

Six photographs are from Smith's 1921-1922 trip to the Menominee (Menomini) reservation in Wisconsin. These include portraits of John Valentine Satterlee, Smith's guide and interpreter, and the Satterlee family. There are also as well as several restricted photographs of a Menominee cemetery and of the Menomini Spirit Rock. Seven photographs are from Smith's 1923 trip to the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)) Reservation in Tama, Iowa. These include portraits of William Davenport, Charles Keosatok and wife Qua-tau-che, White Breast and his family, and doctor John McIntosh (Kepeosatok). There are also several restricted images of Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) cemeteries.

Eleven photographs are from Smith's 1923-1924 trips to the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Wisconsin, working among the Lake Superior Chippewa, and to the Leech Lake and Mille Lacs Reservations in Minnesota, working among the Minnesota Chippewa. Images made in Lac de Flambeau include portraits of Big George Skye, John White Feather (We-bu-ju-o-no-kwe) and wife Na-Wa-Que Go-Kwe, We hre-gu-o-no-kwe, Chief A-mi-kons and wife Pa-ma-ju-o-no-kwe, and Maxiwika [Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)]. Also included are scenic views of a Lac De Flambeau village and a view shot during a Lake Superior Chippewa community dance. Images made in Minnesota include portraits of John Smith, Young Duck and Ajoybenais. There is also a photograph of the balsam Wigwam used by Huron Smith in Leech Lake and a restricted image of a Minnesota Chippewa cemetery. There is also a portrait of Stockbridge Mahican woman Harriet Quinney also taken in 1923.

Some of these photographs were included as illustrations in Smith's articles "Ethnobotany of the Menominee Indians," "Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians," and "Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians" in the Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee.

The copy negatives were created by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (NMAI's predecessor museum) during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.
Photographic prints: P10326-P10351. Copy Negatives: N20758, N36526-N36532, N38018-N38020
Arrangement:
Physcially arranged by catalog number. Intellectually arranged chronologically by community and then catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Huron Herbert Smith was born in Danville, Indiana in 1883. After receiving degrees from De Pauw and Cornell Universities he served as assistant curator of Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History from 1907 and 1917. In 1917, Smith began working at the Milwaukee Public Museum as head of the Botany Department. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s Smith conducted studies on the use of plant by Native American communities in Wisconsin and surrounding states. This research was supported by then-Museum director Samuel Barrett and anthropologist Alanson Skinner. Smith's ethnobotanical studies began on the Menominee Reservation in Wisconsin (1921-1923), and were followed by trips to the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)) Reservation in Tama, Iowa (1923), the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Vilas County, Wisconsin and the Leech Lake Reservation in Minnesota (1923-1924), the Potawatomi bands in Forest County, Wisconsin (1925), the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) south of Wisconsin Rapids (1928), and the Oneida Reservation in Wisconsin (1929).

Smith's work came to a sudden end with his death in 1933 as the result of an automobile accident. At the time of his death, four manuscripts had been published (Smith 1923, 1928, 1932, 1933), one was in process and published in 1998 by Kindscher & Hurlburt, and field notes remained for a sixth on the Oneida.

For more information on Huron Smith see the Milwaukee Public Museum's website on their Ethnobotany collections: http://archive.mpm.edu/research-collections/botany/online-collections-research/ethnobotany.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Huron H. Smith photographs and field notes can be found in the Milwaukee Public Museum Archives.
Provenance:
Gift of Charles Schoewe in 1932.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Several photographs have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Ethnobotany  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Huron H. Smith photograph collection, image #, NMAI.AC.145; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.145
See more items in:
Huron H. Smith photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv468a34deb-ac0a-4075-85a9-c78a6ab6c17f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-145
Online Media:

David Grant Noble photographs

Photographer:
Noble, David Grant  Search this
Extent:
140 Gelatin silver prints
Culture:
Mohawk  Search this
Mohawk [Kahnawake (Caughnawaga)]  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gelatin silver prints
Photographic prints
Place:
New York (State) -- New York City
Odanah (Wis.)
Date:
1970-1971
Summary:
This collection contains gelatin silver photographs shot by photographer David Grant Noble that depict Mohawk ironworkers constructing a building in New York City and Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa) wild rice harvesting in Wisconsin and Minnesota, 1970-1971.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 140 gelatin silver prints shot by photographer David Grant Noble from 1970-1971. The photographs depict Mohawk ironworkers at a construction site at 450 Park Avenue (Franklin National Bank Building) in New York City; Lake Superior Chippewa band of Anishinaabe harvesting wild rice on the Bad River Reservation in Odanah, Wisconsin; Minnesota Chippewa [Bois Forte/Nett Lake, Minnesota] band of Anishinaabe harvesting wild rice on the Bois Forte Reservation in northern Minnesota; and Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa) Pinery Indian Cemetery in L'Anse, Michigan.
Arrangement:
The photographs are arranged in folders and oversize boxes according to subject matter.
Biographical / Historical:
David Grant Noble is a professional photographer, author, and editor living in Santa Fe, New Mexico. After attending Yale University, Noble served in the U.S. Army in 1962 where he began his photography career.

In 1970, Noble was shooting street photography when he befriended Mohawk ironworkers constructing a building at Park Avenue and 53rd Street in New York City. They invited him to document their work including photographing them many stories above street level.

From 1971-1989, Noble worked at the School for Advanced Research (SAR) in Santa Fe where he photographed and studied American southwest archaeological ruins, cliff dwellings, rock art, and landscapes. His books include Ancient Ruins of the Southwest: an Archaeological Guide, Search of Chaco: New Approaches to an Archaeological Enigma, and In the Places of the Spirits.

Noble's photographs are in the collections of numerous public institutions including Yale University's Beinecke Library, Museum of New Mexico, and New York City Public Library. He is also the recipient of the 2011 Emil Haury Award from the Western National Parks Association and the 2003 Victor Stoner Award from the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were a Museum purchase and gift of David Grant Noble.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Québec (Province)  Search this
Construction workers  Search this
Structural steel workers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); David Grant Noble photographs, Box and Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.113
See more items in:
David Grant Noble photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4f7b5fb72-6b86-46f8-9805-3fb66aa2118a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-113
Online Media:

Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Names:
Ford-Bartlett East Greenland Expedition 1930  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Huntington Free Library  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research  Search this
Collector:
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Former owner:
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Extent:
400 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Date:
1890-1998
Summary:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Arrangement:
The MAI, Heye Foundation records have been arranged into 21 series and 50 subseries: Series 1: Directors, 1908-1990 (1.1: George Gustav Heye, 1863-1962, 1.2: Edwin K. Burnett, 1943-1960, 1.3: Frederick Dockstader, 1950-1976, 1.4: Alexander F. Draper, 1972-1977, 1.5:Roland W. Force, 1963-1990, 1.6: George Eager, Assistant Director, 1977-1990) Series 2: Board of Trustees, 1916-1990 (2.1: Board of Trustee Minutes, 1916-1990, 2.2: Individual Board Correspondence, 1943-1990, 2.3: Subject Files, 1917-1990) Series 3: Administrative, 1916-1989 (3.1: Subject Files, 1904-1991, 3.2: Personnel, 1956-1991, 3.3: Legal, 1900-1989, 3.4: Task Force, 1976-1986, 3.5: George Abrams, 1980-1991) Series 4: Financial, 1916-1990 (4.1: Ledgers, 1900-1962, 4.2: Correspondence, 1905-1985, 4.3: Subject Files, 1916-1990) Series 5: Expeditions, 1896-1973Series 6: Collectors, 1872-1981Series 7: Registration, 1856-1993Series 8: Collections Management, 1937-1988Series 9: Curatorial, 1963-1990 (9.1: Curatorial Council, 1973-1990, 9.2: Gary Galante, 1979-1991, 9.3: Mary Jane Lenz, 1974-1994, 9.4: James G. E. Smith, 1963-1990, 9.5: U. Vincent Wilcox, 1968-1984, 9.6: Anna C. Roosevelt, 1973-1988) Series 10: Exhibits, 1923-1991 (10.1: MAI Exhibits, 1923-1990, 10.2: Non-MAI Exhibits, 1937-1991) Series 11: Public Programs, 1935-1990Series 12: Publications, 1904-1994 (12.1: Annual Reports, 1917-1989, 12.2: Publications by MAI, 1904-1990, 12.3: Publications by Other Sources, 1881-1990, 12.4: Administration, 1920-1988, 12.5: Archival Set of Official Publications, 1907-1976) Series 13: Public Affairs, 1938-1991Series 14: Development, 1927-1991 (14.1: Administration, 1979-1990, 14.2: Donors, 1978-1990, 14.3: Fundraising, 1973-1990, 14.4: Grants, 1970-1990, 14.5: Subject Files, 1976-1990) Series 15: Other Departments, 1914-1990 (15.1: Archives, 1914-1990, 15.2: Conservation, 1972-1989, 15.3: Education, 1921-1990, 15.4: Indian Information Center, 1977-1989, 15.5: Museum Shop, 1947-1989, 15.6: Photography, 1918-1990, 15.7: Physical Anthropology, 1919-1956) Series 16: Huntington Free Library, 1926-1991Series 17: Museum Relocation, 1969-1992 (17.1: Subject Files, 1979-1990, 17.2: American Museum of Natural History, 1980-1987, 17.3: Dallas, Texas, 1984-1987, 17.4: Smithsonian Institution, 1979-1990, 17.5: U.S. Custom House, 1977-1990, 17.6: Other Locations, 1974-1987) Series 18: MediaSeries 19: PhotographsSeries 20: Miscellaneous, 1837-1990Series 21: Oversize, 1873-1972 (21.1: Maps, 1873-1975, 21.2: Miscellaneous, 1884-1982)
History of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897 and his collection rapidly increased over the next several years. Based in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, once MAI was established he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America.

From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. In 1917, the collections moved from his apartment to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx, known as the Research Branch. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004.

Please visit the following links for more information about the history of the museum; History of the Collection, Collections Overview, and Significance of the Collection. Moreover, for information about how the museum currently cares for and exhibits the collection, please see the Conservation department and recent entries regarding Exhibitions and Conservation on the NMAI Blog. In addition, see portions of the NMAI Archive Center's collections highlighted in the SIRIS Blog.
Related Materials:
In 2004, the Huntington Fee Library, once part of the MAI/Heye Foundation, was transferred to the Cornell University Library Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. While this collection mainly contained books, it also contained a significant amount of archival materials. The Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection contains outstanding materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America, as well as contemporary politics and human rights issues are also important components of the collection. Further information about the collection and links to finding aids can be found here: rmc.library.cornell.edu/collections/HFL_old.html.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Tennessee  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Panama  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Missouri  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Nevada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Texas  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Museums -- Acquisitions  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Cuba  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Arkansas  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Canada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Guatemala  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Haiti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv412df8cf1-44c0-41fd-9101-eefb477e5aef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001
Online Media:

Winter and Pond postcards from Alaska

Photographer:
Winter & Pond  Search this
Extent:
13 Photographs
0.04 Linear feet
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1893-1910
Summary:
This collection contains 13 photographic postcards (and 5 copy negatives) depicting Tlingit Native Alaskans photographed by the photo studio Winter and Pond in Alaska circa 1893-1910.
Scope and Contents:
N38033-N38037, P14809-P14816

This collection contains 13 gelatin silver photographic postcards shot by the photo studio Winter and Pond in Alaska circa 1893-1910 and 5 copy negatives created by Museum of the American Indian staff from these photographs. The photographs depict portraits of Tlingit Native Alaskans. The postcards were trimmed to a smaller size at an unknown point in time.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Lloyd Valentine Winter (1866-1945) and Edwin Percy Pond (1872-1943) operated the Winter and Pond photography studio in Juneau, Alaska for almost 50 years from circa 1893 until 1943. Their work included documenting the Klondike Gold Rush and Tlingit Native Alaskans. Winter and Pond's business included a mail-order catalog of photographs and contributing a series of Alaskan photographs to the photography publishing company Underwood and Underwood. After the death of E. Percy Pond, Winter sold the business to Francis Harrison who kept the company open until 1956.
Related Materials:
The Alaska State Library Historical Collections holds a large Winter and Pond photography collection (call no. PCA 87).
Separated Materials:
The archival materials in this collection are part of a larger collection donated to NMAI by Mrs. Eugene F. Barnes, Jr. The objects are under catalog numbers 201533-201570.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian by Mrs. Eugene F. Barnes, Jr., 1940.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Alaska  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Winter and Pond postcards from Alaska, catalog #, NMAI.AC.212; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.212
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4414c46dd-f7ae-4000-b653-71a77561468f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-212
Online Media:

Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection

Creator:
Evelyn, Douglas E.  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
42 Printed pages
30 Postcards
25 Photographic prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Printed pages
Postcards
Photographic prints
Date:
1880-1960
Summary:
This collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs depicting indigenous peoples of North and Central America, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views.
Scope and Contents:
The Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The images depict indigenous peoples of the Americas, and spans a large geographical breadth extending from the Arctic in the north to El Salvador in Central America in the south. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views. Of particular note are the NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, marketed towards children from 1949 to 1952, which depict outdoor activities as romanticized constructions about American Indian identity and life.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 9 series, organized thematically and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, Series 2: Arctic/Subarctic, Series 3: Northwest Coast, Series 4: California, Series 5: Southwest, Series 6: Plains, Series 7: Northeast/Great Lakes, Series 8: Southeast, Series 9: Central America
Biographical / Historical:
Douglas E. Evelyn worked for several decades in senior-level management positions with the Smithsonian Institution, including the National Portrait Gallery, the National Museum of American History, and the National Museum of the American Indian. Evelyn is also the author of a number of scholarly articles and books, among them On This Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C., co-authored with Paul Dickson.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Douglas E. Evelyn in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
The following images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity: 226_pht_010_003; 226_pht_010_004; 226_pht_012_002; P33114; P33116; P33120.
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Central America -- El Salvador  Search this
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.226
See more items in:
Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4b273f6eb-dfba-407f-be23-97e7e40da172
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-226
Online Media:

General Photograph collections

Collector:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Geronimo, 1829-1909  Search this
Extent:
13 Photographs
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1886-1913
Summary:
The General Photograph collections contains photographs depicting people, events, and activities related to the historical and contemporary lives of Native peoples throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Scope and Contents:
The General Photograph collections is comprised of individual small collections of photographs that were acquired by the Archive Center from various sources. These small collections are presented together under a single collection for easy access and depict the historical and contemporary lives of Native peoples throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in folders by accession numbers.
Biographical / Historical:
The photographs in this collection were shot by a variety of photographers and depict many different people and scenes. For specific biographical and historical notes please see individual photographs listed in this guide.
Provenance:
The National Museum of the American Indian and its predecessor, Museum of the American Indian, acquired the photographs in this collection from 1916 to the present.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); General Photograph collections, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.999
See more items in:
General Photograph collections
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4f939fe05-6395-40b0-a532-f614b2f7ac5d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-999
Online Media:

Peratrovich family papers

Creator:
Peratrovich, Roy, Sr., 1908-1989  Search this
Peratrovich, Elizabeth, 1911-1958  Search this
Names:
Alaska Native Brotherhood  Search this
Alaska Native Sisterhood  Search this
Peratrovich, Elizabeth, 1911-1958  Search this
Peratrovich, Roy, Sr., 1908-1989  Search this
Extent:
0.42 Linear feet
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1929-2001
bulk 1939-2001
Summary:
The Peratrovich family papers include correspondence, personal papers, and newsclippings related to civil rights work done by Elizabeth and Roy Peratrovich in Alaska in the mid-twentieth century.
Scope and Contents:
The Peratrovich family papers include correspondence, personal papers, and newsclippings related to civil rights work done by Elizabeth and Roy Peratrovich, Sr. in Alaska circa 1940-1960. Particular materials include draft legislation related to the 1945 Alaska anti-discrimination law providing for equal accommodation privileges to all citizens, the 1988 establishment of Elizabeth Wanamaker Peratrovich Day (February 16) in Alaska, and activities by Elizabeth and Roy on behalf of the Alaska Native Sisterhood and Alaska Native Brotherhood organizations. In addition to manuscript materials, two CDs of audio recordings include radio interviews about the life and work of Elizabeth. Most of the photographic materials in this collection are photocopies made by Roy Peratrovich, Sr.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection were removed from three-ring binders and placed in 7 folders. Original order was maintained.
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Wanamaker Peratrovich (1911-1958) and her husband Roy Peratrovich, Sr. (1908-1989), both members of the Tlingit Nation, were prominent civil rights activists in Alaska. They worked on behalf of Alaska Natives, advocating for equality of all citizens, regardless of race. Both were influential in this work, with Elizabeth being credited with the passage of the 1945 Anti-Discrimination Act, and later honored posthumously by the Alaska Legislature when February 16 was established as Elizabeth Peratrovich Day. Both Elizabeth and Roy additionally served as leaders of the Alaska Native Sisterhood and Alaska Native Brotherhood, promoting Native rights and culture. After Elizabeth's death in 1958, Roy continued his and his wife's advocacy for Alaska Natives, as he worked with the Bureau of Indian Affairs for 38 years, eventually becoming superintendent of the BIA office in Anchorage.
Related Materials:
A similar manuscript holding, absent the two CDs of audio recordings, is held at the Alaska State Library Historical Collections in Juneau, Alaska, as MS 129: Peratrovich Family Papers.
Separated Materials:
A bust of Elizabeth Peratrovich, made of cast bronze on a walnut wood base, sculpted by her son Roy Peratrovich, Jr., was gifted to the NMAI along with the Peratrovich family papers. The bust of Elizabeth Peratrovich was assigned object number 25/5195, and is housed with the NMAI Object Collections.

A bust of Roy Peratrovich, made of cast bronze on a walnut wood base with plaque reading "Roy Peratrovich ANB Grand President Emeritus," sculpted by his son Roy Peratrovich, Jr., was gifted to the NMAI in 2003. The bust of Roy Peratrovich was assigned object number 26/1569, and is housed next to the bust of his wife in the NMAI Object Collections.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Roy Peratrovich, Jr., in 2001.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Race discrimination -- Law and legislation  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Peratrovich family papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.078
See more items in:
Peratrovich family papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv491d0c8be-508c-4f5b-92ee-d86d222652d3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-078
Online Media:

Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs

Collector:
Rumsey, Mary Harriman, 1881-1934.  Search this
Names:
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Photographer:
Averell, William H.  Search this
Coe, Wesley R. (Wesley Roswell), 1869-1960  Search this
Cole, Leon J. (Leon Jacob), 1877-1948  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Devereux, W. B.  Search this
Gilbert, Grove Karl, 1843-1918  Search this
Harriman, Edward Henry, 1848-1909  Search this
Keen, Dora, 1871-  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Pillsbury, Arthur C. (Arthur Clarence)  Search this
Ridgway, Robert, 1850-1929  Search this
Artist:
Schreyvogel, Charles, 1861-1912  Search this
Extent:
396 Lantern slides
286 Photographic prints
1 Map
Culture:
Suquamish  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Yakutat Tlingit  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Alaskan Eskimo  Search this
Unangan (Aleut)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Photographic prints
Maps
Place:
British Columbia
Siberia (Russia)
Alaska
Date:
1898-1900
1903
1914
bulk 1899-1899
Summary:
The Mary Harriman Rumsey collection largely consists of photographic prints and lantern slides documenting the Harriman Expedition to Alaska in summer 1899. These depict members of the expedition and Alaskan scenery and people. The collection also includes scenic photographs of Alaska taken by Dora Keen in 1914 and photographs of Blackfeet, Hopi, Apache, and Suquamish Indians made by Edward Curtis in 1900 and 1903.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the collection comprises photographic prints, lantern slides, and one map documenting the Harriman Alaska Expedition from May to July of 1899. These photographs were made by members of the expedition, most prominently its official photographer Edward S. Curtis, funder Edward Henry Harriman, and lead scientist C. Hart Merriam. They depict Alaskan scenery, members of the expedition, and Native people and settlements that they encountered. Mary Harriman Rumsey's collection also includes later platinum prints of American Indians made and signed by Curtis (1900, 1903), photographs of glaciers in Alaska by Dora Keen (1914), a photograph of a painting by Charles Schreyvogel (1903), and a photograph of White Pass by Arthur Clarence Pillsbury (1898).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in three series: photographs relating to the Harriman Expedition; photographs of Alaska that were not made on the Harriman Expedition; and other photographs relating to American Indians. The Harriman series is arranged in a rough chronological order.
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Harriman Rumsey (1881-1934) was an important American philanthropist and the oldest child of railroad tycoon Edward Henry Harriman. In 1901, while studying at Barnard College, she co-founded the Junior League for the Promotion of Settlement Movements (later named the Junior League of the City of New York), which facilitated charitable work by privileged women among New York's impoverished groups. Rumsey's efforts lead to the establishment of the Association of Junior Leagues International Inc. in 1921. Additionally, Rumsey co-founded Today magazine with her brother Averell Harriman and others, and in 1933 she chaired the Consumer Advisory Board of the National Recovery Administration.

In 1899, Mary Harriman was among the Harriman family members who accompanied the Harriman Alaska Expedition. Originally planned as a bear-hunting trip for the family, the expedition, was funded by Edward Henry Harriman and organized with the help of ethnographer and naturalist Clinton Hart Merriam. The party of accomplished scientists, naturalists, photographers, artists, and writers cruised from British Columbia to Siberia and back on a private ship, the SS George W. Elder, in June and July of 1899. The scientists' findings were published in the thirteen-volume Harriman Alaska Series, and Harriman also paid the expedition's official photographer, Edward S. Curtis, to compile souvenir albums from the over 5,000 photographs made during the course of the expedition.
Related Materials:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives, University of Washington Special Collections, and Library of Congress have photo albums relating to the Harriman Alaska Expedition. The SI Archives also holds the Harriman Alaska Expedition Collection and photogravure plates from the Harriman Alaska Series.

NMAI holds photogravure plates and proofs made from Edward Curtis's later photographs and Frederick Dellenbaugh's expedition notes in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records. The National Anthropological Archives also holds Curtis photographs and papers.
Separated Materials:
The following materials were also part of Mary Harriman Rumsey's estate, gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1934. Where possible, their current locations have been noted.

33 artifacts, most of which were likely collected in Alaska by the Harriman Alaska Expedition, are now housed in the NMAI object collection (catalog numbers 18/6460 - 18/6494)

A set of Harriman Alaska Expedition books, probably now in the Cornell University Libraries

4 phonograph records

A bundle of botanical specimens
Provenance:
This collection was donated as part of the estate of Mary Harriman Rumsey to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in May 1934.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Mary Harriman Rumsey Collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition Photographs, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.053
See more items in:
Mary Harriman Rumsey collection of Harriman Alaska Expedition photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4043dd48c-ff74-4ab4-8c80-e46a55517c90
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-053
Online Media:

New York Zoological Society photographs of Tlingit totem pole and house

Creator:
Sanborn, Elwin R. (Elwin Roswell)  Search this
New York Zoological Society  Search this
Extent:
12 Photographs
Culture:
Tlingit  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
September 23, 1904
Summary:
This collection contains photographs depicting the erection of a Tlingit totem pole and chief's house near the Mammals' Pond at the New York Zoological Society on September 23, 1904.
Scope and Contents:
N37501-N37505, P15989-P15995

This collection contains 7 photographs shot by Elwin R. Sanborn depicting the erection of a Tlingit [Sanya (Cape Fox)] totem pole and chief's house near the Mammals' Pond at the New York Zoological Society (now known as Bronx Zoo) on September 23, 1904 and later in the year. The collection also contains 5 copy negatives made from the original photographs by Museum of the American Indian staff in the late 1960s. E. H. Harriman collected the totem pole and house from an abandoned Tlingit village at Cape Fox, Alaska during the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. He then shipped the pieces to Seattle and donated them to the New York Zoological Society for installation at the zoo.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Dedicated to the study of zoology and preservation of wildlife, New York Zoological Society opened their 265 acre zoo in the Bronx borough of New York City on November 8, 1899. The Society was later renamed the Wildlife Conservation Society and the zoo was renamed the Bronx Zoo.

The Harriman Alaska Expedition studied the Alaskan coast from Seattle to Siberia in June and July 1899. Funded by Union Pacific Railroad President Edward Henry Harriman, the expedition team consisted of prominent scientists, naturalists, photographers, artists, and writers. The expedition findings were published in the thirteen-volume Harriman Alaska Series.
Provenance:
Gift of the New York Zoological Society, 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Totem poles -- Tlingit  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); New York Zoological Society photographs of Tlingit totem pole and house, catalog #, NMAI.AC.204; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.204
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40511da73-7519-466f-8afc-bd33c32cdce8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-204
Online Media:

Elmer E. Higley collection

Topic:
Methodist Episcopal Church
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth
Creator:
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
Extent:
534 Lantern slides
0.2 Linear feet
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Nooksack  Search this
Tulalip  Search this
Haida  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Wasco  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Date:
bulk circa 1900-1968
Summary:
This collection consists of 534 glass lantern slides depicting Indigenous groups throughout North America. It also includes a small number of publications written by Elmer E. Higley and others about Native Americans and missionary work during the early twentieth century.
Scope and Contents:
The Elmer E. Higley collection consists of both Lantern Slides and Printed Materials. Series 1: Lantern Slides, 1900-1924, includes 534 glass lantern slides, many hand-colored. The lantern slides were used by Higley in lectures to promote his missionary and reform work with the Joint Committee on Indian Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was the Superintendent from 1919 to 1923. While Higley was the photographer of some of the lantern slide images, specifically those taken in Mesa Verde, the majority of the photographs were not taken by Higley, but rather collected by him for use in his lectures as he traveled around the country. Series 2: Printed Materials, 1914-1968, includes a small number of early twentieth-century publications written by Higley and others about Native Americans and missionary work in the United States during this time.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into two series. Series 1: Lantern Slides, 1900-1924 and Series 2: Printed Materials, 1914-1968.
Biographical / Historical:
Elmer Ellsworth Higley was born in Ohio in 1867. He attended high school and college in northwestern Pennsylvania before marrying Alice C. Dowler in 1892. Higley later also attended the Drew Theological Seminary and afterwards worked as a pastor in a number of Methodist churches around the country. In approximately 1919 Higley was appointed Superintendent of the Joint Committee on Indian Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with his office based in Chicago, Illinois. Employed in this work until 1923, Higley traveled the United States, visiting Native reservations and promoting Christian reform efforts for American Indian education. While traveling, Higley frequently presented illustrated lectures on his missionary work to audiences, using the glass lantern slides now residing in the collections of the National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. In the years after 1923, Higley continued as a pastor in both Ames, Iowa, and Evanston, Illinois, the latter where he eventually died in 1931.
Provenance:
Gift of Mrs. R. S. Jensen and Family in 2018 and 2019.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this colletion are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Topic:
Missionaries  Search this
cliff dwellings -- Colorado -- Mesa Verde National Park  Search this
Methodist church buildings  Search this
Missions -- Mission School  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Elmer E. Higley collection, NMAI.AC.228; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.228
See more items in:
Elmer E. Higley collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45ca4b0f8-01c2-4114-b663-3d3cb3d59f0c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-228
Online Media:

Alice Kennedy Eagan Collection of George A. Addison Fort Sill photographs

Photographer:
Addison, George A.  Search this
Collector:
Eagan, Alice Kennedy  Search this
Extent:
23 Cabinet photographs
0.25 Linear feet
Container:
Box 1
Photo-folder folder 1
Photo-folder 2
Photo-folder 3
Photo-folder 4
Photo-folder 5
Culture:
Kiowa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Cabinet photographs
Place:
Fort Sill (Okla.)
Date:
circa 1894-1896
Summary:
This collection of twenty-three cabinet card photographs was collected by Alice Kennedy Eagan, and depicts Native American and non-native life in the Fort Still, Oklahoma Territory, circa 1894-1896.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of twenty-three cabinet cards of Native Americans and non-native soldiers and civilians in the Fort Sill area of the Oklahoma Territory. The images consist of studio portraits and exterior shots of Fort Sill school buildings, military barracks, and the surrounding countryside. Particular images of note include studio portraits of Kiowa women and children, babies in cradleboards, women quilting, a baseball game, and soldiers in uniform. All photographs are attributed to photographer George A. Addison, taken in approximately 1894-1896, and collected by Alice Kennedy Eagan.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection are organized into folders, and arranged by image number: (P34119-P34141).
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Kennedy Eagan (1870-1955) was born in Ohio in 1870, and moved to Fort Sill in the Oklahoma Territory in the 1890s, collecting cabinet cards of local Native American tribes and non-native Fort Sill soldiers and civilians while there. She later received her nursing degree in San Francisco, California in 1904, met and married James E. Eagan in Nevada in 1907, and eventually moved to Columbia County, Wisconsin in 1908. She raised her family there and remained in Wisconsin for the rest of her life, passing away in 1955 at the age of 85.

George Anthony Addison (1853-1937) was a photographer who operated studios in Texas and the Oklahoma Territory from the early 1880s until approximately 1907. Addison operated studios in Taylor and Georgetown near Autsin, Texas, Norcona in northern Texas, Wheeler County in the Texas Panhandle, and from 1890 to 1895, in the Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory area. He passed away and was buried in the town of Canadian, Oklahoma in 1937.
Related Materials:
Additional photographs by George A. Addison in the NMAI Archive Center include image numbers: [P13128, P20326-P20329, and P20455].

Other photographic collections of George A. Addison's work exist in the Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives, and the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, OK.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Robert J. Pietrykowski in 2008.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Fort Sill Indian School  Search this
Indians of North America -- Oklahoma  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cabinet photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Alice Kennedy Eagan Collection of George A. Addison Fort Sill photographs, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.097
See more items in:
Alice Kennedy Eagan Collection of George A. Addison Fort Sill photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv439bb2911-b856-48b1-862e-53d3be8c0a62
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-097
Online Media:

St. Michael Indian School photographs

Creator:
St. Michael Indian School (Saint Michaels, Ariz.)  Search this
Extent:
0.02 Linear feet
8 Photographic prints
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Saint Michaels (Ariz.)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Date:
circa 1950-1959
Summary:
This collection contains photographs that depict students, teachers, and medical professionals associated with the St. Michael Indian School in St. Michaels, Arizona on the Navajo Reservation from circa 1950-1959.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 8 gelatin silver prints that depict students, teachers, and medical professionals associated with the St. Michael Indian School in St. Michaels, Arizona on the Navajo Reservation from circa 1950-1959.

The photographer of the photos is unknown. The names of several individuals were written on the back of the photographs presumably by the photographer.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 2 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
St. Katharine Drexel founded the St. Michael's Indian School in Saint Michaels, Arizona in 1902. Diné (Navajo) elementary students initially attended the school, but in 1950 the school added a four-year high school program.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mary Fennell Ainsley in 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Some images restricted: privacy.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); St. Michael Indian School photographs, Box and Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.096
See more items in:
St. Michael Indian School photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43b23dc22-aa4c-45f5-92f4-a2da877f2044
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-096
Online Media:

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