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Charles Lang Freer Papers

Creator:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
131 Linear feet (29 architectural drawings)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
China
Syria
Egypt
India
London (England)
Japan
Boston (Mass.)
Detroit (Mich.)
Washington (D.C.)
Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Sri Lanka
Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)
Date:
1876-1931
Summary:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, and photographs.
Scope Content:
The personal papers of Charles Lang Freer, the industrialist and art collector who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. The papers include correspondence, diaries, art inventories, scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeil Whistler and other press clippings, financial material, architectural drawings, and photographs.

Correspondence, circa 1860-1921, includes Freer's correspondence, 1876-1920, with artists, dealers, collectors, museums, and public figures; letterpress books contain copies of Freer's outgoing letters, 1892-1910; correspondence collected by Freer of James McNeill Whistler, and his wife Beatrix, 186?-1909, with Lady Colin Campbell, Thomas R. Way, Alexander Reid, Whistler's mother, Mrs. George W. Whistler, and others; correspondence of Whistler collector Richard A. Canfield, 1904-1913, regarding works in Canfield's collection; and correspondence of Freer's assistant, Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1920-1921, soliciting Freer's letters from his associates, and regarding the settlement of his estate.

Also included are twenty-nine pocket diaries, 1889-1890, 1892-1898, 1900-1919, recording daily activities, people and places visited, observations, and comments; a diary kept by Freer's caretaker, Joseph Stephens Warring, recording daily activities at Freer's Detroit home, 1907-1910. Inventories, n.d. and 1901-1921, of American, European, and Asian art in Freer's collection, often including provenance information; vouchers, 1884-1919, documenting his purchases; five volumes of scrapbooks of clippings on James McNeill Whistler, 1888-1931, labeled "Various," "Peacock Room," "Death, etc.," "Paris, etc.," and "Boston...London" ; three volumes of newsclippings, 1900-1930, concerning Freer and the opening of the Freer Gallery of Art.

Correspondence regarding Freer's gift and bequest to the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1916; and photographs, ca. 1880-1930, of Freer, including portraits by Alvin Langdon Coburn and Edward Steichen, Freer with others, Freer in Cairo, China and Japan, Freer's death mask, and his memorial service, Kyoto, 1930; photographs of artists and others, including Thomas Dewing, Ernest Fenollosa, Katharine Rhoades taken by Alfred Stieglitz, Rosalind B. Philip, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Abbott H. Thayer, Dwight Tryon, and Whistler; and photographs relating to Whistler, including art works depicting him, grave and memorial monuments, works of art, the Peacock Room, and Whistler's memorial exhibition at the Copley Society.
Organization of the Papers:
This collection is organized into twelve series.

Series 1: Genealogical and Biographical Data

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Diaries

Series 4: Freer Colleague Materials

Series 5: Art Inventories

Series 6: Financial Materials

Series 7: Exhibition Loan Files

Series 8: Biblical Manuscripts and Gold Treasure Files

Series 9: American School of Archaeology in China

Series 10: Printed Material

Series 11: Outsize Material

Series 12: Photographs
Biographical Note:
1854 February 25 -- Born in Kingston, New York

1873 -- Appointed accountant and paymaster of New York, Kingston and Syracuse Railroad by Frank J. Hecker (1846-1927)

1876 -- Moves to Indiana to work, with Hecker, for the Detroit and Eel River and Illinois Railroad

1880 -- Moves to Detroit, participates in organization of the Peninsular Car Works with Hecker

1883 -- Becomes vice president and secretary of Peninsular Car Company when it succeeds Peninsular Car Works

1883 -- Begins collecting European prints

1884 -- Peninsular Car Company constructs plant on Ferry Avenue

1887 -- Meets Howard Mansfield (1849-1938)

1887 -- Acquires proofs of 26 etchings, Venice, Second Series(1886), by James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903)

1887 -- Purchases a small Japanese fan attributed to Ogata Korin(1658-1715)

1887 -- Buys land on Ferry Avenue

1889 -- Meets Frederick Stuart Church (1826-1900) and Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) in New York

1890 -- Commissions Wilson Eyre (1858-1944) to design house on Ferry Avenue, Detroit, Michigan

1890 -- On first trip to London, meets James McNeill Whistler(1834-1903)

1892 -- Moves to Ferry Avenue house

1892 -- Tryon and Thomas Wilmer Dewing (1851-1938) undertake decoration of reception rooms

1893 -- Lends American paintings to World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago

1893 -- Purchases first piece of Chinese art, a small painting of white herons by an anonymous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) artist

1894 -- Begins yearlong trip around the world, which includes visit to the Whistlers in Paris and first trip to Asia, stopping in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), India, China, and Japan

1896 -- Meets Matsuki Bunkyo (1867-1940) in Boston

1899 -- Takes part in consolidation of railroad-car building companies then retires from active business

1900 -- Attends Exposition International Universelle in Paris

1900 -- Buys villa in Capri with Thomas S. Jerome

1901 -- Meets Siegfried Bing (1838-1905) in Paris and Ernest Fenollosa(1853-1908), who visits Freer in Detroit

1902 -- Meets Dikran Kelekian (1868-1951)

1902 -- Spends summer in Britain building Whistler collection

1902 -- Views Whistler's, Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room

1904 -- Purchases Whistler's Peacock Room

1904 -- Offers his art collections and funds to build a museum in which to house them to the Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Smithsonian committee visits Freer in Detroit

1906 -- United States government formally accepts Freer's gift on January 24

1906 -- Freer signs Deed of Gift to Smithsonian Institution on May 5

1907 -- On second tour of Asia, meets Hara Tomitaro 1868-1939) in Yokohama, Japan

1908 -- Takes third trip to Asia, specifically to West Asia to study Rakka ware

1909 -- Tours Europe to study art museums

1909 -- On fourth trip to Asia, attends memorial ceremony for Fenollosa (d.1908 September) at Miidera, Japan, and meets Duanfang (1861-1911) in China

1910 -- On last trip to Asia, visits Longmen Buddhist caves in China

1911 -- Suffers stroke

1912 -- Lends selection of objects for exhibition at Smithsonian Institution

1913 -- Meets Eugene (1875-1957) and Agnes E. (1887-1970) Meyer

1913 -- Commissions Charles Adams Platt (1861-1933) to design museum building in Washington

1914 -- Meets Katharine Nash Rhoades (1885-1965) in Detroit

1915 -- Settles in New York City

1915 -- Site of future Freer Gallery of Art is determined

1916 -- Platt's plans for Freer Gallery are approved by Smithsonian Regents and Commission of Fine Arts and ground is broken in September

1918 -- After falling ill in Detroit, Freer travels to New York for treatment

1918 -- Work on the museum building is delayed by the war

1919 -- Freer appends codicil to will permitting acquisitions of Asian, Egyptian, and Near Eastern (West Asian) art

1919 -- Dies in New York City on 25 September and is buried in Kingston, New York

1919 -- Construction of Freer Gallery completed

1920 -- John Ellerton Lodge (1876-1942) is appointed director of the Freer Gallery

1923 -- Freer Gallery opens to the public on May 9

1930 -- Memorial ceremony for Freer is held at Koetsuji, Kyoto

Charles Lang Freer was an American industrialist who founded the Freer Gallery of Art. He was a well-known collector of Asian art, and strongly supported the synthesis of Eastern art and Western art. One of his most famous acquisitions was James McNeill Whistler's Peacock Room.
Index:
Index to cross-referenced correspondents in the series Charles Lang Freer correspondence

Beal, Junius E. -- See: -- Warring, Joseph Stephens

Black, George M. -- See: -- Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Board of Education (Kingston, New York) See: Michael, M. J.

Bonner, Campbell See: University of Michigan

Boughton, George H. See: Yardley, F. C.

British Museum See: Binyon, Laurence; Hobson, R. L.

Brown, Harold H. See: Art Association of Indianapolis

Buchner, Evelyn B. See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Buckholder, C. H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Butler, S. B. See: Unidentified correspondents

Carnegie Institute See: Balken, Edward Duff; Harshe, Robert B.

Carpenter, Newton H. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Caulkins, Horace James See: Pewabic Pottery

Chao, Shih-chin See: Gunn, Chu Su

Chicago & North Western Railway Co. See: Hughett, Marvin

Clark, Charles Upson See: Clark, Arthur B.

Cleveland Museum of Art See: Whiting, Frederic Allen

Columbia University See: Braun, W. A.; Gottheil, Richard; Hirth, Friederich

Commission of Fine Arts See: Moore, Charles

Corcoran Gallery of Art See: Minnigerode, C. Powell

Crocker, Anna B. See: Portland Art Association

Dannenberg, D. E. See: Karlbeck, Orvar

De Menoncal, Beatrice See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

De Ricci, Seymour See: Ricci, Seymour de

Defnet, William A., Mrs., See: Franke, Ida M.

DeMotte See: Vigouroux, J.

Detroit Institute of Arts See: Detroit Museum of Art

Detroit Publishing Company See: Livingstone, W. A.

Detroit School of Design See: George Hamilton; Stevens, Henry

DeVinne Press See: Peters, Samuel T.; Witherspoon, A. S.

Dyrenforth, P. C. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eddy, Arthur J. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Eggers, George Williams See: Art Institute of Chicago

Farr, Daniel H. See: Robinson and Farr

Farrand School (Detroit) See: Yendall, Edith

Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago) See: Laufer, Berthold

Flagg, Frederick J. See: Allen, Horace N.

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University See: Forbes, Edward; Pope, Arthur Upham; Sachs, Paul J.

French, M. R. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Fu, Lan-ya See: Pang, Lai-ch'en

Fujii, Yoshio See: Yoshio, Fujii

Gerrity, Thomas See: Knoedler, M., and Company

Goupil Gallery See: Marchant, William

Gray, William J. See: Barr, Eva

Great Lakes Engineering Works See: Hoyt, H. W.

Grolier Club See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Heinemann, W. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Holden, Edward S. See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

Hudson, J. L. See: Weber, William C.

Hutchins, Harry B. See: University of Michigan

Hutchins, Charles L. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Kelekian, H. G. See: Kelekian, Dikran G.

Kent, H. W. See: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Lee, Kee Son See: Li, Chi-ch'un

Levy, John See: Schneider, A. K.

Library of Congress See: Rice, Richard A.; Wright, Helen

Louvre (Paris, France) See: Midgeon, Gaston

Matsuki, Z. See: Matsuki, Kihachiro

McKim, Mead and White See: White, Stanford

Mills, A. L., Colonel See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Miner, Luella See: Lien, Hui Ch'ing Collection

Minneapolis Institute of Arts See: Breck, Joseph; Van Derlip, John R.

Monif, R. Khan See: Rathbun, Richard

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston See: Lodge, John Ellerton

Naser, Katen & Nahass See: Katen, K.

Nordlinger, Marie, Miss See: Meyer-Riefstahl, Marie

Panama Pacific International Exposition See: Moore, Charles C.; Trask, John E. D.

Peabody Museum See: Morse, Edward Sylvester

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Trask, John E. D.

Perry, Mary Chase, Miss., See: Pewabic Pottery

Philip, Ronald M. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Pope, G. D. See: Barr, Eva

Reinhart, A. G. See: Gottschalk, E.

Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien Bosch See: Bosch-Reitz, Sigisbert Chrétien

Rutgers College See: Van Dyke, John C.

Saint-Gaudens, Augusta H. See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Saint-Gaudens, Homer See: Saint-Gaudens, Augustus

Samurai Shokai See: Nomura, Yozo

San Francisco Art Association See: Laurvik, J. Nilsen

Scribner's, Charles, Sons See: Van Dyke, John C.

Shaw, Wilfred B. See: University of Michigan

Shirae, S. Z. See: Yamanaka and Company

Smith College See: Clark, Arthur B.

Smithsonian Institution See: Holmes, William Henry; Rathbun, Richard; Ravenel, Walcott, Charles D.

Society of Arts and Crafts (Detroit) See: Plumb, Helen

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens, George W. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Stratton, Mary Chase Perry See: Pewabic Pottery

Tanaka, Kichijiro See: Yamanaka and Company

Tuttle, William F. See: Art Institute of Chicago

Union Trust Company (Detroit) See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

United States Military Academy See: West Point, U. S. Military Academy

University of Chicago See: Zug, George Breed

University of Pennsylvania, Univ. Mus. See: Gordon, George Bryon

Ushikubo, D. J. R. See: Yamanaka and Company

Wallis & Son See: Barr, Eva; Thompson, C. Croal Ward, Clarence See: Oberlin College

Warren, Edward K. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Warring, Stephen See: Warring, Joseph Stephens

Watkin, Williams R. T. See: Philip, Rosalind Birnie

Watson, Margaret, Miss See: Parker, Margaret Watson

Whistler, Anna See: Stanton, Anna Whistler

Whiting, Almon C. See: Toledo Museum of Art

Williams College See: Rice, Richard A

Wright, F. G. See: Orbach and Company

Yatsuhashi, H. See: Yamanaka and Company
Index to cross-referenced correspondence in the series Whistler correspondence

Bell, William See: Unidentified correspondents

Brown, Ernest See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Cowen, John T. See subseries: Charles Lang Freer Correspondence

Ford, Sheridan See: Reid, Alexander

Haden, Francis Seymour See: Painter Etchers' Society, Committee

Haden, Francis Seymour, Lady See: Haden, Deborah Whistler

Leighton, Frederick, Baron See: Campbell, Lady Colin

Moore, Albert See: Reid, Alexander

Morley, Charles See: Pall Mall Gazette

Morris, Harrison S. See: Reid, Alexander

Pennell, Joseph See: Miscellaneous typescripts

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Prange, F. G. See: Reid, Alexander

Societe des Beaux-Arts See: Reid, Alexander

Society of Portrait Painters See: Reid, Alexander

Stevens Fine Art See: Reid, Alexander

Studd, Arthur See: Miscellaneous typescripts

[Vanderbilt?], George, Mrs. See: George, Mrs.

Whistler, William McNeill, Mrs. See: Whistler, Nellie

Whistler Memorial Committee See: Miscellaneous typescripts
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art microfilmed portions of the Freer papers in 1992. The microfilm is available at the Archives of American Art's Washington D.C. office, the Freer Gallery of Art Library, and through interlibrary loan.
Provenance:
Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Art, American -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, Asian -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Architecture -- Asia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Financial records
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Charles Lang Freer Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the estate of Charles Lang Freer.
Identifier:
FSA.A.01
See more items in:
Charles Lang Freer Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3f1a0e3e0-630c-48d4-ba28-485946b1d615
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-01
Online Media:

Yatsuhashi Harumichi Papers

Creator:
Yatsuhashi Harumichi Family  Search this
Names:
Harvard University  Search this
Yamanaka & Company  Search this
Yatsuhashi family  Search this
Yamanaka, Sadajiro  Search this
Yatsuhashi, Harumichi, 1886-1982  Search this
Extent:
9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Catalogs
Correspondence
Printed material
Address books
Announcements
Sheet music
Diaries
Visiting cards
Photographs
Photograph albums
Books
Place:
Boston (Mass.)
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1907-1976
Summary:
The Yatsuhashi Harumichi Family Papers (1906-1976) document the professional and personal lives of a Japanese-American family in Boston during the twentieth century. The patriarch, Yatsuhashi Harumichi (1886-1982), was an influential Asian art dealer and the papers also document the professional experiences of Asian art dealers in the United States during the early and mid 20th century. Mr. Yatsuhashi worked at the antiquities firm of Yamanaka & Company before starting his own Asian antiquities shop in 1945. Included in the papers, portions in Japanese, are correspondence; catalogues relating to the Alien Property Custodian's 1944 liquidation of Yamanaka & Company's New York branch's holdings; photographs depicting art objects and shop interiors, the Yatsuhashi family, Yamanaka & Company, and extended family, friends, and colleagues; and items belonging to Mr. Yatsuhashi's wife, Shigeki, and some of their children.
Scope and Contents:
The Yatsuhashi Harumichi Family Papers (1906-1976) document the professional and personal lives of a Japanese-American family in Boston during the twentieth century. The patriarch, Yatsuhashi Harumichi (1886-1982), was an influential Asian art dealer and the papers also document the professional experiences of Asian art dealers in the United States during the early and mid 20th century. Mr. Yatsuhashi worked at the antiquities firm of Yamanaka & Company before starting his own Asian antiquities shop in 1945. Included in the papers, portions in Japanese, are correspondence; catalogues relating to the Alien Property Custodian's 1944 liquidation of Yamanaka & Company's New York branch's holdings; photographs depicting art objects and shop interiors, the Yatsuhashi family; Yamanaka & Company, and extended family, friends, and colleagues; and items belonging to Mr. Yatsuhashi's wife, Shigeki, and some of their children.
Arrangement:
The collection has been organized into three series.

Series 1: Yatsuhashi Harumichi papers, 1912-1965, undated

— Subseries 1.1: Biographical information, undated

— Subseries 1.2: Correspondence, 1940-1980

— Subseries 1.3: Diary, 1912

— Subseries 1.4: Address book, undated

— Subseries 1.5: Printed materials, 1919-1965, undated

Series 2: Other family members, 1937, 1966, undated

— Subseries 2.1: Yatsuhashi Shigeki

— Subseries 2.2: Yatsuhashi S.

— Subseries 2.3: Yatsuhashi Masao

— Subseries 2.4: Yatsuhashi Sumiko

Series 3: Photographs, 1907-1976, undated

— Subseries 3.1:Still prints and portraits

— Subseries 3.2: Photo albums
Biography:
Asian art dealer and merchant Yatsuhashi Harumichi (1886- 1982) was born in Tano, Japan, on December 15, 1886. Upon completion of his studies in Osaka, Mr. Yatsuhashi secured employment in the Osaka office of the prestigious Asian antiquities firm, Yamanaka & Company. (For more information about Yamanaka & Company, please see: Lawton, T. (1995). Yamanaka Sadajiro: Advocate for Asian art. Orientations, 26 (1), 80-93.) In 1907 he joined Yamanka & Company's branch office in Boston, Massachusetts, as its general manager and treasurer of the company's Asian division. Located at 424 Boylston Street, the store was a center for Chinese art, as well as for Japanese assorted goods.

In 1913 Yatsuhashi married Shigeki. They produced two sons (Michio and Masao) and two daughters (Sumiko and Kukiye). (Harumichi Yatsuhashi, Oriental art authority and Brookline resident. (1982 December 3). The Boston Globe, obituaries.)

Following the United States' entrance into World War II, the Alien Property Custodian seized the Yamanaka shops in New York, Boston, and Chicago. The holdings were sold at auction in May and June, 1944. In 1945, Yatsuhashi Harumichi and his son Michio opened their own Asian art dealership at 420 Boylston Street in Boston.

Yatsuhashi Harumichi fostered exchange between his native and adopted homeland. He was a member and officer (president in 1931) of the Japan Society of Boston since 1921, an avid supporter of the Boston Marathon, and a founder of the Boston-Kyoto Sister City Foundation. (Boston Globe, 1982 December 4. )

Michio Yatsuhashi, who helped his father open the Yatsuhashi antique shop, died prematurely as a result of cancer in 1981. One year later, Mr. Yatsuhashi died in Boston at the age of 96. He was survived by his daughters, Sumiko and Kikuye and one son, Masao.

1886 December 15 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi born in Japan

1905 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi graduates college in Osaka, Japan

1905 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi joins the antiquities firm of Yamanaka & Co.

1907 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi joins the Boston branch of Yamanaka & Co.

1913 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi and Shigeki marry

[ca. 1918 - 1919] -- Masao Yatsuhashi (son) born

1944 -- Yamanaka & Company New York, Boston, and Chicago shops are seized by the Alien Property Custodian and its holdings are sold at auction

1945 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi and son Michio open an Asian antiquities shop in Boston

1961 -- Yatsuhashi Shigeki dies

1981 -- Michio Yatsuhashi dies

1982 December 1 -- Yatsuhashi Harumichi dies at Massachusetts General Hospital at the age of 96
Provenance:
The Yatsuhashi Harumichi Family Papers were donated the Archives by James Arthur Marinaccio in 1994.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
No restrictions on use.
Occupation:
Art dealers  Search this
Art dealers -- Japan  Search this
Art dealers -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Topic:
Alien property -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Foreign property  Search this
Japanese American families -- Photographs  Search this
Japanese American families  Search this
Genre/Form:
Catalogs -- 1910-1960
Correspondence
Printed material
Address books
Announcements
Sheet music
Diaries
Visiting cards
Photographs
Photograph albums
Books
Citation:
Yatsuhashi Harumichi Family Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of James Arthur Marinaccio, 1994.
Identifier:
FSA.A1994.02
See more items in:
Yatsuhashi Harumichi Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3e4126fd0-f772-472a-b18c-1eb9bac9e7d8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1994-02
Online Media:

Ernst Herzfeld Papers

Topic:
Papyrus
Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum  Search this
Verlag Philipp von Zabern  Search this
Anistās Mārī, al-Karmilī, ab, 1866-1947  Search this
Becker, Carl Heinrich, 1876-1933  Search this
Bell, Gertrude Lowthian, 1868-1926  Search this
Berchem, Max van, 1863-1921  Search this
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Krefter, Friedrich, 1898-1995  Search this
Meyer, Eduard, 1855-1930  Search this
Sarre, Friedrich Paul Theodor, 1865-1945  Search this
Extent:
150 Linear feet (circa 30,000 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Place:
Turkey
Mesopotamia
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Iran
Iraq
Lebanon
Persepolis (Iran)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Syria
Date:
1903-1947
Summary:
An outstanding scholar in the field of Iranian studies, Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948) explored all phases of Near Eastern culture from the prehistoric period to Islamic times. This collection documents Herzfeld's excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo and includes correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
Papers (1899--1962) of German born archaeologist Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879--1948), a preeminent scholar of Near Eastern and Iranian studies. The collection measures 150 linear feet (circa 30,000 items) and documents Herzfeld's work as a pioneer in the field and sheds light on his excavations at Samarra, Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Aleppo. Formats include correspondence; field notebooks; drawings; sketchbooks; inventories of objects; "squeeze" copies of architectural details; and photographs.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into seven series.

Series 1: Travel journals

Series 2: Sketchbooks

Series 3: Notebooks

Series 4: Photographic files 1-42

Series 5: Drawings and maps

Series 6: Squeezes

Series 7: Samarra Expedition
Biographical / Historical:
The Ernst Herzfeld Papers document the career of Ernst Herzfeld (1879--1948), a German architect, archaeologist, and historian of Islamic and Pre-Islamic studies. After training as an architect he studied archaeology under Delitzch from 1903 to 1906 at the excavations at Assur in Mesopotamia. A student of Latin, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew, Herzfeld received a doctorate in Humanistic Studies at universities in Munich and Berlin in 1907. His work with Friedrich Sarre to survey the monuments of the Tigris-Euphrates valleys resulted in landmark studies in architectural history, published in 1911 and 1920.

In 1920 Herzfeld was appointed to the chair of Historical Geography in Berlin and began his excavation at Samarra. Herzfeld's work there led to a six-volume publication. He published widely throughout his life on the sources of Islamic architecture and ornament, including the Royal Palace at Persepolis.

From 1934 until the end of his life Herzfeld spent his time producing many books and articles, lecturing, and working at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1936--1945.) Many of his works continue to be published post-humously.

1879 July 23 -- Born in Celle, Germany.

1897 -- Received diploma from Joachimsthaler Gymnasium, Berlin.

1897-circa 1898 -- Fulfilled military service.

circa 1899 -- Studied architecture at the Technical University and Assyriology, art history, and philosophy at the Friedrich-Wilhems Universität in Berlin.

1903 -- Passed exam in structural engineering.

1903-1905 -- Assistant to Walter Andrae (1875-1956) in Assur.

1905-1906 -- Traveled throughout Iran and Iraq.

1907 -- Excavation in Cilicia. Passed oral exam in February. Awarded doctorate in Humanistic Studies by Friedrich-Wilhems Universtät zu Berlin. After receiving Ph.D. traveled extensively in Syria and Iraq with Friedrich Sarre, director of the Islamic Museum in Berlin.

1910 -- Herzfeld and Sarre jointly publish, Iranische Felsreliefs (Berlin, 1910).

1911-1913 -- Field Director under direction of Sarre during expedition to Samarra.

circa 1914 -- Drafted into service in France and Poland during World War I. Sent to Iraq where he functioned as a surveyor.

1916 -- Father died.

1917 -- Appointed associate professor for Historical Geography and Art History of the Ancient Orient at Berlin. Along with Friedrich Sarre and others, founded the German-Persian Society to increase cultural and economic exchange between Germany and Persia.

1920 -- Appointed world's first full professor of Near Eastern Archeology. Begins excavation at Samarra.

1922 -- Mother died.

1923-1934 -- In Persia, where he completed many excavations and studies.

1928 -- Excavation at Pasargadae.

1931-1934 -- Appointed director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and moved to Persepolis.

1934 -- As grandson of Jews, Nazi legislation expelling state employees of Jewish descent forced Herzfeld to retire as a professor employed by the state. Moved to London.

1936 -- Delivered Lowell Lectures. Moved to Boston. Lectured on Iranian history and appointed a member of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study.

1944 -- Retired from Princeton University.

1948 January 20 -- Died.
Provenance:
Ernst Herzfeld donated his papers to the Freer Gallery of Art in 1946.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Ayyubids  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
History  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Abbasids  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Journals (accounts)
Photographs
Clippings
Notebooks
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Articles
Paper Squeezes
Correspondence
Diaries
Sketches
Rubbings
Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3d8456fbe-98f6-4159-bd2f-c485379b84a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-06
Online Media:

Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan

Collector:
Rosin, Henry D., Dr.  Search this
Rosin, Nancy  Search this
Creator:
Lyman, Benjamin Smith, 1835-1920  Search this
Ueno, Hikoma, 1838-1904  Search this
Beato, Felice, b. ca. 1825  Search this
Stillfried, Raimund, Baron von, 1839-1911  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Japanese tea ceremony  Search this
Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912  Search this
Shōken, Empress, consort of Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1850-1914  Search this
Extent:
616 Items (approximate count)
Culture:
Ainu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Mammoth plates
Photographs
Photograph albums
Stereographs
Cartes-de-visite
Photographic prints
Place:
Japan
Japan -- 1890-1900
Kyoto (Japan)
Tokyo (Japan)
Yokohama-shi (Japan)
Date:
1860 - ca. 1900
Scope and Contents:
Assembled by collectors Dr. Henry D. Rosin and Nancy Rosin to document nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century photography of Japan. Includes albumen prints, portions handcolored, some signed and numbered in the negative. Taken by photographers Felice Beato (b. ca. 1825), Baron Raimon von Stillfried (1938-1911), Kusakabe Kimbei (active 1880s), Ueno Hikoma (1838-1904), Ogawa Kazumasa (1860-1929) and unknown photographers to depict architecture, landscapes, formal studio portraits, and daily activities.
Arrangement:
Organized chronologically by the creators.
Biographical / Historical:
Henry and Nancy Rosin were collectors of Japanese photography of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1999.35
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Topic:
Photography of women  Search this
Streets -- Japan  Search this
Temples -- Japan  Search this
Samurai  Search this
Sumo wrestlers  Search this
Religion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Mammoth plates
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photograph albums
Stereographs -- 1860-1900
Cartes-de-visite
Photographic prints
Citation:
Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Purchase and partial donation.
Identifier:
FSA.A1999.35
See more items in:
Henry and Nancy Rosin Collection of Early Photography of Japan
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc377c3c477-251b-43d9-8ce5-9626389db8ca
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1999-35
Online Media:

South Asia Photography Collection

Photographer:
Burke, John, d. 1900  Search this
Creator:
Scowen & Co.  Search this
Shepherd & Robertson  Search this
Extent:
8 Prints (albumen, images 24 x 29 cm. or smaller.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Albumen prints
Photographs
Place:
Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Khyber Pass (Afghanistan and Pakistan)
Khyber (Pakistan)
Sikandra Rao (India)
Date:
19th century
Scope and Contents:
Taken in the later 19th and early 20th centuries, these photographs portray the people, architecture and landscape of Sri Lanka, India and what is now the Pakistan-Afghanistan border area. The collection consists of 8 photographic prints: 1. Natives of Rajputana, signed "Shepherd & Robertson Photo 1120" in black ink in the lower left corner; 2, Native Soldiers in Armour, unsigned; 3. Kandyan Chiefs and Government Agent, signed "Scowen & Co." in white ink in the lower left corner; 4. Taj Mahal, unsigned; 5. Mausoleum of the Great Akbar at the Secundra, unsigned; 6. Ali Musjid and Surroundings from Rotass, Looking Down on Fort, Showing Ascent with River, signed "Burke 28" in white ink in the lower left corner; 7. A Khyber Village, signed " Burke 32" in black ink and in white ink in the lower left corner; 8. Rifle Practice, signed "Burke 285" in black ink in the lower left corner.
Arrangement:
Eight large file folders arranged in one box.
Biographical / Historical:
John Burke (1843-1900) was an Irishman who came to India as an apothecary with the Royal Engineers. A few years later, he became the assistant of the photographer William Baker. At the start of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, Burke tried to go as an official photographer with the British Army, but his request was refused. He decided to travel with the Army at his own expense, financing his trip by selling photographs depicting the life of British soldiers and native people of India. It was in this context that Burke took some of the earliest photographs of Afghanistan.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1992.07
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Rajput (Indic people)  Search this
Akbar, -- Emperor of Hindustan, -- 1542-1605 -- Tomb.  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Forts  Search this
Taj Mahal (Agra, India)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albumen prints
Photographs
Identifier:
FSA.A1992.07
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3297b43be-8713-46e2-8b95-bf1548fa1885
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1992-07
Online Media:

Hauge Family Photographs

Creator:
Hauge, Victor  Search this
Hauge, Takako  Search this
Names:
Hauge family -- Art collections  Search this
Extent:
10 Items (v, 6 linear feet)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Middle East
Cambodia
Date:
ca.1980-1993?
Scope and Contents:
Ten photograph albums with 961 color prints, created by Victor and Takako Hauge and Osborne and Gratia Hauge to document Khmer and Near Eastern ceramics in the Hauge Collection. Victor and his brother Osborne Hauge were in different branches of the foreign service, and with their wives, lived and traveled for many years in the Far and Near East. Many of the ceramic objects were acquired during this period.
Arrangement:
Organized in the original manner in three photograph albums.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Hauge (d. 2013) and his brother Osborne Hauge (d. 2004) were in different branches of the foreign service, and with their wives Takako and Gratia (d. 2000), lived and traveled for many years in East Asia and the Near East. The Hauges also contributed thousands of items from across Asia to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. In 1979, Victor and Takako Hauge co-wrote "Folk Traditions in Japanese Art."
Local Numbers:
FSA A1993.02
Provenance:
The Hauge Collection was donated to the Archives by Victor L. Hauge in 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Topic:
Pottery -- Illustrations -- Middle East  Search this
Pottery, Khmer -- Illustrations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Hauge Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Victor L. Hauge, 1993
Identifier:
FSA.A1993.02
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3b84ae030-5eec-4d9a-8cb1-207f5f573b3d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1993-02

Corcoran Gallery of Art's Eastman Kodak Photographs of Asia

Creator:
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Extent:
0.16 Cubic feet (Flat box, Drop front, tan, 15 in. x 12 in. x 1.5 in.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1911-1928, unknown
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of eight black and white photographic copy prints, made by Palm Press in 1987, depicting people and scenes throughout Asia, by photographers including Joseph Rock, Tamotsu Enami, Frederick Wulsin, Frederick Simpich, Wiele and Klein, and R. Senz and Company. The prints were originally a gift of the Eastman Kodak Company to the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1990, with the images themselves from the collections of the National Geographic Society. The images previously featured in the exhibition "Odyssey: The Art of Photography at National Geographic" from June 4 through August 28, 1988, to commemorate the National Geographic Society's centennial, and traveled in three exhibitions through 1991. They also appeared in the catalog Odyssey: The Art of Photograph at National Geographic by Jane Livingston with Frances Fralin and Declan Haun in 1988.

Following the dissolution of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the prints transferred to the collections of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.
Arrangement:
Arranged alphabetically by photographer or firm name, thereunder chronologically.
Enami, Tomatsu:
Tomatsu Enami, who lived and worked during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was a photographer who owned and operated a studio in Yokohama during the 1920s and '30s. He had a family background in photography; his father was assistant to Kazumasa Ogawa, a pioneering Japanese photographer. He experimented with glass-plate film, stereoscopic views, and colored lantern slides, many of which depicted Japanese scenery of the Meiji Era.

Enami's work was popular, with his photographs displayed in American photo salons and appearing in publications, such as Japan Photography Yearbook and Asahi Photographic Annual, in the early 1930s. His studio was severely damaged in the bombings of Yokohama during World War II. Following the war, he continued working use glass-plate techniques due to a unavailability of other materials.
R. Senz & Company:
R. Senz and Company was a photographic business located in Bangkok. The history of the company is unknown.
Rock, Joseph:
Joseph Francis Charles Rock (1884-1962), or Joseph Rock, was a botanist, photographer, explorer, and linguist. He primarily studied plant species in Hawaii and China, both places of residence during his lifetime. Although Rock faced illness throughout his life and was never formally educated, he dedicated his life to substantial exploration and research, and documented his travels through photographs.

Rock was born in Vienna, Austria in 1884 and immigrated to the United States in 1905, residing in Hawaii from 1907-1920. During his time in Hawaii, he taught botany at the University of Hawaii and published numerous books and articles concerning the flora of the state. In 1920, he began his exploration of China under the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which would end up lasting 27 years. While in China, Rock extensively explored Tibet worked for institutions like Harvard University and National Geographic. On a 1924 Tibetan expedition encouraged by Charles S. Sargent, the first director of the Arnold Arboretum, Rock collected 20,000 herbarium specimens. While traveling Rock engaged with local cultures and languages, especially that of the Naxi people. Rock's travels are documented through his personal photographs—images that Rock believed to be important visual evidence of his research. In 1949, due to the political situation in China, he returned to Hawaii, where he passed away in 1962.
Simpich, Frederick:
Frederick Simpich (1878-1950) was a writer, photographer, and traveler. In his early career, in the 1880s and 90s, Simpich was a news reporter in Shanghai, Manila, and San Francisco. After his newspaper endeavors, Simpich was employed by the United States Department of State, most notably serving as consul general in Guatemala in 1920. Later he joined National Geographic, where he worked for 22 years, including as assistant editor from 1931-1949. During his time with National Geographic, he collected and published detailed information on cities, states, countries, and other locations.
Wiele & Klein:
Wiele and Klein, or Klein and Peryerl (also spelled Preyerl) post-1930, was a photography business based in Madras, India in the first half of the 20th century. The company was founded by Hermann Wiele and Theodor Klein, who were originally from Germany. Wiele and Klein had a central location in Madras and a second studio in Bangalore, which likely catered to British military residents in the area.

Wiele and Klein engaged with a variety of photographic genres, including the manufacturing of postcards, which there was a large market for at the time. They experimented with stereoscopic views that they sold throughout South India. The company was based in India and employed some Indian photographers, but the majority of its business focused on Europeans who were living or traveling in India.
Wulsin, Frederick R.:
Frederick R. Wulsin (1891-1961) was an American anthropologist who traveled in Africa and China during the 20th century. After graduating from Harvard, Wulsin embarked on an expedition to Africa in 1913, where he collected specimens and performed research for Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1923, Wulsin received funding from National Geographic to travel throughout northwestern China and Mongolia collecting plant and animal specimens. When Wulsin returned to the United States, he received a doctorate in anthropology and taught at Tufts University and Boston University. With the onset of World War II, Wulsin was recruited to study the human body and its ability to survive in harsh weather conditions by the Quartermaster General's Office.

During his time in China, he documented China's people and landscape, through note taking, collection of specimens, and photography. Wulsin gathered thousands of plant and animal specimens and took 2,000 photos, mostly on his favorite camera, a 4" x 5" Graflex. Some of his most well-known photographs were taken in Wangyefu, Mongolia.
Rights:
The collection is open for research use.
Citation:
Corcoran Gallery of Art's Eastman Kodak Photographs of Asia, FSA.A2018.08. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift from the Trustees of the Corcoran Gallery of Art.
Identifier:
FSA.A2018.08
See more items in:
Corcoran Gallery of Art's Eastman Kodak Photographs of Asia
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3158c5186-9ac4-4f0b-8635-24ad1eddb565
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2018-08

Jo. Henry Buchi Signed Photograph of Mahatma Gandhi

Collector:
Buchi, Jo. Henry, 1892-1963  Search this
Names:
Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
India
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Consists of a single black and white silver gelatin photographic print depicting a seated Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi's signature (unauthenticated) in blue ink is located to the left of Gandhi. The photographer is unidentified.
Biographical / Historical:
Jo. Henry Buchi (1892-1963) was a Swiss-British economist and journalist. Influenced by the ideas of Silvio Gesell, Buchi published Free Money in 1933. Later he worked as the London correspondent for the Hindustan Times.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948), frequently referred to by the honorific Mahatma, led a campaign of non-violent resistance to British colonial rule in India that helped achieve national independence in 1947. His ideology, actions, and the success of the movement resulted in a legacy as a father of the Indian nation and a widely-admired figure throughout the world.
Provenance:
Gift of Kevin Buchi.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the National Museum of Asian Art's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Citation:
Jo. Henry Buchi Signed Photograph of Mahatma Gandhi, FSA.A2020.01. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Kevin Buchi.
Identifier:
FSA.A2020.01
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc371a8aa39-fa3c-4000-80f0-410c007c605d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2020-01

Robert and Louise Koke Collection

Creator:
Koke, Robert A., d. 1996  Search this
Koke, Louise G. (Louise Garrett)  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Cubic feet
Culture:
Balinese (Indonesian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Place:
Bali Island (Indonesia)
Japan
China
Date:
1933-1992
bulk 1935-1949
Summary:
The personal papers of Robert "Bob" and Louise Koke consist of 2.4 cubic feet and document the couple's years traveling and living in Asia before, during, and after World War II. The bulk of the material is from 1935 through 1949 and consists of correspondence, a travel diary, financial documents, and photographs. The papers concern their initial travels through Asia, their time running a hotel in Bali, Bob's military service in Sri Lanka and India during World War II, and their experiences in Shanghai after the war and before the Communist takeover of China, with a small number additional materials from the period following their return to the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Robert and Louise Koke measure 2.4 cubic feet and date from 1933 to 1992, with the bulk of the material dating from between 1935 and 1949. The collection consists of correspondence, financial documents, Louise's travel diary from 1935-1936, and photographic material from their travels. The correspondence is mainly between Bob and/or Louise Koke and Bob's family, including his parents, John and Neltha Koke, and sister, Dorothy, or a mixture of the three. Almost all letters are from Bob and/or Louise to Bob's family; the family's responses are not included. Their correspondence is almost exclusively from Bob and Louise's time in Asia, although there are some from when they were in the USA. They spent time in Japan, China, Singapore, and Indonesia, and Bob was in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during World War II. Finally, they spent the years immediately following the war in Shanghai. Their departure from Asia marks the end of the bulk of the correspondence. The rest of the letters are to or from a mixture of correspondents outside the family. A few poems and short stories written by Louise are also among the correspondence.

Financial documents pertaining to Bob and Louise's purchases abroad and their dealings selling Balinese goods to MGM make up the financial documents series.

Louise's travel diary documents a portion of their travels in 1935-1936, from their arrival in Japan to partway through their time in China.

Photographic material includes photographs taken by Bob in Japan, China, and Indonesia. Most appear to have been taken between 1935 and 1949. They depict local sites, people, and cultural events.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert "Bob" Koke was born in 1910 in Pasadena, California to Neltha and John Koke. He worked in the Production Department at MGM and was a tennis professional. Louise was born Louise Gignoux on May 25, 1897 in New York City. She was a painter. Robert and Louise Koke travelled to Asia in late 1935, touring Japan before visiting China, Singapore, and Bali. The Kokes arrived in Bali in 1936 and decided to stay. They opened Kuta Beach Hotel with Muriel "Manx" Pearson and spent the next five years growing their hotel, living among and observing the local population and their traditions. The Kokes fled Bali on the last boat out of the island in 1941 due to the threat of Japanese invasion.

Shortly thereafter, Bob joined US Army Intelligence and was sent to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), where he trained agents in Indonesian languages and culture to go undercover in the Japanese-controlled country. He remained with the military after the war and joined the CIA in 1947 when it was founded. He and Louise were based in Shanghai from 1946 until 1949, when they were forced to leave due to the Communist takeover of the country. Upon their return to the United States, following a brief sojourn in Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and Japan, Bob continued to work with the CIA until his retirement in the mid-1970s. Louise died in 1992, Bob in 1996.

During his travels, Bob took numerous photographs of local sites, people, and their traditions. His photos of Balinese traditional culture before the island was overrun by tourists are of particular interest. He and Louise also kept up consistent contact with his parents during their time abroad, noting their perspective on aspects of local Balinese traditions, their way of life in Bali, the many and varied guests they had, and local and international happenings of the time.
Provenance:
Gift of BASAbali.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Robert and Louise Koke Collection, FSA.A2019.05. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of BASAbali.
Identifier:
FSA.A2019.05
See more items in:
Robert and Louise Koke Collection
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3a4583286-d320-478a-adba-3e50d3e8c032
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2019-05
Online Media:

Helen D. Ling Papers

Extent:
6.15 Cubic feet (consisting of 14 boxes and 1 flat box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Notes
Photographs
Place:
Shanghai (China)
Singapore
Date:
1928-2008
bulk 1945-1982
Summary:
The Helen D. Ling Papers, dating from 1928-2008 with the bulk of material dating from 1945-1982, measure 6.15 cubic feet and include biographical material, research, writings, correspondence, printed material, and audiovisual material related to Ling's life and work as a collector and dealer of Asian art.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Helen Ling measure 6.15 cubic feet and date from 1928 to 2008, with the bulk of material dating between 1945-1982. The papers largely relate to Ling's personal life, research, and collections of Chinese objects. The papers include biographical material, research, writings, correspondence, printed material, and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
The Helen D. Ling papers are organized into six series: Series 1: Biographical Material; Series 2: Diaries; Series 3: Research Files; Series 4: Writings and Notes; Series 5: Correspondence; Series 6: Printed Material; Series 7: Audiovisual Material; Series 8: Lectures; Series 9: Sales Records
Biographical Note:
Helen Dalling Ling was born Helen Dalling on July 28, 1901 in Uhrichsville, Ohio, and grew up in Everett, Pennsylvania. Ling was an American collector, dealer, and connoisseur of Asian art and antiques.

In 1925, Ling attended an American Baptist Foreign Mission picnic where she met Tien-Gi (Ti-Gi) Ling, a Chinese research chemist who was studying for his master's and subsquent doctorate in industrial chemistry from Brown University and Cornell University, respectively. Ling traveled to Shanghai by herself in 1928 to see if she could live in China, as marrying Ti-Gi would strip her of her American citizenship. Content in Shanghai, she and Ti-Gi married several months after her arrival in the spring of 1928.

The pair lived throughout South China, Hong Kong, and Singapore where she held various positions including as an English teacher and secretary. The couple had one son, James G. Ling, in 1930. Ling became interested in antiques prior to moving abroad, and eventually opened an antique shop in Shanghai in 1938 called the Green Dragon. When the Lings moved to Singapore in 1951 after escaping the Communists in Shanghai, Helen Ling opened another shop under her own name which she operated until her death on May 15th, 1982. Ling was very active in the field of Southeast Asian art, regularly giving lectures and was regularly featured in publications on her expertise in Asian art. She co-founded and served as the first president of the Southeast Asian Ceramic Society, Singapore in 1971. Ling was thrust onto the global stage when her friend, Jim Thompson, co-founder of Thai Silk Company Limited disappeared while visiting her and Ti-Gi at there home, Moonlight in 1967. Thirty-four Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery collection items were once part of Ling's personal collection, and were either sold or donated to the museum after her death by her family.
Provenance:
Gift of Ann S. Ling.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
Pottery - Asia  Search this
Art, Chinese  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides
Notes
Photographs
Citation:
Helen D. Ling Papers, FSA.A2019.04. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Ann S. Ling.
Identifier:
FSA.A2019.04
See more items in:
Helen D. Ling Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3f8effad5-812f-44f3-857c-14b6e6702eef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2019-04

Ardeshir Mohasses Drawings

Creator:
Muḥaṣṣiṣ, Ardashīr, 1938-2008  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet (Two tall legal size flip top boxes, one 30 in. x 21 in. oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1981-1985, undated
Scope and Contents:
Drawings and lithographs by Ardeshir Mohasses. All dated materials are from the early 1980s, after he decided to permanently reside and work in New York City. Subjects include commentary on and satire of the Iranian political situation, but also animal figures and street scenes.
Arrangement:
Organized into two series: Series 1: Drawings Series 2: Lithographs
Biographical / Historical:
Ardeshir Mohasses (also romanized Ardešir Moḥaṣṣeṣṣ, Ardashir Mohases, Persian: ردشير محصص) was born September 9, 1938 in Rasht, Iran. One of four children, and cousin to the noted artist Bahman Mohasses, he was raised in Lahijan. Ardeshir Mohasses began his career as an illustrator as a student in the 1950s, contributing work to Towfiq, a satirical publication. Although he applied to and was accepted by the University of Tehran's Faculty of Fine Arts, he opted to study political science and never trained formally as an artist. After graduating university in 1962, he briefly worked as a civil servant before deciding to pursue art full time. His work appeared in Iranian publications including Ketāb-e hafta and Kayhān, cementing his reputation as a leading illustrator and pioneer of satirical cartoons in Iran by the late 1960s. He published several volumes of work through the 1970s.

By the 1970s, Mohasses gained increasing recognition internationally, leading to publication of his work in major outlets in the United States, Europe, and Asia. He also exhibited works and toured in the United States. Facing hostility from the government of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Mohasses relocated to New York City in 1976 and decided to remain following the 1979 Iranian Revolution. He continued working, satirizing and criticizing the new Iranian government as he had the old.

Mohasses' health declined following a Parkinson's disease diagnosis in 1986 and other challenges. He continued publishing, including Ardeshir Mohassess: Closed Circuit History (1989) and Life in Iran: The Library of Congress Drawings (1994). He remained active until his death in New York on October 9, 2008. His life and legacy were celebrated at the conference "Ardeshir Mohassess, Art, Politics, and Beyond" at New York University, October 9-10, 2010, as well as Ardeshir: The Rebellious Artist by Bahman Maghsoudlou, a revised version of a documentary originally released in 1972 as Ardeshir Mohasses and His Caricatures.
Provenance:
Gift of Farzad and Neda Rastegar, 2019.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Topic:
Iran  Search this
Citation:
Ardeshir Mohasses Drawings, FSA.A2019.01. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Gift of Farzad and Neda Rastegar.
Identifier:
FSA.A2019.01
See more items in:
Ardeshir Mohasses Drawings
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc35eb389d6-033c-48b4-8ce3-71b45b27a445
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2019-01

Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs

Creator:
Widgery, Alban G. (Alban Gregory), 1887-1968  Search this
Akbar, Emperor of Hindustan, 1542-1605  Search this
Former owner:
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1924-1970s
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of three sets of silver gelatin black and white photographs. The first is a bound volume, titled Photographs of the Paintings in the Razam-Nameh at The Palace, Jaipur, India, prepared by Alban G. Widgery, containing 105 photographs of paintings depicting scenes from the Razmnama, a Persian translation and abridgement of the Mahabharata, including labels. Widgery obtained the photographs from the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, which holds the original Razmanam illuminated manuscript, in Jaipur, India before 1924. The volume is bound inside a cover originally belonging to Plants of the Falkland Islands.

The second is a larger set of 148 photographs of Razmnama/Mahabharata scenes. These are copy prints made in the 1970s by Freer Gallery Art staff of photographs from the volume assembled by Widgery, including additional images that are not in the volume.

The third is a set of 154 photographs of paintings depicting scenes from the Ramayana from the collection of the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, which gave the photographs to the Freer Gallery of Art in the early 1970s.
Arrangement:
Arranged by format, thereunder alphabetically by title, thereunder numerically.
Biographical / Historical:
These photographs document paintings illustrating scenes from the Razmnama, a Persian translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata, and the Ramayana. The original paintings Widgery photograph are from the collections of the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum in Jaipur, India. Both works were commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Akbar I (1542-1605).

The Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, located at The City Palace in Jaipur, India, was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II. It preserves and offers access to the palace itself, as well as collections of paintings, textiles, photographs, and archives.

Alban Widgery (1887-1968) was most noted as a professor of philosophy at Duke University, where he served as chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1930-1946. He specialized in the philosophy of religion and took particular interest in India, where he traveled extensively.
Provenance:
Transferred from the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Library.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Citation:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs, FSA.A2019.07. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.
Identifier:
FSA.A2019.07
See more items in:
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc34aa4af43-8b21-4849-9f63-1781646bb15f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2019-07

Mehmet Aga-Oglu Papers

Creator:
Aga-Oglu, Mehmet, 1896-1949  Search this
Extent:
7.8 Cubic feet (consisting of 12 boxes and 9 oversized flat file folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Photographs
Notes
Place:
Detroit (Mich.)
Turkey
Istanbul (Turkey)
Berlin (Germany)
Michigan
Date:
circa 1877-1947
Summary:
The Mehmet Aga-Oglu Papers, dating from approximately 1877-1947, measure 7.8 cubic feet and include writings and notes, photographs, and maps related to Dr. Aga-Oglu's work Corpus of Islamic Work, which was never published due to Dr. Aga-Oglu's death in 1949.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Mehmet Aga-Oglu measure 7.8 cubic feet and date from 1877 to approximately 1949. The papers largely relate to Aga-Oglu's research and writings for his unpublished work Corpus of Islamic Metalwork. The papers include manuscript drafts, research files, printed material, maps, and photographs.

The manuscript drafts include handwritten drafts, citations attached or written onto drafts, and revision notes for his unpublished manuscript. Content includes material related to metalliferous mines, precious and base metals, and traffic of metals in Islamic and non-Islamic countries, as well as unlabeled writings related to astrolabes and synthetic protective coatings for metals.

Research material represents a majority of the records, and consists of accumulated research notes, citation lists, and object sketches. Subjects of the research material are related to metallurgy, iconography, metals commonly used in metalwork, geology and mining, and histories of metalwork in ranging locations or eras.

Printed material contains published articles from periodicals, a bulletin from the Detroit Institute of Arts, catalogues of scholarly publications available for purchase, and reviews of Aga-Oglu's published works.

Graphic materials present in the collection include maps depicting areas such as the Middle East, the northern Arabian Peninsula, and Northern India during different eras, and hand traced maps with marked metalliferous mine locations; and a substantial number of photographs of objects and artworks.
Arrangement:
The Mehmet Aga-Oglu papers are arranged in five series.

Series 1: Manuscript Drafts

Series 2: Research Files

Series 3: Printed Material

Series 4: Maps

Series 5: Photographs
Biographical Note:
Dr. Mehmet Aga-Oglu was an Islamic art historian and professor born on August 4, 1896 at Erivan in Russia Caucasia.

In 1916, Dr. Aga-Oglu was awarded a Doctor of Letters in the history, philosophy, and languages of Islamic countries from the University of Moscow. Following his graduation, Dr. Aga-Oglu traveled through Turkistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Asia Minor studying Islamic art. Dr. Aga-Oglu returned to academia in 1921 at the University of Istanbul where he studied the history of Islam and the Ottoman Empire.

During his time as a student at the University of Istanbul, he traveled extensively to European universities as a part of his program of study. This included studying Near Eastern art and architecture under Dr. Ernst Herzfeld in Berlin; classical and early Christian archaeology and Western art at the University of Jena; and completing his art history studies in Vienna. Dr. Aga-Oglu was awarded a Ph.D in philosophy in 1926.

Dr. Aga-Oglu was appointed curator by the Department of the National Museum in Istanbul in 1927. In 1929, the city of Detroit recruited Dr. Aga-Oglu to build the Department of Near Eastern Art at the Detroit Institute of Arts. In 1933, he was appointed as Chair of the History of Islamic Art at the University of Michigan. He joined the university first as a Freer Fellow and Lecturer and then later became a professor.

Dr. Aga-Oglu's accomplishments during his tenure included representing the University and the Detroit Institute of the Arts at the Millennium Celebration of Firdausi and the Congress of Orientalists in Tehran in 1934; organizing an exhibition of Islamic art at the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco in 1937; founding and serving as editor of the periodical Ars Islamica; and serving as a Visiting Professor at the Summer Seminar of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Princeton University in 1935 and 1938.

Following his departure from the University of Michigan in 1938, Dr. Aga-Oglu primarily focused on research and writing. His publications include Persian Bookbindings of the Fifteenth Century, History of Islamic Art, and Safawid Rugs and Textiles. From 1948 to 1949, Dr. Aga-Oglu consulted for the Textile Museum in Washington D.C.

Beginning in 1940, Dr. Aga-Oglu planned, researched, and wrote drafts of his unpublished work Corpus of Islamic Metalwork. His project was intended to be a multi-volume work, but was not completed. Dr. Aga-Oglu died on July 4, 1949.
Provenance:
Donated by Dr. Kamer Aga-Oglu in 1959.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Art, Islamic  Search this
Art metal-work, Islamic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Photographs
Notes
Citation:
Mehmet Aga-Oglu Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Dr. Kamer Aga-Oglu, 1959.
Identifier:
FSA.A.10
See more items in:
Mehmet Aga-Oglu Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3ff787517-13d1-43f7-a21f-1b37c856ca4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-10

Lionel Bier Collection

Creator:
Bier, Lionel D., 1942-2004  Search this
Extent:
1.2 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Architectural drawings
Place:
Iran
USA -- New York -- New York
Date:
1975-1992
Scope and Contents:
Drawings, field notes, photogoraphs, and correspondence documenting Lionel Bier's work at a number of both pre-Islamic and Islamic Iranian architectural monuments, in 1975 and 1976. Focus primarily is on Sassanian sites. Sites covered include: Bishapur, Firuzabad, Istakhr, Masjid-i Sang, Sarvistan, and Shari-i Ij.
Arrangement:
Organized into two series: Series 1: Drawings Series 2: Site Files
Biographical / Historical:
The late Lionel D. Bier, art historian and archaeologist, taught art history at Brooklyn College for more than 30 years. He was primarily active in researching the archaeological record of pre- and early-Islamic Iran. Among his noted publications are: Sarvistan: A Study in Early Iranian Architecture (1986) and The Sassanian Palaces and their Influence in Early Islam, from Ars Orientalis (Vol. 23, 1993).
Local Numbers:
FSA A2004.05
Related Materials:
Carol Bier and Lionel Bier Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Carol Bier.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Restricted: Bishapur drawings, until permission by granted by Iranian authorities.
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Archaeology -- Iran  Search this
Architecture, -- Sassanid  Search this
Genre/Form:
Architectural drawings
Citation:
Lionel Bier Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of the Estate of Lionel Bier.
Identifier:
FSA.A2004.05
See more items in:
Lionel Bier Collection
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc39b046090-d594-4919-bbe0-5f6e0cc8d90e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2004-05
Online Media:

The Archibald Wenley Papers

Creator:
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Photographs
Maps
Place:
China
Beidaihe (China)
Yun'gang Caves (China)
Date:
1924-1926
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the field journals and maps created by A.G. Wenley when he accompanied Carl Whiting Bishop on his archaeological expedition to China on behalf of the Freer Gallery from 1924-1926. The journals are typewritten, with photographs and captions depicting the different sites Wenley visited. There are also duplicate copies with annotations on several of the entries.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 2 series: Series 1: Journals, 1924-1926, bulk 1924-1925, Series 2: Maps, no date
Biographical / Historical:
Archibald Wenley worked for the Freer Gallery of Art from 1924 until his death in 1962. From 1942 to 1962 he was the Director of the Freer Gallery of Art.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1996.05
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Topic:
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Photographs
Maps
Citation:
The Archibald Wenley Papers, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A1996.05
See more items in:
The Archibald Wenley Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc353d959fc-4449-4b83-9bf8-1e980efc0004
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1996-05
Online Media:

John Alexander Pope Papers

Creator:
Pope, John Alexander, 1906-1982  Search this
Former owner:
Aga-Olgu, Kamer, 1903-  Search this
Dubosc, Jean-Pierre, 1903  Search this
Mayuyama, Junkichi, 1913-1999  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Names:
David, Percival, Sir, 1892-1964  Search this
Extent:
45 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1925-1982
Summary:
The John Alexander Pope papers contain limited biographical, personal and professional information. The bulk of the collection consists of published and unpublished writings, research materials and correspondence.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged into six major series. A seventh series inventories outsize materials contained in the other series.

Series 1: Biographic Material

Subseries 1.1: Academic and Professional Life

Subseries 1.2: Personal and Official Photographs of Pope, Family and Colleagues

Series 2: John A. Pope Asian Ceramics and Art Collection

Series 3: Published and Unpublished Materials

Subseries 3.1: Articles, Lectures and Manuscripts

Subseries 3.2: Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine: Research Materials and Publication Correspondence

Series 4: Research Material: Subject Files

Subseries: 4.1: Asian Art and Ceramics: Background Material

Subseries 4.2: Chinese Ceramics

Subseries 4.3: Chinese Ceramics and the Porcelain Trade

Subseries 4.4: Japanese and Korean Ceramics

Series 5: Travel

Subseries 5.1: Itineraries, Expenses and Notes

Subseries 5.2: Photographs, Negatives and Slides

Series 6: Correspondence

Series 7: Inventory of Outsize Materials
Biographical/Historical note:
John Alexander Pope was a renowned scholar and authority on Asian art, especially Chinese and Japanese ceramics. He spent most of his professional career at the Freer Gallery of Art, which he joined in 1943 as an Associate in Research. He later served as Assistant Director (1946 to 1962) and then as Director (1962 to 1971). After his retirement in 1971, he continued at the Freer as Director Emeritus and Research Curator for Far Eastern Ceramics. Pope was born in Detroit, Michigan on August 4, 1906 and died in Washington D.C. on September 18, 1982. He obtained a Bachelor's degree in English literature from Yale College. In 1929, prior to graduation, he joined the China International Famine Relief Commission sent to survey famine conditions in the Yellow River valley. As a truck driver for the Commission, he travelled throughout north China giving him an unparalleled chance to see the land and people at first hand. In Beijing, he met and spent time with Alan Priest, later curator of Far Eastern Ceramics at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In a 1972 letter, Pope recalled his time with Priest in 1929 as "the most important factor in my subsequent decision to go into the field." From 1934 to 1941 he was a graduate student at Harvard University, studying Chinese and Japanese languages and the history, archaeology and art of these countries. He spent 1938 as a Travelling Fellow of the Harvard-Yenching Institute studying Chinese archaeology at the University of London; he also travelled to Stockholm, Paris, Amsterdam and Berlin to study museum and private ceramic collections. Harvard awarded him an M.A. degree in 1940 and a Ph. D. in 1955. From 1945 to 1946, on leave of absence from the Freer, Pope served as a Captain in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve posted to Tianjin, China as a Chinese language interpreter. He travelled frequently to Beijing, spending time with Jean Pierre Dubosc and other Chinese art connoisseurs. In introductory notes to a 1979 lecture he recalled that on one of these Beijing trips he made his "first purchase of blue-and-white." Thus began of a life-long interest in Chinese blue-and-white porcelain in general and establishing criteria and a methodology for dating and stylistic analysis of 14th and 15th century blue-and-white in particular. His publications included analysis of important collections of Chinese ceramics, for example those at the Topkapi Sarayi in Istanbul and at the Ardabil Shrine in Iran. Many of his lectures, articles and research trips focused on Chinese trade ceramics, not only in European collections but also from Asian shipwrecks and at sites ranging from East Africa to The Philippines. Pope made his first trip to Japan in 1956. In his 1979 notes he wrote: "My visit to Karatsu and meeting with the Nakazato family started my serious interest in Japanese ceramics." He made many trips to Japan beginning in the late 1960s, often spending several months at a time visiting important kiln sites and Japanese potters as well as collectors. His research emphasis gradually shifted to Japanese porcelain and the issues of dating and identifying kiln sites and wares. At the time of his death he was researching a book on Japanese porcelain. Over time Pope created a substantial personal collection of Chinese and Japanese ceramics. He developed an extensive network of connoisseurs, dealers and scholars. He travelled frequently, visiting public and private collections, attending various symposia, and meeting with a wide range of colleagues involved in the world of Asian ceramics. He belonged to many professional associations and served as advisor or board member for several museums and academic institutions.
Related Material:
James Cahill Papers

Prince Aschwin Lippe Papers

SIA Acc, 03-018, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Central Files, 1919-1986

Freer Gallery Study Collection, ceramic shards donated by John Alexander Pope, see http://www.open.asia.si.edu search John Pope.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- Japan  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Topic:
Blue and White Ware-China  Search this
Pottery -- Japanese -- Collector and Collecting  Search this
Oriental Ceramic Society London  Search this
Photography -- China  Search this
Pottery -- Chinese -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Pottery - Asia  Search this
Pottery -- Japan  Search this
Pottery -- China  Search this
Citation:
John Alexander Pope Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A1988.01
See more items in:
John Alexander Pope Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc35e74664e-27fd-4e80-8684-dd9c6c5de741
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1988-01

Carl Whiting Bishop Collection

Creator:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Names:
Bishop, Carl Whiting, 1881-1942  Search this
Tung, Kuang-zung.  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Wenley, A. G. (Archibald Gibson), 1898-1962  Search this
Extent:
20 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographic prints
Manuscript
Place:
China
Date:
1923-1934
Summary:
An associate curator and associate in archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art from 1922 to 1942, the collection of Carl Whiting Bishop (1881-1942) document his Gallery-sponsored travels to China from 1923 to 1934 and include an unpublished manuscript describing his archaeological research in China; line drawings; rubbings; maps; note cards; and nearly 4,000 glass and film negatives with corresponding original silver prints. These document his expeditions in northern and central China, illustrating archaeological sites in Henan, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces. Specific digs include the large neolithic site at Wanquan, Shanxi, and sixth century C.E. tombs near Fenyin. Additional images show Chinese cityscapes, daily life and customs, topography, temples, pagodas, caves, and sculpture.
Scope and Contents:
The professional papers and official records of Carl Whiting Bishop include his unpublished two-volume manuscript, [not before 1940]; and photographs, nearly 4,000 images, 1915-1934; and undated. These materials document over a twenty-five year period in the course of Bishop's research and archaeological activities. They were retained at the Freer Gallery of Art after Bishop's death in 1942, and were supplemented with an addition received in 1956 from his widow Daisy Furscott Bishop.

The manuscript was prepared in a typescript format, over 421 pages of text, with photographic illustrations, and completed by Bishop sometime after 1939. Properly titled Archaeological Research in China 1923-1934, this unpublished manuscript constituted a field report that chronicled Bishop's Gallery-sponsored expeditions in northern and central China during the period 1923 to 1934. The reader is provided with a record of the day-to-day operations completed, of obstacles and opposition encountered, and the results obtained from their work. Key diplomatic and scientific representatives from the West and China are recorded who aided and contributed to the investigations. Moreover, there are descriptions of the academic, social and political climate in China during a period of civil war and economic strife. Against this background, Bishop also discussed their efforts in view of the history of China, with commentary on the country's geography, topography, climate, flora and fauna, mineral products, and ancient customs and legends.

The earliest still photographic prints in the Bishop Papers date from his employ at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where he conducted archaeological reconnaissance from 1915 to 1918 in China, Korea, and Japan. All subsequent images were created or collected by Bishop and his assistant Kuang-zung Tung during the Freer Gallery-sponsored expeditions of 1923-1934. Further descriptions of these materials may be found under Series 2 and Series 3 in this finding aid.

In the transliteration into English of the names of Chinese characters, Bishop followed the Wade-Giles system, with a few exceptions to those rules for certain well known and commonly used place-names, especially those of cities, towns, territorial divisions, and bodies of water. We have retained Bishop's romanization except in certain areas where clarification was needed. The Chinese personal and place-names have been kept as they appeared in his captions.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Manuscript/Writings 1915-1934 and undated

Series 2: Photography Prints

Series 3: Negatives

Series 4: Drawings, Rubbings, and Maps
Biographical / Historical:
Carl Whiting Bishop (1881-1942) was an archaeologist, anthropologist, and specialist in the field of East Asian studies. Born in Tokyo, Japan, on July 12, 1881, he was the son of a Methodist missionary, the Reverend Charles Bishop. Except for a twelve-month residence in the United States during 1889-90, Bishop spent the first sixteen years of his life in Japan, before returning to this country in 1898 for college preparatory work at Northwestern Academy, Evanston, Illinois. He studied at Hampden-Sydney College and in 1912 received an A.B. degree from DePauw University. In 1913 he was awarded the degree of Master of Arts by the Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, where he studied with the noted German anthropologist, Franz Boas (1858-1942). That same year he received his first scientific appointment as a member of the Peabody Museum Expedition to Central America.

From 1914-18 Bishop served as Assistant Curator in Oriental Art at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, where on an expedition for that museum he made his first trip to China. Under the auspices of the university, he conducted archaeological reconnaissance during 1915 and 1916 in China, Korea, and Japan, and again conducted archaeological surveys in 1917 and 1918, although no systematic excavations were carried out at that time. When the United States entered World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, Bishop enlisted in the United States Navy and was made assistant naval attaché, serving in China in the years 1918-20, with the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. He returned to Columbia University in 1921 to assume the position of Assistant in Anthropology, a post he held until the end of the academic season in 1922.

Effective 10 April 1922, Bishop was appointed as Associate Curator of the Freer Gallery of Art by then director John Ellerton Lodge (1878-1942). Asked to undertake important archaeological work, Bishop headed the gallery's first expedition to China, sponsored jointly by the FGA and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, lasting from 20 February 1923 to 6 August 1927. From 16 November 1929 to 11 April 1934, he headed another expedition, sent out this time by the Freer Gallery alone. When conditions in China made further efforts impractical, Bishop returned to Washington in 1934, where he remained at the gallery as Associate in Archaeology until the time of his death on 16 June 1942.

Carl Whiting Bishop was a member of a number of learned societies: the American Oriental Society, the American Archaeological Society, the Anthropological Society, the American Society for the Advancement of Science, the American Geographical Society, and he served on the advisory board of the American Council of Learned Societies until his death.

1881, July 12 -- Born in Tokyo, Japan

1898 -- Attends Northwestern Academy in Evanston, Illinois for college preparatory work Attends Hampden-Sydney College

1912 -- Receives A.B. degree from DePauw University

1913 -- Receives Master of Arts from Department of Anthropology from Columbia University, where he studied with Franz Boas

1914 -- Begins serving as Assistant Curator in Oriental Art at the University of Pennsylvania Museum

1915-1918 -- Makes several archaeological survey trips to China, Korea and Japan

1918-1920 -- Enlists in the U.S. Navy, serving as assistant naval attaché in China

1921 -- Serves as Assistant Professor in Anthropology at Columbia University

1922, April 10 -- Becomes Associate Curator of the Freer Gallery of Art

1923-1927 -- Heads the Freer Gallery's first expedition to China, co-sponsored by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts

1929-1934 -- Heads the second Freer-sponsored expedition to China

1934 -- Returns to US and serves as Associate in Archaeology at the Freer Gallery of Art

1942, June 16 -- Dies.
Related Materials:
Additional Bishop material may be found in the following collections also found in the the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery:

Li Chi Reports, 1926-1929, regarding Li's reconnaissance work at Shi-yin Ts'un, Shansi Province, and the excavation at Anyang.

Archibald Gibson Wenley Papers, 1924-1926, including field diaries, notes, and photographs documenting his participation in the FGA expedition work in China.

Charles Lang Freer Papers, including 1915 correspondence between Freer and Bishop; newspaper clippings related to Bishop, and documents dated 1912-1913, relating to Freer's support for a proposed American School of Archeology in China.

A number of objects from the FGA expeditions, including bronzes, ceramics, and stone sculpture, have been accessioned into the permanent art collection of the Freer Gallery of Art. Additionally, remnants of antiquities, potteries, and metalwork accumulated during the field work, have been placed in the Freer Gallery Study Collection. Records for these items are retained with the Galleries' Registrar's Office.

Additional Bishop material may be found in the Smithsonian Institutional Archives:

Expedition Records, including correspondence of Carl Whiting Bishop, 1914; 1923-1942, nearly 3,000 letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent name; a manuscript catalogue of expedition acquisitions, Peking, 1923-1925; financial records, 1923-1934, including expedition fund ledgers, account statements, and receipts; and newspaper clippings, 1924-1932, documenting the gallery's field work and general archaeological work being conducted around the world at that time.

Smithsonian Institutional Archives, Central Files, Bishop folders, 1923-1942, including expedition letters, field reports, and photographs sent to John E. Lodge.

Personnel and Special Events Photograph Collection, containing portrait photographs of Bishop.

Additional Bishop matieral may be found in the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives, Philadelphia:

Documentation of University of Pennsylvania Museum-sponsored field work in East Asia may be found there that includes records of C.W. Bishop, dated 1914-1927 (measuring about .5 linear foot), much of it created during his tenure as the Museum's Assistant Curator of Oriental Art from 1914-1918. Included are Bishop's journals consisting of daily entries for two trips to China for the University of Pennsylvania Museum; letters to and from G.B. Gordon, C.W. Harrison, and Jane McHugh, written during Bishop's travel in China and subsequent to his return; and detailed financial accounts of expenditures during the China travels. Additionally, the repository houses a group of Bishop's negatives taken in China to visually record the expedition work.
Provenance:
Gift of Carl Whiting Bishop.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Archaeology -- China  Search this
Photography -- China  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Manuscript
Citation:
The Carl Whiting Bishop Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A.02
See more items in:
Carl Whiting Bishop Collection
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc31125ea37-fbdf-4cd0-b413-1b022a34356b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a-02
Online Media:

Robert O. Muller Papers

Creator:
Muller, Robert O., 1911-2003  Search this
Extent:
7.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Auction catalogs
Exhibition catalogs
Photographic prints
Price lists
Correspondence
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1930-1997
Summary:
Personal papers of Robert O. Muller, a Connecticut-based art dealer and collector who, over the course of seventy years, assembled one of the world's finest collections of Japanese prints from the late 1860s through the 1940s. The papers include Muller's correspondence relating to Japanese art, files relating to his and his wife's 1940 honeymoon in Japan during which he forged many contacts with Japanese artists and art dealers and purchased thousands of prints, subject files, catalogs, business transactions, magazine and newspaper clippings, photographs, and notes and drafts for a planned book.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert O. Muller Papers consist of Mr. Muller's correspondence; research and subject files; indexes to his art collection; printed matter; photographs; and a draft manuscript and notes for a planned book. The papers document his art collecting and dealing, his relationships with a wide variety of art shops and other art dealers, his 1940 honeymoon to Japan, and the dealings of his various businesses from the 1940s through to the 1990s.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into five series:

Series 1: Correspondence and subject files

Series 2: Catalogs and indexes to Robert-Lee Gallery and Robert O. Muller's Art Collection

Series 3: Draft Manuscript

Series 4: Printed Matter

Series 5: Photographs and slides
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1911 in Pelham, New York, art collector, dealer, and connoisseur Robert O. Muller assembled a collection of nearly 4,500 late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Japanese prints throughout his life. As a history student at Harvard University, Mr. Muller's world renowned print collection began to take shape with the purchase of the print 'Kiyosu Bridge" by Kawase Hasui for $5.00 from the Shima Art Company in 1931.

Mr. Muller married Ingeborg Lee in 1940 and their honeymoon in Japan played a critical role in Mr. Muller's development as an art dealer and collector. They spent five months there and met with many important artists and dealers and purchased thousands of prints for both their personal art collection and for commerce.

Upon their return to the States, Mr. Muller purchased the Shima Art Company's assets and started the Robert Lee Gallery with his partner William Lee Comerford in 1940. With the attack on Pearl Harbor, Muller and Comerford closed the Robert Lee Gallery and later reopened it in a different Manhattan location. The Mullers moved to Newton, Connecticut, in 1946 and reestablished the Robert Lee Gallery there. In 1962, Muller purchased a frame shop, Merwin's Art Shop, in New Haven, Connecticut. Although primarily a framing shop, Muller not only befriended many scholars and academics from nearby Yale University but sold Japanese prints from the back room.

From that initial purchase of 'Kiyosu Bridge' in 1931 up until his death in 2003, Robert Muller amassed what many art historians, collectors, and curators regarded as the finest collection of its type in the world. Muller bequeathed his Japanese print collection, archival materials, and library to the Sackler Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.

Much of the biographical information comes from, Printed to Perfection: Twentieth-century Japanese Prints from the Robert O. Muller Collection. (Washington, D.C. : Arthur M. Sackler Gallery in association with Hotei Publishing, c2004)

Further information and clarification from conversations with Dr. James T. Ulak, Deputy Director of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery .

1911 October 5 -- Born in Pelham, New York. Great-grandson of Charles Erhart, cofounder of Charles Pfizer & Company, now Pfizer Inc.

1931 -- Purchased first modern Japanese print, "Kiyosu Bridge", from the Shima Art Company in New York City.

1934 -- Earned Bachelor of Arts degree in History from Harvard University.

1936 -- Traveled to Germany aboard the Hindenberg. During return to United States, visited with and bought many prints from Japanese print collector Thomas Bates Blow in London.

1940 February 3 -- Married Ingeborg Lee and honeymooned in Japan.

1940 September -- Purchased the assets of the Shima Art Co. for $7,000. Remained friends with the former owners, Kazue Sumii and Hango Sumii and their daughter Noriko.

1940 October 21 -- Opened the Robert-Lee Gallery on 69 East 57th Street in Manhattan.

1941 December -- After attack on Pearl Harbor, closed Robert-Lee Gallery. Later reopened at new location at 32 West 57th Street

1941 - 1952 -- Mrs. Muller gave birth to four daughters and one son.

1942-1945 -- Worked for Pfizer Inc.

1946 -- Moved to farmhouse in Newtown, Connecticut and re-established Robert Lee Gallery there one year later.

1962 -- Purchased and ran Merwin's Art Shop in New Haven, Connecticut

1985 -- Handed over management of Merwin's Art Shop to his son Robert L. Muller

2003 April 10 -- Died as a result of Parkinson's Disease.

2003 May -- Bequeathed his collection of Japanese prints, cataloging records, papers, and library to the Smithsonian's Sackler Gallery of Art.
Related Materials:
The Sackler Gallery of Art owns the Robert O. Muller Collection of Japanese prints.
Provenance:
Robert O. Muller bequeathed his Japanese print collection as well as his archival records to the Sackler Gallery in 2003.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Printmakers  Search this
Prints, Japanese -- 20th century  Search this
shin-hanga  Search this
Prints, Japanese -- 19th century  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Auction catalogs
Exhibition catalogs
Photographic prints
Price lists
Correspondence
Citation:
Robert O. Muller Papers, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Bequest of Robert O. Muller, 2003
Identifier:
FSA.A2003.14
See more items in:
Robert O. Muller Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3998a9a71-84d9-4416-893a-09e05992d29c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2003-14
Online Media:

Benjamin March Papers

Creator:
March, Benjamin, 1899-1934  Search this
Names:
March, Benjamin, 1899-1934  Search this
Rowe, Dorothy, 1898-  Search this
Extent:
15 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Lecture notes
Letters
Place:
China
Japan
China -- Description and Travel
Michigan
Date:
1923-1934
Summary:
Writer, curator, and professor Benjamin Franklin March Jr. (1899-1934) studied, lectured, and wrote in the United States and in China, and through his works gained respect as one of the foremost authorities on Chinese art during the 1920s and 1930s. His papers, dating from 1923 to 1934, document his professional and personal life in the United States and in China and include lecture notes and outlines; research notes; diaries; scrapbooks; and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The Benjamin March Papers span the years 1923 to 1934 and measure 15 linear feet. The collection includes: biographical data included in passports, obituaries, and fifty-seven condolence letters; lecture and course outlines; research notes; four diaries; one scrapbook; four illustrations including sketches for the March bookplate; fourteen photograph albums; printed matter; and 100 personal and artistic photographs.
Arrangement note:
The collection is divided into the following series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1927-1935

Series 2: Diaries, 1925-1934

Series 3: Writings and Research Materials, 1927-1934, undated

— Subseries 3.1: Lecture Materials

— Subseries 3.2: Research

— Subseries 3.3: Printed Matter

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1924-1934

Series 5: Graphic Materials, 1925, 1933, undated

— Subseries 5.1: Illustrations

— Subseries 5.2: Photo Albums

— Subseries 5.3: Photographs
Biographical Information:
Biographical Sketch

1899 -- Born, Chicago, IL. Son of Benjamin Franklin and Isabel (née McNeal)

[1917?] -- Attended Lewis Institute and the YMCA College before transferring to the University of Chicago

1918-1919 -- Military service, Sergeant, Field Remount Squadron, No. 305, Army Service Corps

1922 -- Graduated from the University of Chicago (Ph.B)

1922-1923 -- Attended the Union Theological Seminary, New York, NY

1923-1925 -- Teacher of English, Latin, and Bible Studies at Hopei University; the Second Normal School; and the YMCA in Paotingfu, China

1925 June 25 -- Married Dorothy Rowe in Nanking, China

1925-1927 -- English instructor; Librarian; and Lecturer in Chinese Art, Yenching University Peiping, China

1927, summer -- Lecturer on Chinese art Columbia University

1927-1931 -- Curator of Asiatic Art Detroit Institute of Arts

1928 -- Honorary Curator of Oriental Aesthetic Art at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

1928 -- Appointed honorary curator at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

[1929?] -- Daughter (Judith) born

1929 -- China and Japan in Our Museums, published by the American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations

1931 -- Spent six months in China under a special grant from the American Council of Learned Societies to study 13th century painter, Ch'ien Hsuan

1932 -- Curator, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

1932 -- Appointed honorary curator at the Detroit Institute of Arts

1933 -- Awarded a Freer Fellowship

1934 -- Standards of Pottery Description, published by the University of Michigan Press

1934, summer -- Organized, directed, and lectured at a summer session of the Institute of Asiatic Studies at the University of California, Berkeley

1934 December -- Died at home in Ann Arbor, Michigan after a five-week illness (heart ailment)

Far Eastern art writer, curator, and lecturer, Benjamin Franklin March Jr., was born in Chicago on July 4, 1899 to Benjamin and Isabel March. He studied, lectured, and wrote in the United States and China and through his works gained respect as one of the foremost authorities on Chinese art during the 1920s and 1930s. Although he lived only thirty-five years, Benjamin March was a respected and influential scholar of Asian art.

After high school, March attended the Lewis Institute and the YMCA College before transferring to the University of Chicago from which he graduated in 1922 (Ph.B). With thoughts of becoming a Methodist minister, March enrolled at the Union Theological Seminary in New York City. At the same time, March enrolled in art classes at the Metropolitan Museum. After one year at the seminary, March was presented with and accepted the opportunity to work in China. From 1923 to 1927, March resided in China where he taught and lectured at colleges. Initially, March taught English, Latin, and Bible Studies at Hopei University, the Second Normal School, and the YMCA. From 1925 to 1927, he worked at Yenching University in Peiping (now Peking) as an instructor in English, a librarian, and lecturer in Chinese art.

While in China, March met Dorothy Rowe, the daughter of a Methodist missionary stationed in Nanking. On June 25, 1925 the two were married. Ms. Rowe, whom March sometimes called Doré, had lived in China since infancy. The author of the children's story, "The Begging Dear," Rowe wrote children's stories with Chinese settings.

During the summer of 1927, the March's moved to the United States when Columbia University offered March an appointment as lecturer of Chinese Art. Later that year March was appointed curator of Asiatic art at the Detroit Institute of Arts. He remained at the Detroit Institute of Arts in this capacity until 1931. In 1928, March was appointed Honorary Curator of Oriental Aesthetic Art by the University of Michigan's Museum of Anthropology. The next year, Dorothy March gave birth to the couple's only child, Judith.

During this period March published extensively, including two publications, China and Japan in Our Museums, in 1929 and, Standards of Pottery Description, in 1934. In the latter, March developed a new technique for the scientific study of the materials and methods of manufacture of ancient Chinese pottery. ( Ann Arbor Daily News. -- "Death Takes Noted Curator". -- December 14, 1934)

In 1931, March received a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies. This grant allowed March the opportunity to travel to China and Europe to study the 13th century painter, Ch'ien Hsuan. In 1932, March was named a curator at the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. The following year he was named a Freer Fellow. The summer of 1934 found March in Berkeley, California, organizing and directing the Institute of Asiatic Studies at the University of California. During the fall of 1934, March fell ill with a heart ailment. He was ill for five weeks before he died, at the age of 35, in December of 1934. At the time of his death, Benjamin March was survived by his wife Dorothy and their daughter, Judith.
Related Collections:
The Detroit Institute of Arts maintains administrative correspondence and files generated by Benjamin March during his tenure as curator.

The Bentley Historical Library at the University of Michigan houses the Benjamin Franklin March drawings collection, This is a collection of drawings by March for his daughter; includes illustrated poems of Pentwater Beach, Michigan.
Provenance:
Judith March Davis, the daughter of Benjamin March, donated her father's papers to the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives in 1995.
Benjamin March's daughter, Judith March Davis, donated her father's papers to the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
No restrictions on use.
Topic:
Art, Japanese  Search this
Art, Chinese  Search this
Architecture -- China  Search this
Architecture, Japanese  Search this
Painting, Chinese  Search this
Art, Korean  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Painting, Japanese  Search this
Art, Asian -- Research  Search this
Chinese language -- Terms and phrases  Search this
Art -- Terminology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Lecture notes
Letters
Citation:
Benjamin March Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Judith March Davis, 1995
Identifier:
FSA.A1995.10
See more items in:
Benjamin March Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc3ee55f56d-42a6-4612-8585-2aaed10572c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1995-10
Online Media:

Dwight William Tryon Papers

Creator:
Tryon, Dwight William, 1849-1925  Search this
Names:
Freer, Charles Lang, 1856-1919  Search this
Extent:
4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Cartes-de-visite
Photographs
Letters
Sketchbooks
Place:
New York
Hartford (Conn.)
South Dartmouth (Mass.)
Japan
Date:
1872-1930
Summary:
Dwight William Tryon (1849-1925) was a noted American landscape painter whose painting style is associated with American tonalism. His paintings gained international recognition from the 1880s through the 1920s. Charles Lang Freer was his primary patron. Tryon taught art at Smith College and became head of the Art Department. The Tryon papers, dating from circa 1872 to 1930, document Tryon's professional and personal life and include correspondence, photographs, a sketchbook, and newspaper clippings.
Scope and Contents:
The Dwight William Tryon papers span circa 1872 to 1930 and measure .5 linear feet. The collection contains: nineteen photographs, a sketchbook, a letter, and five newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 4 series: Series 1: Photographs, circa 1872 - 1915, no date, Series 2: Sketchbook, 1887-1888, no date, Series 3: Correspondence, June 17, 1895, Series 4: Newspaper Clippings, 1923, 1925, 1930, no date
Biographical / Historical:
American landscape painter Dwight William Tryon was born in Hartford, CT on August 13, 1849. When Tryon was about 2 years old, his father Anson Tryon was killed in a hunting accident and he was raised at his maternal grandparents' home. At the age of fourteen, Tryon began work as a machinist at Colt's Firearms Factory in Hartford to support his mother and himself. He enrolled in evening classes at Hannum's Business School and developed calligraphic skills which supplemented his income.

In 1864 Tryon became a bookkeeper and clerk at Brown and Gross, the finest booksellers in Hartford and a gathering place for local literary people such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Mark Twain. During his ten-year appointment there, Tryon self-studied art using the bookstore's large stock in art books and made weekend sketching trips to the Connecticut River. In 1872 Tryon was appointed Secretary of the Hartford Art Association and began exhibiting his works. In 1873 he exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York. In that year he married Alice Hepzibah Belden whom he had met in the bookstore.

In December, 1876, the Tryon family moved to Paris, France to pursue art with financial support from the Cheney family, wealthy silk manufacturers in South Manchester, CT. Tryon received formal training under Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, a Barbizon painter Charles-Francois Daubigny, and others. He also attended the École des Beaux-Arts.

On returning to the United States in 1881, Tryon took a studio in New York and taught for several years. In the following year, he became a member of the Society of American Artists. Throughout the 1880s when the Barbizon paintings were highly regarded, Tryon's French-inspired American landscape paintings received international as well as national acclaim, winning him numerous medals and awards. In 1899, Tryon was awarded the Webb prize by the Society of American Artists for The First Leaves, a recognition given annually to the best landscape painting by a young American artist. In the same year, Tryon sold his first painting to Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), a Detroit industrialist and collector, who became Tryon's principal patron.

From 1886 to 1923, Tryon taught at Smith College, MA, as Professor of Art and took charge of the Art Department. He advised on the college's art collection and acted as the department's representative in the New York art world. Tryon resigned from the College in May 1923, and in June of the same year he received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Smith College.

In 1887, the Tryon family built a house ("The Cottage") in Padanaram, a coastal village in South Dartmouth, MA, where they would spend every year from spring to autumn until his death. In Padanaram, Tryon made sketches which he developed into paintings in his New York apartment during the winter months. Tryon also took immense pleasure in fishing and sailing in Padanaram.

In 1904, the Montross Gallery in New York held a one-man show on Tryon's painting, and in 1913 they launched Tryon's Retrospective Exhibition. In 1923, the Freer Gallery of Art opened in Washington, D. C., including a permanent collection of Tryon's paintings.

Tryon died of cancer at his summer house on July 1, 1925, at the age of 75. Upon his death, Tryon bequeathed a large number of his works to Smith College. In September of the following year, the Tryon Gallery at Smith College opened.

1849, August 1st -- Born, Hartford, CT. Son of Anson Tryon and Delia O. Roberts Tryon

[1851-1852] -- Anson Tryon is killed in a hunting accident

1863 -- Machinist at Colt's Firearms Factory, Hartford

1864 -- Begins work as a bookkeeper and clerk at Brown and Gross, Hartford

1872 -- Appointed Secretary of the Hartford Art Association

1873 -- Exhibits at the National Academy of Design

1873 -- Marries Alice Hepzibah Belden

1876-1881 -- Studies art in Paris with Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, Charles-Francois Daubigny, and at the École des Beaux-Arts

1881 -- Returns to the United States and settles in New York

1882 -- Becomes a Member of the Society of American Artists

1886-1923 -- Professor of art at Smith College, Northampton, MA

1889 -- Awarded the Webb Prize for The First Trees by the Society of American Artists

1889 -- Sells his first painting to Charles Lang Freer

1891 -- Elected Associate of the National Academy of Design

1913 -- Retrospective Exhibition

1923 -- Freer Gallery of Art opens, including a permanent collection of Tryon's paintings

1923 -- Retires from Smith College and is conferred an Honorary degree of M.A.

1925, July 1st -- Dies at his summer house in South Dartmouth, MA

1926 -- The Tryon Gallery at Smith College opens
Related Material:
Charles Lang Freer papers housed in the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives include Tryon's correspondence.

Nelson and Henry C. White research material housed in the Archives of American Art include Tryon's correspondence, notes, and photographs.

Alfred Vance Churchill Papers housed in Smith College Archives include Tryon's correspondence.

The Freer Gallery of Art and Smith College Museum of Art are major repositories that house Tryon's work.
Provenance:
An anonymous donor and Linda Merrill donated Tryon's papers to the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives in 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Landscape painting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Cartes-de-visite
Photographs
Letters
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Dwight William Tryon papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of an anonymous donor and Linda Merrill, 1989.
Identifier:
FSA.A1989.02
See more items in:
Dwight William Tryon Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc338443f81-d1f5-4f95-b36b-005fd5ad7d1c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1989-02
Online Media:

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