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Polly Salmon Account Book

Author:
Salmon, Polly (merchant)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Domestic Life  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 volume)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Account books
Place:
Boston (Mass.) -- 18th century
Date:
1785-1787
Summary:
This collection consists of one volume.
Scope and Contents:
Manuscript account book documenting payments to other individuals. 21 pp.; remainder blank. Money recorded in English currency.
Biographical / Historical:
Boston storekeeper.
Provenance:
Purchased from Goodspeed's Book Shop, Inc., August 19, 1960.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Merchants -- 18th century -- Boston (Mass.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- 18th century
Account books -- 18th century
Citation:
Polly Salmon Account Book, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0040
See more items in:
Polly Salmon Account Book
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e441e13d-fc85-4deb-b2c3-225c3a5c56d0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0040
Online Media:

New England Merchant and Farmer Account Book

Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Domestic Life  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 volume)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Account books
Place:
New England
Date:
1813-1859
Summary:
This collection consists of one volume from a New England merchant.
Scope and Contents:
Account book of an unidentified merchant and farmer from New England includes entries for items purchased and sold, and a record of persons employed.
Provenance:
Purchased from Goodspeed's Book Shop, Inc., August 19, 1960.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- 1810-1860  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Farmers -- 19th century  Search this
Merchants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Account books -- 19th century
Citation:
New England Merchant and Farmer Account Book, 1813-1859, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0039
See more items in:
New England Merchant and Farmer Account Book
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f71b5d2-c70e-4adf-85d1-aa270659ac91
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0039
Online Media:

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Publisher:
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
H. C. White Co.  Search this
Killela, J.J.  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
Photographer:
Ponting, Herbert George, 1870-1935  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
White, Clarence W.  Search this
Extent:
160 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1895-1921
Scope and Contents:
The major part of the collection, series 1-4, contains nearly 28,000 glass plates, including original stereoscopic negatives, interpositives, and both negative and positive non-stereoscopic plates used to produce lantern slides and paper prints. The photographs were taken all over the world. The majority are from the Underwood & Underwood active files, but plates from other publishers are also included. Series 5 is a small collection of paper stereographs. Series 6 contains 4 Underwood & Underwood descriptive sales catalogs and 1 H. C. White & Co. catalog (numbers on the Underwood plates correspond to the numbers on catalog captions). Series 7 is apparatus--four stereoscopes.

The approximately 28,000 glass plates in this collection have not been completely inspected at this point due to handling problems associated with asbestos contamination of the collection. A preliminary survey, however, indicated that the selections of images cover the full range of subject matter encompassed by the "Underwood Travel System." The subject matter is most easily comprehended by consulting one of the Underwood sales catalogs which accompany the collection. The catalog captions are arranged geographically, for the most part, and generally represent an organized "tour" which could be purchased as a boxed set, complete with maps and guide book, although individual images could be purchased separately. The catalogs indicate that the Underwood files were continually updated, for extensive modifications in some of the sets can be seen from edition to edition, and actual inspection of published stereographs shows that alternate views with identical Underwood catalog numbers were substituted from time to time, and that new subjects (with new catalog numbers) were sometimes introduced into the sets and old subjects were retired. There are glass plate negatives as well as positives in this collection. The positive images were probably interpositives used for the production of duplicate negatives. Some of the original stereo negatives were cut apart and the images transposed; they were then bound with an additional glass support (in many cases the tape has deteriorated). Half stereo positives also appear in the collection: these probably were intended for use in lantern slide production. Frequently a drawer of plates contains several incarnations of a single image, including the original negative, a copy negative, an interpositive, and a positive lantern slide. In other cases a drawer may contain only a single mode, e.g., original negatives, while corresponding positives and/or lantern slides appear in separate drawers.

A small quantity of the Underwood & Underwood plates are not from the Travel System, but represent humorous and genre subjects which were cataloged and marketed separately. The work of several other publishers, usually without Underwood catalog numbers, is also represented, including H. C. White, American Stereoscopic Company, and J. J. Killela.

The arrangement of the collection seems to reflect a combination of permanent reference storage as well as active use files. The apparent anomalies or inconsistencies probably indicate the pulling of plates from permanent files into temporary work files, and the collection may consist of a combination of permanent storage and temporary working files. As the drawers do not appear to have been renumbered according to any easily discernible pattern, they have become intermixed and rearranged in storage. The contents of each drawer usually have been found in good order, however, and the plates were nearly always arranged numerically,usually with the low numbers at the rear of the drawer and the highest number at the front. As the plates have been rehoused, the reverse numerical order has been corrected. When all the plates have been rehoused and inventoried, consideration will be given to general collection rearrangement and renumbering of the containers, either strictly in numerical order or topically and/or geographically with a numerical sequence within each group.

The collection is in good condition for the most part, although conservation attention will be required. There is a certain amount of emulsion peeling or frilling at the edges of some plates, but this is a condition to which emulsions on glass frequently are prone. A few plates, bound in a sandwich arrangement between cover glass and acetate facing the emulsion, have suffered severe damage, peeling, and image losses through the apparent ferrotyping and sticking of emulsion to the plastic, probably under conditions of high humidity at some stage. There is surprisingly little glass breakage within the collection.

Most of the stereoscopic negatives and many of the positives are defaced with a double "XI' scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right side, as described above in the historical note. Of particular interest and presumed rarity are cards found interfiled with plates in many of the drawers. These cards, filed by Underwood (i.e., catalog) numbers, bear printing'or production dates and notes, along with the unique, chronological accession numbers which the company assigned to each plate, regardless of the "active" number which it might eventually receive. A check mark on a card usually refers to a plate actually in the collection and with which the card is found physically associated; additional accession numbers without check marks listed on the cards possibly refer to variant views which were discarded or may in fact be in the Keystone Mast Collection (pending further research). For ease of handling and in the interest of conservation, the cards have been separated from the plates within each drawer and are arranged as a group at the rear, but can still be located easily. Frequently when a plate and/or its original envelope does not bear both the "active" and accession numbers, the missing number can be located on one of these cards.

Photographers represented include Herbert G. Ponting and Clarence W. White. A photographer and/or publisher named J. J. Killela is also represented.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in seven series. Series 1, 2, and 3 are each divided into negative and positive subseries. Plates are arranged numerically in groups based on geographical and subject content. Controlled at the series level in the finding aid and at the item level in a computer database.

Series 1, H. C. White glass plates

Series 2, American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates

Series 3, Underwood & Underwood glass plates

Series 4, Broken glass plates

Series 5, Original company catalogs

Series 6, Paper stereographs

Series 7, stereoscopes (viewers)
Biographical / Historical:
Underwood & Underwood was established at Ottawa, Kansas, by the young brothers Elmer and Bert Underwood in 1882. They initially operated as distributors for eastern photographers' stereographs to new markets in the West. Their activities included door to door canvassing with views by Charles Bierstadt, J. F. Jarvis, and Littleton View Co.(1) Underwood & Underwood, Publishers, opened a branch office in Baltimore in 1887.(2)

Soon Underwood & Underwood and other large stereograph publishers began recruiting college students to work as salesmen during summer months (1890). Underwood and Underwood claimed that their organization alone sent out as many as 3,000 college students in one Summer [sic]. With the other ... big companies each employing more than 1,000, it is easy to understand how the countryside of the Nation literally swarmed with stereograph salesmen throughout the summer months! ... The competition between the salesmen themselves was likewise aggressive, with no holds barred. Many successful business and professional men of today relate with considerable pride that they got their start on their careers in this practical and very effective school of salesmanship.(3)

The company moved its main office from Ottawa, Kansas to New York City (1891),(4) and gradually began to publish its own stereographs. Bert Underwood finally took photography lessons from M. Abel in Mentone, France during the same year.(5) B. L. Singley, erstwhile salesman for the Underwood & Underwood and James M. Davis & Co. firms, in 1892 formed the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was to become Underwood & Underwood's chief competitor and imitator.(6)

Underwood & Underwood entered the education market (1895) by producing packaged sets of 100 or more stereographs with descriptive texts.(7) From 1897 the firm employed full time staff photographers as well as free lancers. By 1901 the Underwoods were publishing 25,000 stereographs per day (i.e.,total number of cards). Increasing production levels led them to gain control of the Jarvis, Bierstadt, and William H. Rau photoprinting facilities in 1897 1898.(8)

The Keystone view Company created its own Educational Department in 1898. This division sustained the Keystone View Company past the period of the stereograph's popularity. In this year Underwood & Underwood reprinted Oliver Wendell Holmes's series on the stereograph and stereoscope which originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly between 1859 and 1863. This eighty page booklet included testimonials from eminent scholars on the value of the stereograph in education. The company had been test marketing what itlater called "The Underwood Travel System." This consisted of a boxed set of stereo views of a country or region, a guide book describing the significance of the places shown, and a map showing their location and the viewpoints from which the stereographs were taken. Captions on the backs of the stereographs were sometimes printed in six languages.(9) As stereographs began to be used in schools as visual aids, the firm promoted its Travel System with endorsements from prominent educators, citing the usage of the system by various schools and universities.(10)

The H. C. White Company, which had manufactured stereoscopes for several decades, entered the stereo publication field in 1899.(11) Much of its production seemed to imitate Underwood & Underwood cards, including typography and the color of mount stock. Underwood & Underwood expanded into news photography by 1910 and gradually decreased its stereographic work. Few new stereo negatives were added to the file after 1912 except for a flurry of activity during the early war years, 1914 1916. The total number of Underwood & Underwood "titles" in stereo were from 30,000 to 40,000 (there might be a substantially larger number of actual negatives, since the files frequently were updated with newer views for old catalog numbers).(12)

Underwood & Underwood sold a portion of its negative file to the educational division of Keystone View Company in 1912,(13) and between 1921 1923 conveyed to this competitor their remaining stereo stock (presumably both cards and negatives) and rights.(14) In addition to its involvement as a news photographic agency, the company eventually opened portrait studios which flourished during the World war II years. A former Smithsonian employee, Vince Connolly, worked for Underwood & Underwood, which competed with Harris & Ewing in general portrait work during that period: he did portraiture and other photography, but says he was unaware of his employer's earlier stereo publishing activities.

Underwood & Underwood donated approximately 6000 negatives to the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts (1964). These photographs are primarily 4" x 5", captioned glass plate and film negatives. The subjects are news events and theatrical, sports, and political subjects of the early 20th century. In a letter to the Smithsonian of March 25, 1966 (in accession number 270586), Mrs. John M. Stratton described another collection of Underwood & Underwood photographs, stating that her husband had been a partner in Underwood & Underwood Illustrations and owned Underwood & Underwood News Photos. In November of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Stratton donated this collection of glass plates by Underwood & Underwood and other publishers to the Division of Photographic History (then the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts) . This material consists of both negative and positive stereographic plates, as well as non stereoscopic plates, chiefly copies made from the stereographs, with some catalogs, stereoscopes, and other material. The donor estimated 12,900 plates, but in 1983 the Smithsonian Institution inventory yielded a total of approximately 28,000 plates.

The Keystone View Company's stereoscopic production continued much later than Underwood & Underwood's. It was not until 1939 when declining interest in stereography led the firm to discontinue stereograph production and enter the field of visual optometrics. The stereoscopic negative collection, including material obtained from Underwood & Underwood and other firms, was placed in storage in concrete vaults. The Mast family of Davenport, Iowa, eventually purchased the collection in 1963, and in 1977 donated the collection to the University of California for its California Museum of Photography in Riverside. The University took physical possession of this vast collection in 1979.(15)

Many of the Underwood & Underwood plates donated by the Strattons (which were transferred to the Archives Center in 1983), in effect have been cancelled by having diagonal lines (double "X" marks) scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right image of each stereo pair (never both sides). These cancellation marks do not appear on the Underwood & Underwood plates in the Keystone Mast Collection in Riverside. This leads to several theories: (a) that these cancellations were in fact the reason that the Smithsonian plates were not purchased by Keystone in either 1912 or 1921, since Keystone clearly intended to use the Underwood material for stereograph production and the defaced plates would be of no value to them for this purpose; or (b), as stereo collector John Waldsmith suggests, that the cancellations were part of an agreement between Underwood & Underwood and Keystone: Keystone may have asked Underwood & Underwood to cancel one side of each stereoscopic plate not being sold to Keystone so that Underwood & Underwood would no longer be able to compete with Keystone in the stereo market. The defaced plates, as well as other material which Keystone did not purchase, apparently remained in Underwood custody and eventually were acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. The cancellation marks in the Smithsonian's collection are the subject of further conjecture. Edward Earle at Riverside feels that, since Underwood & Underwood sought to abandonded stereograph production much earlier than Keystone's departure from the field in order to enter the non stereoscopic lantern slide market, the cancellation may have served to indicate which side of each sterescopic pair should be converted to lantern slide production use; the existence of the 4" x 5" copy negatives and positives from stereographs in this collection seem to corroborate this. The Underwood & Underwood conversion from stereograph to lantern slide materials seems to coincide with the ascendance of lantern slide projection as visual aids in schools. The company apparently modified the type of photographic product which they published at least partially in recognition of this new educational trend.

NOTES

1. edward W. Earle, ed., Points of View: The Stereograph in America A Cultural @ Visual 'g . E!Ltory, Rochester, F.Y., Th Studies Workshop ress, 1979, p. 60; William Culp Darrah, The World of Stereographs, Gettysburg, Pa., 1979, p. 46.

2. Tbid., p. 62.

3. George E. Hamilton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, His Pioneer SLtuereoscope and Later Industry, New York, New )men Society, 1949, p. 17, quoted in Points of 1=e w:, 6 4 . P.

4. Points of View., p. 66.

5. Darrah, p. 47.

6. points of View, p. 66.

7. Ibid., p. 68.

8. Darrah, p. 47.

9. Points of View, p. 70.

10. Howard S. Becker, "Steteographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," in Points of View, p. 95. 11. points of View, p. 72.

12. Darrah, p. 48.

13. Darrah, p. 48, quoted in Points of View, P. 82.

14. Darrah, p. 48.

15. Chris J. Kenney, introduction to "Perspective and the Past: The Keystone Mast Collection," CMP Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982.
Related Materials:
California Museum of Photography, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Underwood & Underwood stereographs in this collection and the Smithsonian Underwood & Underwood Collection originally were components of the same company file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by June Stratton (Mrs. John M.) on December 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Travel photography -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Interpositives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Stereoscopic photographs -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Lantern slides
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0143
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86e358e26-e305-49a6-bf9b-f2d38d995ae0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0143
Online Media:

Daniel M. Leland Account Book

Author:
Leland, Daniel M. (merchant)  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Domestic Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (1 volume)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Account books
Manuscripts
Place:
Shippensburg (Pa.)
Date:
1789-1791; 1837.
Summary:
This collection consists of one account book.
Scope and Contents:
Includes account of Daniel M. Leland, Shippensburg, Pa., a general merchant dealing in food and dry goods. Also includes account, 1837, of a merchant from Lexington, ?.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dry-goods  Search this
Merchants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 18th century
Account books -- 19th century
Account books -- 18th century
Manuscripts -- 19th century
Manuscripts -- 18th century
Citation:
Daniel M. Leland Account Book, Archives Center, National Museum ofAmerican History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0029
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88aeacc5b-6e9a-4d01-b85a-cf9913abbaa5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0029

Alice R. Hillis World's Fair Film

Creator:
Hillis, Alice Rogers  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film (350 feet, silent, color (Kodachrome), camera original reversal, 16mm )
Container:
Reel OF 531.1
Reel OF 531.1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Kodachrome
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1939
Summary:
This collection consists of one reel of color film shot at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City, New York.
Scope and Contents:
Home movie footage documenting the 1939 World's Fair, shot by Alice Rogers Hillis.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mrs. Donald L. (Elizabeth) Rasmussen, June 14, 1995.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Research viewing of reference copy only.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World's fairs  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1939 -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Kodachrome
Citation:
Alice R. Hillis World's Fair Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0531
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85e0bff64-2b81-4be6-8956-0bd79d65d8ac
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0531

Tito Puente Papers

Creator:
Puente, Tito  Search this
Puente, Margaret  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Passports
Photographs
Date:
1962-2001, undated
Summary:
The collection consists of photographs and personal papers documenting the career of Latin Jazz musican Tito Puente.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of photographs. The locations and dates of most of the photographs are unknown and include Puente in concert and with Celia Cruz. Some of the photographs are portraits of Puente as a young performer. Personal papers consist of a cancelled United States passport and a radio license issued in Venezuela in 1965. There is a calendar published by Latin Percussion, Incorporated with photographs of several jazz musicians, including Puente in 1969 and 1970. The materials are arranged by type.
Arrangement:
The materials are arranged in five folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Tito Puente (1923-2000) was a New York born jazz, mambo and salsa percussionist, nicknamed "King of the Timbales." During his career, Puente recorded 120 albums, composed more than 450 songs, and has been credited with some 2,000 arrangements. His contributions to Latin jazz earned him the title "El Rey del Timbal" (The King of the Timbal) and "King of Latin Music" along with numerous honors, including five Grammy Awards, the National Medal of Arts, and the Library of Congress Living Legend award. Puente was featured in the films The Mambo Kings in 1992 and Calle 54 in 2000. He was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1990.
Related Materials:
The materials in this collection complement the Goya Foods Incorporated Collection, Paquito D'Rivera Papers, Chico O'Farrill Papers, Mongo Santamaria Papers and Latino Music Collection.
Separated Materials:
Several artifacts were donated to the Museum's Division of Culture and the Arts t including a sequined jacket worn by Puente when he won the Grammy Award for Best Tropical Latin Performance. See accession number 1996.0304.
Provenance:
Tito Puente's widow, Margaret Puente, donated this collection in 2004.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mambos (Music)  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Salsa -- (Music)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Passports
Photographs -- 1960-1970
Citation:
Tito Puente Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0894
See more items in:
Tito Puente Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81b16323a-3ffb-4476-9fea-0a812c67c400
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0894
Online Media:

African American Snapshots: Photoprints

Creator:
Orr, Craig  Search this
Extent:
3 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Atlantic City (N.J.) -- 1920-1940
Date:
1929-1933
Summary:
This collection consists of three snapshot photographs of an unidentified African American family.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of three photographic prints of unidentified African American women and children. It is unclear if the people in the images are related or know the individuals in the other photographs. The dates and captions of the photographs are written on the print surfaces with no known photographer. The earliest photograph is of a boy and girl sitting on the steps in front of a house in an unknown location and is dated 1929. The second photograph is of two women standing in front of the Lily White Company in Atlantic City, New Jersey in 1930. The last photograph is of a woman posing in swim wear beside an automobile. The print is dated 1933 and the automobile behind her has a New York state license plate. Materials are housed in one folder.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Collection was acquired at a flea market in Hagerstown, Maryland on October 24, 1999. The owners, subjects, and photographers of the prints are unknown.
Related Materials:
National Museum of American History, Archives Center

African American Portrait Tintypes NMAH.AC0515

African American Family Photograph Collection NMAH.AC1127

Scurlock Studio Records NMAH.AC0618

G. Dwoyid Olmstead Photonegatives NMAH.AC0270
Provenance:
Gift.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobiles -- 1930-1940  Search this
African American children -- 1920-1940  Search this
African Americans -- 1920-1940  Search this
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0732
See more items in:
African American Snapshots: Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8099fc97e-a232-4340-b774-0eafb33f1428
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0732
Online Media:

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records

Creator:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company  Search this
Names:
Anthracite Water Company  Search this
Extent:
17 Cubic feet (52 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Place:
Shamokin (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Pennsylvania -- Anthracite coal industry
Pottsville (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Ashland (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Mahanoy City (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Schuylkill River (Pa.) -- Anthracite coal industry
Date:
1866-1927
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately seventeen cubic feet of records of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company, dating from the period 1866-1927. The bulk of the collection comprises 124 letterpress copybooks from the company's Engineering Department. These contain letters and reports sent by engineers located at the major centers of the company's operations in the Schuylkill coal field — Ashland, Mahanoy City, Pottsville, and Shamokin. They also include the Chief Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, division engineers, resident engineers, associate engineers, mining engineers and their assistants, and transitmen. Among these were George S. Clemens, Joseph B. Garner, John R. Hoffman, James F. Jones, Henry M. Luther, Roland C. Luther, Henry Pleasants, John H. Pollard, John H. Strauch, and S. B. Whiting.

Their letterpress copybooks reflect the evolving organization of the Engineering Department, as job titles were changed and individuals were promoted or transferred from one post to another. The copybooks either accompanied the man when he took up a new post or remained in the office, where they were used by his successors. The copybooks in this collection have been arranged into series by person and position. Several additional volumes have been placed in a series of miscellaneous records at the end of the collection.

The correspondence in these volumes deals with all aspects of mining construction and operations, engineering personnel matters, and coordination with the Railroad for the shipment of coal, as well as periodic reports of operations and wagon accounts detailing how much coal had been shipped. Also included is correspondence relating to the formation and operation of the Schuylkill Coal Exchange Committee, which was set up to ease competition among the railroads in the Schuylkill region.

The collection also includes eight letterpress copybooks kept by S. B. Whiting while he was General Manager and General Superintendent of the company (1882-ca. 1888) . Whiting also kept letterbooks in which he pasted letters received from his superiors: Series 1 of the collection consists of two volumes of letters received (1879-1883) from Franklin B. Gowen, President, and one volume of letters received (1881-1884) from George DeB. Keim, General Solicitor and Vice President. In addition, there are eight letterpress copybooks kept by Roland C. Luther during his tenure as General Superintendent (ca. 1888-1902) and one volume from his tenure as the company's Second Vice President (1903-1905) . Also included is a volume of printed circular letters from both the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company (1874-1887), which is located in Series 16.

Of additional interest is the inclusion of letters relating to the operation of the Anthracite Water Company among the letterpress copybooks of George S. Clemens, who served as that company's manager in the 1910s. In addition, several of the circular letters pertain directly to the 1888 anthracite coal strike.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 16 series.

Series 1: Letters received, S. B. Whiting, 1881-1883

Series 2: George S. Clemens, Shamokin, Ashland, and Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1875-1921

Series 3: Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1866-1881

Series 4: John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 5: John H. Pollard, T. R. Spinney, and Joseph Garner, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1888-1911

Series 6: John H. Pollard and T. B. Van Buren, Ashland and Mahanoy City, 1902-1913

Series 7: Division Engineer, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1902-1927

Series 8: Henry M. Luther and John H. Pollard, Ashland, Pennsylvania, 1881-1905

Series 9: Joseph S. Harris, Pottsville, 1871-1877

Series 10: J. Price Wetherill, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1881

Series 11: James F. Jones and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1881-1891

Series 12: John R. Hoffman and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1883-1909

Series 13: Henry Pleasants and S. B. Whiting, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1874-1880

Series 14: S. B. Whiting and Roland C. Luther, Pottsville and Reading, Pennsylvania, 1877-1905

Series 15: George A. Brooke and John H. Strauch, Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 1879-1909

Series 16: Miscellaneous Records, 1873-1987
Biographical / Historical:
The Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co. was organized in order to ensure its parent company, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, a dominant position in the transportation of anthracite coal from the Schuylkill fields of eastern Pennsylvania. For thirty years after its incorporation in 1833, the Philadelphia & Reading had been the main carrier of coal from this region, shipping anthracite coal from independently owned mines to Philadelphia. By the mid-1860s, however, the company faced increasing competition from other railroads as well as interruptions in supply due to miners' strikes. In response, Franklin B. Gowen, President of the Philadelphia & Reading, decided to gain control of enough coal acreage to ensure the company's survival. However, since it was illegal for railroads to directly own coal fields or operate mines in Pennsylvania, the company had to organize a separate company for the purpose. Accordingly, the Laurel Run Improvement Company was incorporated in May 1871. By taking advantage of a loophole in the Laurel Run company's charter, the Philadelphia & Reading purchased it in November 1871, and thus circumvented the legal restrictions on railroad ownership of coal lands. The newly-acquired company was renamed the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in December 1871.

The company quickly acquired coal lands: by 1872, 80,000 acres had been purchased; by 1874, almost 100,000 acres - approximately one-third of the entire Schuylkill coal field. Originally, the company did not intend to mine coal itself; rather, it would rent the collieries it had acquired to independent operators, with the stipulation that the end product must be shipped over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad's lines. Unfortunately, this arrangement did not prove to be either practical or profitable and the company had to take direct control of its mining operations. Despite this step, however, the Coal & Iron Company continued to be unprofitable. In 1913 the United States government brought suit against the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, claiming that its ownership of both the Coal & Iron Company and the Railroad were a monopoly of trade. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled against the railroad in 1920. Under the terms of an agreement worked out by the Court, in December 1923, the Philadelphia & Reading transferred its interests in the Coal & Iron Company to a new company formed for the purpose — the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Corporation.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work & Industry has a collection of photographs from the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, 1866-1927.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware The bulk of the surviving records of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company and its parent company, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company.
Provenance:
These records were obtained by the National Museum of American History sometime prior to 1978. They were transferred from the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources to the Archives Center in July 1989. An additional thirty-five volumes were transferred to the Archives Center in July 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Anthracite Coal Strike, Pa., 1902  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Reports
Circular letters
Letterpress copybooks
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records, 1866-1927, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0282
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80bbae1ea-089b-4ec0-9c26-723d1e244fb3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0282
Online Media:

Cass Gilbert Collection

Creator:
Valentine, P. O. (33 Homestead, Park, Newark)  Search this
Gilbert, Cass, 1859-1934  Search this
Belden & Company (45 Clinton Street, Newark, N.J.)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Names:
New York Life Insurance Building.  Search this
Seaside Sanatorium (Waterford, Conn)  Search this
Supreme Court Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Woolworth Building (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (71 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Business records
Clippings
Contracts
Personal papers
Photographs
Pastels (visual works)
Pencil works
Pamphlets
Booklets
Specifications
Correspondence
Statistics
Sketchbooks
Date:
1897-1963
bulk 1897-1936
Scope and Contents:
The contents of the collection date from 1897 to 1936. The bulk of the collection consists of loose-leaf binders of photo prints of forty-one Cass Gilbert buildings under construction between 1908 and 1936. (This represents less than half of his firm's total output.) The volumes are arranged alphabetically by name of building. A few additional photo prints of buildings under construction are found in the unbound materials.

The collection also includes correspondence (1919-1932), contracts, statistical data, news clippings, booklets, and other miscellaneous Gilbert papers. There are three volumes of correspondence, specifications and blueprints, 1932-1935, for the construction of the U.S. Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. Also included are twenty pencil and pastel sketch books of Gilbert's travels in Europe, 1897 to 1932, and miscellaneous loose sketches (including photo prints and negatives of his studies for the George Washington Bridge. The photographic prints are mostly mounted on cloth in loose-leaf binders. Some of the photographers are identified, although many are not. Photographers included P.O. Valentine of 33 Homestead Park, Newark, New Jersey.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into six series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1919-1932

Series 2: Personal Papers, 1914-1963

Series 3: New York Life Insurance Building Contracts, 1934-1935

Series 4: Woolworth Building, 1911-1913

Series 5: Sketches and Sketch Books, 1897-1932

Series 6: Photoprints, 1908-1936
Biographical / Historical:
Cass Gilbert, 1859-1934, was a prominent American architect best known for his commercial and public buildings. Gilbert was born in Zanesville, Ohio and educated in St. Paul, Minnesota. After only a year of study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequent travels in Europe, he began working for the New York firm of McKim, Mead, and White in 1880. In 1883 he returned to St. Paul where he practised briefly with James Knox Taylor, a classmate at M.I.T., designing private homes, churches, and commercial buildings. His first major commission was the Minnesota State Capitol (1895), which he modeled after the National Capitol and the dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Gilbert returned to New York in 1899 when he won the prized commission for the design of the U.S. Customs House. This was followed by many other major projects. The most famous of these was the Woolworth Building in New York (1913); with its fifty‑five stories and Gothic ornament it is considered Gilbert's greatest achievement. Firmly supportive of the European tradition and eastern academic architecture, Gilbert continued his numerous and successful designs until his death in 1934. Among his many familiar public buildings are the Treasury Annex and the Supreme Court in Washington, DC, the state capitol buildings of West Virginia and Arkansas, and the public libraries of St. Louis and Detroit.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Library of Congress

Cass Gilbert Archive, 1890-1939

Montana Historical Society

Cass Gilbert Papers, 1902-1910

Oberlin College Archives

Cass Gilbert Collection, 1903-1984, 2000

University of Minnesota, Archives and Special Collections

Cass Gilbert Collection, 1909-1910

United States Supreme Court, Office of the Curator
Provenance:
Gift of Emily Gilbert and Cass Gilbert, Jr. through Mr. Silvio Bedini, November 30, 1961, January 15, 1962, and later in 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineering -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Bridges -- 1890-1940  Search this
Civil engineering -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Commercial buildings -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Architects -- 1890-1940  Search this
Architecture -- 1890-1940 -- United States  Search this
Public architecture -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1890-1940
Business records -- 1880-1950
Clippings -- 1900-1950
Contracts -- 1890-1940
Personal papers -- 1890-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Pastels (visual works)
Pencil works
Pamphlets
Booklets
Specifications
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Statistics
Sketchbooks -- 1890-1940
Citation:
Cass Gilbert Collection, 1897-1936, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0214
See more items in:
Cass Gilbert Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8476cd02d-1b0d-4583-a43f-663208d06e16
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0214
Online Media:

Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data

Creator:
Hamily, David  Search this
Names:
Erie Railroad Company  Search this
New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad.  Search this
Pennsylvania Railroad.  Search this
Philadelphia and Western Railroad.  Search this
Piedmont and Northern Railroad.  Search this
Sorocabana Railway.  Search this
Takata and Company Railroad.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Transportation  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Correspondence
Blueprints
Place:
Pennsylvania
New Haven (Conn.)
New York
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Hartford (Conn.)
Date:
1912-1949
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of statistics on electric train operation, drawings, blueprints, technical papers, train classifications, research and development reports, business and financial correspondence (1933, 1939-1948, 1940-1941), installation and operation instructions, locomotive system test procedures, locomotive operations data and calculations, records of locomotive mileages and part failures, suggested locomotive improvements, locomotive specifications, plans for fire extinguishing systems, tonnage ratings and includes material from the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, Piedmont and Northern Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, Takata and Co. Railroad, Philadelphia and Western Railroad, Sorocabana Railway, and Erie Railroad Co.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 8 series.

Series 1: New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad

Series 2: Piedmont and Northern Railway Company

Series 3: Takata and Company

Series 4: Philadelphia and Western Railway Company

Series 5: Sorocabana Railway

Series 6; Pennsylvania Railroad

Series 7: Miscellaneous Westinghouse Reports

Series 8: Erie Railroad Company
Provenance:
This collection was donated by David Hamily of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Locomotives -- Design and construction  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Locomotive industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Citation:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0207
See more items in:
Division of Transportation: Railroads' Engineering Data
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fd4d5a0f-c3f6-4017-850d-1088af4ca8b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0207
Online Media:

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Leyendecker, J. C., 1874-1951  Search this
Smith, Jessie Willcox, 1863-1935  Search this
Elliott, Elizabeth Shippen Green  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Photomechanical reproductions
Date:
1883-1998
Summary:
Print advertisements covering almost the entire history of Ivory Soap, including advertisements designed by artists including Jesse Wilcox Smith, Elizabeth Shippen Green, and J. C. Leyendecker.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of print advertising and publications covering almost the entire history of Ivory Soap. Researchers may use this collection to examine the evolution of advertising strategies and techniques from the very early days of mass-produced brand-name consumer products to the present. From the beginning, Ivory advertisements proclaimed the product's "99 and 44/100%" purity, its ability to float, and its versatility. The collection, however, is much more than a glimpse into advertising history. It is an extremely rich resource for a wide range of cultural studies. Ivory advertising was primarily aimed at women, and it contains many images of women, babies, and young children. The depictions reflect contemporary attitudes toward class structure, race, immigrants and residents of other countries, cleanliness, and domestic relationships. The advertisements often play upon the guilt of women, suggesting that their main concerns should be their husbands, children, and dishpan hands. Many advertisements associate cleanliness with social and religious propriety, physical fitness, and athleticism. There also are many images of men and women performing every-day tasks in gender-defined situations.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Ivory Soap Products Advertisements, 1883-1998, undated

Series 2: Publications, 1883-1969, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1837, candle maker William Procter and soap maker James Gamble formed a partnership in Cincinnati, Ohio, to sell their products. The new company prospered, and by 1859 Procter & Gamble sales reached one million dollars. Contracts with the United States Army during the Civil War to supply soap and candles increased Procter & Gamble's customer base and reputation. In 1879, James Norris Gamble, son of the founder, developed an inexpensive pure white soap. A factory worker who forgot to shut off the soap-making machine when he left for lunch inadvertently improved the product. When he returned, the soap mixture was frothy due to the air that had been whipped into it, and the resulting soap cakes floated in water. There was immediate demand for the "floating soap." After considering many names for the new product, Harley Procter, son of the founder, finally named the soap "Ivory" after Psalms 45:8: "All thy garments smell of myrrh and aloes and cassia, out of the ivory palaces whereby they have made thee glad." Chemical analyses of the soap in 1882 revealed that 56/100 of the ingredients were not pure soap. Harley Procter subtracted that amount from one hundred and the slogan "99 and 44/100% pure" was born. The first ads appeared in 1882 in The Independent, a weekly newspaper.

Innovations in production, distribution, and market research contributed to Procter & Gamble's success. Procter & Gamble also developed other products such as Ivory Flakes, Chipso (the first dishwasher soap), and Crisco. By 1945, Procter & Gamble had become a nearly $350 million company. The company also was an innovator in advertising, developing creative print advertisements aimed at different target groups, sponsoring radio shows and comic strips, and airing its first television commercial (for Ivory Soap) during the first televised major league baseball game. Procter & Gamble is now a global company, selling more than 250 products, including Ivory Soap, to five billion customers in 130 countries.
Related Materials:
Several collections in the Archives Center have materials relating to Ivory Soap. The J. Walter Wilkinson Papers contain art he created for Ivory Soap advertisements. The Ivory Soap 1940 Essay Contest Collection consists of documents relating to the contest and its winner, Helen Nixon. The Procter & Gamble Product Packaging Collection, 1940s-1970s, includes Ivory brand products. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana's "Soap" subject category contains documents relating to Procter & Gamble and other manufacturers. About twenty-five per cent of the advertisements in this collection are reproduced in the Archives Center's digital image library.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts donated to the Division of Medicine and Science.
Provenance:
Procter & Gamble donated this collection to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution on October 24, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Soap  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Photomechanical reproductions
Advertisements -- 19th century
Citation:
Ivory Soap Collection, 1883-1998, undated; Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Procter & Gamble.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0791
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88550648b-e85c-4b62-9ccb-f8e6872e4a86
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0791
Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
320 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
undated
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, DC from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.1 includes black and white silver gelatin negatives. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents:
Subseries 4.1 includes black and white silver gelatin negatives. The majority of the negatives, not all, have been scanned.
Arrangement note:
The negatives are not arranged in a clear order, and the negatives document clients and subjects. Researchers will need to look in two different box sizes for negatives of different sizes that were originally housed together in freezer boxes but are now housed separately according to size. A number of freezer boxes are missing, this is the reason for box number gaps, and contain varying numbers of negatives. The physical number of boxes was condensed during rehousing but the original freezer box numbers were retained in combination on the new boxes. The beginning and end of a freezer box are indicated inside the new box by blue dividers.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, DC. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.1 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Matrices, color separation
Dye transfer process
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.01
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ec458f4e-274d-4d12-859d-aaea7f7fc0ed
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01
Online Media:

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication

Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes
The subseries consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1948-1949
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.9 consists of negatives used for publication. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents:
The materials document negatives used for publication.
Arrangement:
The negatives appear to be arranged by ascending page numbers in a publication.
Biographical / Historical:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.9 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Matrices, color separation
Studio portraits
Color separation negatives
Dye transfer process
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.09
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.9: Black and white negatives for publication
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833f3f8f4-d03f-4426-a5e5-f5dbaded12c8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-09

Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.8: Negatives in cold storage arranged by subject

Creator:
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 20th century  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
25 Boxes
The subseries contains black and silver gelatin negatives.
Note:
Cold Storage
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color separation negatives
Photographs
Studio portraits
Dye transfer process
Matrices, color separation
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- Small business -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Shaw (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
circa 1870-1989
Summary:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). Subseries 4.8 consists of black and white silver gelatin negatives. An overview to the entire Scurlock collection is available here: Scurlock Studio Records
Scope and Contents note:
The materials document negatives that cannot be connected to a client or are the commercial ventures of the Scurlock Studio. the negatives depict a variety of subject matter including art, buildings, advertising/commercial, unidentified people, and Washington, D. C.
Arrangement note:
The negatives do not appear to be organized in a clear manner; the arrangement follows alphabetical order but the alphabet starts over several times.
Biographical/Historical note:
The Scurlock photographic studio was a fixture in the Shaw area of Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1994, and encompassed two generations of photographers, Addison N. Scurlock (1883-1964) and his sons George H. (1920- 2005) and Robert S. (1916-1994). More...
Forms Part Of:
Subseries 4.8 forms part of Series 4, within the Scurlock Studio Records group.

Scurlock Studio Records

Series 1: Black and White Photographs

Series 2: Color Photographs

Series 3: Framed Prints

Series 4: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives

Series 5: Color Negatives

Series 6: Color Transparencies, Slides, and Other Formats

Series 7: Black-and-White Color Separation Negatives and Matrices

Series 8: Scurlock Studio Business Records

Series 9: Custom Craft Business Records

Series 10: Capitol School of Photography

Series 11: Washington Stock

Series 12: Background Materials and Publications
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Commercial photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C)  Search this
African American photographers  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Politicians -- 20th century  Search this
Photography -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color separation negatives
Photographs -- 20th century
Studio portraits
Dye transfer process
Matrices, color separation
Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0618.S04.08
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.8: Negatives in cold storage arranged by subject
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8216cfc11-caf4-442a-95df-e45fae7a3ce8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-08
Online Media:

Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection

Creator:
National Philatelic Collection, Smithsonian Institution.  Search this
Blenkle, Victor A., Dr., 1900-1978 (physician)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Extractive Industries  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (29 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Picture postcards
Photographs
Photographic postcards
Place:
Europe -- Postcards
Date:
circa 1880-circa 1970
Summary:
This collection consists of postcards gathered by Dr. Victor A. Blenkle, a twentieth century physician. The postcards primarily concern geographical locations and landmarks in the United States and Western Europe, but also include materials from six other continents.
Scope and Contents:
The Blenkle Collection consists of 29 boxes of postcards, principally about geographical locations, landmarks, monuments and other buildings of interest around the world. The bulk of the cards are about the United States and Western Europe, but countries in 6 continents are represented. The earliest cards included date from the late 1880s and the latest card date from the mid-1970s. The cards are arranged in alphabetical order by state name, name of country, and then specific locations.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series:

Series 1 includes 16 boxes of cards about geographical locations within the United States. These cards are organized first by state in alphabetical order, secondly by city or place name (for example, Grand Canyon). Cities or locations with fewer than three postcards are arranged into general categories such as "Cities". Cards with no clear location are grouped by illustrated subject, such as "Winter Scenes."

Series 2 consists of 9 boxes of cards about places outside the United States. These cards are in alphabetical order by name Of country, and then by city, location or geographical name,also in alphabetical order. The names of countries are used as listed on the card. For example, most of the German cards appear to date from before the division into East and West Germany, consequently, the name is listed as Germany, with no regard for the location of a place between 1945 and 1990.

Series 3 consists of 4 boxes of cards organized by subject. These are the only cards without specific geographical locations.

Series 4 consists of 1 box of cards and letters written by Dr. Blenkle or what appear to be members of his family.

Divided into 3 series: (1) U.S.A., (2) Foreign (mostly Europe), (3) Subjects. Arranged geographically and alphabetically.
Biographical / Historical:
The Blenkle Collection of Postcards was collected by Dr. Victor A. Blenkle, who lived in New Jersey. Little was known about Dr. Blenkle until Ms. Lorraine Clemente, his great-niece, supplied biographical information in 2006. All relevant curators involved in this acquisition are now deceased. Through processing, some conclusions were reached based on evidence contained within the collection itself.

Victor A. Blenkle (born December 15, 1900; died April 15, 1978) was one of six children; his siblings were Ferdinand, Herbert, Albert, Helene, and Julius. His parents, Ferdinand and Bertha, probably emigrated to the United States from Germany in the 1890s (his father was born in 1871). Victor Blenkle practiced medicine in Teaneck, N.J., where he was affiliated with Holy Name Hospital; his wife's name was Elsie. Blenkle was active in medical organizations and was a founder of Family Practice of New Jersey. He served in both World Wars, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel. Many of the postcards in this collection were from Blenkle's patients, as well as family members. (Ms. Lorraine Clemente, great-niece of Victor Blenkle, supplied biographical information in 2006.)

We do not know when Dr. Blenkle began collecting postcards, but cards sent to him or with what appears to be his handwriting begin in the 1920s. It seems as if Blenkle also either purchased or traded for collections that were originally owned by others. For example, within the overall Blenkle collection, there are three smaller groups of cards of earlier origin. Some of these include the earliest materials in the collection, dating from the late 1880s and 1890s. These three smaller groups include a group of cards sent to (and some sent by) a Reverend Leach in Noroton, Connecticut who was a Lutheran minister. He also apparently ran some kind of a Bible study by mail program and so received a number of cards from those interested in the Bible. Another group of cards sent to addresses in Elgin, Illinois and other related Midwestern locations by members of an extended family and some of their friends between about 1895 and 1910. A third set of cards includes smaller group of cards sent by a group of family and friends in Wisconsin, apparently centering on Milwaukee. All of these include messages written on front or back and postmarks.
Provenance:
Bequeathed to the Smithsonian Institution by Victor A. Blankle in 1977.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Monuments -- Postcards  Search this
Buildings -- Postcards  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Picture postcards -- Photomechanical
Picture postcards
Photographs -- Photomechanical prints
Photographs -- 19th century
Photographic postcards
Citation:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection, c. 1880-c. 1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution,
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0200
See more items in:
Victor A. Blenkle Postcard Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d59beafa-2e3c-45af-8857-05a524ac70a5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0200
Online Media:

Washington, D.C. Bridges Collection

Creator:
Meigs, John  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1900-1905.
Scope and Contents:
Photoprints and negatives documenting the construction of several Washington, D.C. bridges. The Washington Aqueduct Bridge is the subject of most of the images. The Washington Channel Bridge, the Potomac Highway Bridge, and the 11th Street Bridge are also included among the images. Additionally, there is a letterpress book, an employee time book, and a notebook containing diagrams and measurements.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Meigs was a Washington, D.C. civil engineer.
Provenance:
Donated in the 1960s to the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History).
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Rivers -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Bridges -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Citation:
Washington, D.C. Bridges Collection, 1900-1905, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1095
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep809dae6b9-6971-411b-b65c-a1e72adff215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1095

Robert Mosher Photoprints

Donor:
Mosher, Robert  Search this
Names:
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Muskie, Edmund S., 1914-1996  Search this
Royko, Mike, 1932-1997  Search this
Actor:
Belushi, John, 1949-1982  Search this
Moore, Clayton, 1914-1999  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1971-1972, 2003
Summary:
The collection consists of nine black and white silver prints by Robert Mosher of monuments in Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia with a focus on the visitors.
Scope and Contents:
Photographs taken at the Lincoln Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, and Washington Monument in Washington, DC, as well as the JFK Memorial in Arlington, Virginia showing tourists and visitors interacting with the sites.

The photographs are on paper, fiber-based, silver gelatin, matted, and 18-1/2" x 21-1/4".
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into two series

Series 1: Washington, DC monuments, 2003

Series 2: Chicago, 1971-1973
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Mosher is a photographer who works in black and white and focuses on filling space in his compositions.

Sources

Bonner, Heather. "Photography Opening with Robert Mosher." Thedetroiter.com. April 8, 2009. (Accessed July 22, 2016. http://www.thedetroiter.com/v3/2009/04/photography-opening-with-robert-mosher/.)
Provenance:
Donated by Robert Mosher, 2017
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
RRobert Mosher retains copyright. rchives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Monuments  Search this
Thomas Jefferson Memorial (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Tourists -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Tourism  Search this
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Streetscapes  Search this
Parades  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Robert Mosher Photoprints, 2003, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1203
See more items in:
Robert Mosher Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8651cc7e3-6d03-4732-b7d8-bace01697c8e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1203

Domestic Life Glass Photograph Collection

Donor:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Domestic Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Photographs
Place:
Chicago (Ill.)
St. Paul (Minn.)
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
circa 1900
Scope and Contents note:
Miscellaneous glass photonegatives and lantern slides, originally housed in cardboard plate boxes, some containing newspaper clipping separators with dates as late as 1961. Subjects include a flood in 1911, family photographs and portraits, and buildings, with labels indicating locations such as Chicago, St.Paul, etc. The lantern slides depict art historical subjects and may be academic lecture materials.
Arrangement:
Organization by plate size. Unarranged at this time.
Biographical / Historical:
The lantern slides and glass photographs include miscellaneous family photographs and portraits, photographs of buildings, and art historical subjects.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site.,Contact David Haberstich, Head of Photographic Collections, for an appointment.,As this collection is glass, it must be handled with extreme care. Researchers must handle the material with gloves.
Rights:
Photographs available for reproduction. Most probably in public domain. Fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Art -- History -- Lectures  Search this
Floods -- 1910-1920 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- Lectures
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1920
Citation:
Domestic Life Glass Photograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0292
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d93ff87f-97b5-4051-9752-335781e10f37
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0292

Dorothy H. Christian Collection

Creator:
Christian, Dorothy H.  Search this
Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616  Search this
Foley, James W.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Political History  Search this
Names:
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Appointment books
Diaries
Photographs
Books
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1881, 1913-1934
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains three books and two photographs: Kitchen Diary: Your Daily Friend (Chicago: P. F. Volland & Co., 1913) contains birth dates, addresses and appointments sporadic entries, 1921 1934. The Shakespeare Birthday Book (Mary F. P. Dunbar, ed., London, 1881) has a quotation from Shakespeare for every day in the year; scattered throughout the book are names of relatives and friends. Some One Like You by James W. Foley is a book of five pages of poetry and five illustrations, copyrighted 1916, with a box. Two small portrait photographs, one dated 1923, found in Kitchen Diary, are stored separately.

Two small portrait photographs, one dated 1923, found in "The Kitchen Diary," are stored separately.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dorothy Christian's father was secretary to President Warren G. Harding. The three books illustrate, to a small extent, events of interest to a woman in the social world of Washington, D.C. in the 1920s.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Estate of Dorothy H. Christian, through Elwood Davis, July 21, 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Socialites -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Portraits -- 1920-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Appointment books -- 20th century
Diaries
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Books
Citation:
Dorothy H. Christian Collection, circa 1881-1934, Archives Center,National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0250
See more items in:
Dorothy H. Christian Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c61980b0-bea6-4d6b-8c96-35c41711cb7d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0250

Windsor and Ford Business Records

Creator:
Windsor & Ford (Brick Manufacturing Company).  Search this
Charles Ford (company).  Search this
Ford & Brother  Search this
Names:
Ford, Charles  Search this
Ford, Samuel  Search this
Windsor, David A.  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledgers (account books)
Receipts
Correspondence
Business records
Business cards
Invoices
Account books
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1859-1906
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of invoices and receipts documenting the sale of bricks, purchase of supplies, and expenses for the real estate business; account books, ledgers, and a business diary showing employment records and the shipment of bricks by land and water. Records of Ford and Brother are primarily represented by Charles Ford, and later accounts are with his estate. Also in the included is correspondence concerning financial transactions of several companies and business cards of other local brick manufacturers.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Windsor & Ford, 1859-1890

Series 2: Charles Ford, 1879-1900

Series 3: Ford & Brother, 1886

Series 4: Estate of Charles Ford, 1868-1906
Biographical / Historical:
Windsor & Ford, a brick manufacturing company in Washington, D. C., was operated by Charles and Samuel Ford and David A. Windsor. It supplied bricks for several federal and district buildings in the city. In addition, the Fords operated a brick manufacturing company and real estate business as Ford and Brother.
Collection documents business actcivities of David A. Windsor and Charles Ford.
Provenance:
Collection purchased through Raymond J. Staffieri, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Real estate -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Brickmakers -- 1850-1910  Search this
Bricks -- Manufacturing -- 1850-1910 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Brickmaking -- 1859-1906 -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledgers (account books)
Receipts
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Business records -- 1850-1900
Business cards
Invoices
Account books
Citation:
Windsor & Ford Business Records, 1859-1906, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0019
See more items in:
Windsor and Ford Business Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88c9e461a-ca68-4f9e-8adf-cc123a809079
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0019

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