Reddish-brown, thick, ridged, and furrowed. Exfoliating.
Grow on the ends of short lateral branchlets from the previous year.
Scale-like leaves are oblong, 3-14mm long, and grow in sprays in whorls of four. Aromatic when crushed.
Reddish to yellowish-brown. Ripens in early fall and persists on tree through spring. Grow on branchlet ends on their own, and have a "duckbill shape" once they open. 6 scales, all thorny at the tip, with the upper pair being connate to form a flat plate. 1" long.