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Catalog Data

Manufacturer:
Peter Timmes' Son, American, 1878 - 1900  Search this
Medium:
Cast iron, paint
Dimensions:
34 × 46 × 17 in. (86.4 × 116.8 × 43.2 cm)
Style:
Renaissance Revival
Type:
Settees
Origin:
Brooklyn, New York, United States
Date:
ca. 1878-1895
Period:
Victorian (1837-1901)
Description:
Cast-iron settee in the “Curtain” pattern. The straight back is tripartite with scrolling lyre designs within the structural framework. This rigid, paneled back shape is reminiscent of the indoor furnishings of the nineteenth century. The side sections of the backrest are crested by a crocketed flower with finials on either side of each panel. The armrests form a scroll at the hand rest. The seat is pierced with repeating geometric motifs. Below the seat the apron wraps around the front and sides with a pierced, scalloped pattern. There are arched braces between the front and back legs, which terminate in flattened pad feet. The elements of this design are characteristic of the Renaissance Revival style. The “Curtain” design had many variations in the motifs, patterns, length, and components, yet the overall form remained constant. The parts of this design were created separately and are bolted together, which led to further deviations in the “Curtain” pattern. Renaissance Revival style was a popular style of the Victorian era in the United States. It emerged as early as the 1840s and experienced renewed interest in 1890s. Renaissance Revival was a continuation of the Neoclassicism of the early nineteenth century and was vaguely related to actual objects from the Renaissance period. Renaissance Revival motifs included scrolling foliage called rinceaux, fruit garlands, masks, satyrs, egg-and-dart decoration, friezes, putti, armorial shields, palmettes, scrolls, grotesques, lions, water plant motifs, anthemia, oval medallions, bosses and strapwork, dolphins, Caryatid figures, and architectural elements such as columns, pilasters, pediments, and cornices.
Renaissance Revival style was a popular style of the Victorian era in the United States. It emerged as early as the 1840s and experienced renewed interest in 1890s. Renaissance Revival was a continuation of the Neoclassicism of the early nineteenth century and was vaguely related to actual objects from the Renaissance period. Renaissance Revival motifs included scrolling foliage called rinceaux, fruit garlands, masks, satyrs, egg-and-dart decoration, friezes, putti, armorial shields, palmettes, scrolls, grotesques, lions, water plant motifs, anthemia, oval medallions, bosses and strapwork, dolphins, Caryatid figures, and architectural elements such as columns, pilasters, pediments, and cornices.
Label Text:
Garden furnishings, also called outdoor or patio furnishings, are specifically designed for outdoor use. They are typically made of weather-resistant materials such as metal, stone, wood, wicker, and artificial stone. Cast-iron was the most popular material for garden furnishings and accessories from the mid-nineteenth to the early-twentieth century. This was in part due to systems of mass production developed in the Industrial Revolution that allowed outdoor furniture to be readily available and affordable to the public. Throughout the nineteenth century, as leisure activities increased, materials diversified, and technology was embraced, garden furnishings came to be regarded as domestic amenities and reflected changing styles. Outdoor furnishings, such as settees, chairs, fountains, urns, and tables were essential to fashionably appointed lawns, conservatories, parks, cemeteries, and gardens in America.
Cemeteries held a very important place in the lives of nineteenth century Americans. Rural cemeteries—such as Mount Auburn, organized in Boston in 1831 and Spring Grove in Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1845—were an integral part of American life. Cemeteries were beautifully landscaped and functioned much like a park. These retreats offered escape from the unpleasant conditions of the growing industrial centers. Families often planned special days, including a picnic, which were spent with their dear departed loved ones. The gravesites were elaborately landscaped and fitted out with furniture, fencing, and other accessories such as urns and statuary. Many of these pieces were the same designs and acquired from the same sources as the pieces chosen for the lawn and conservatory. Furniture manufacturers found a profitable market selling their wares as memorials, and identical styles were advertised and sold to furnish cemetery plots. Settees, which are two-person seats with a backrest and arms, were a popular feature of the Victorian garden. Most garden settees were designed to be suitable for use with a table and were frequently sold with matching suites of chairs, benches, and tables. Designs for garden settees followed the Victorian taste for eclectic styles and borrowed Classical, Rustic, Gothic, Rococo, Renaissance, and Oriental motifs; or they were chosen to blend with their natural surroundings in Rustic, animal, or botanical forms. In the twentieth century, many of these pieces were removed from family plots due to neglect and to make way for power mowers.
Mark(s):
Peter Timmes Son Brooklyn, NY
Inscription(s):
Inscription on back of top iron rail: PAT. APPD. FOR.
Topic:
cast iron  Search this
outdoor furniture  Search this
settees  Search this
cemeteries  Search this
commemoratives  Search this
Garden ornaments and furniture  Search this
garden seats  Search this
seating furniture  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian Gardens, Horticultural Artifacts Collection.
Accession number:
1979.007
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Horticultural Artifacts Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian Gardens
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/aq4ecd56163-e7cd-4191-b4ca-d8630535d75c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:hac_1979.007