H x W x D (overall): 3.6 x 1.7 x 0.5 cm (1 7/16 x 11/16 x 3/16 in)
Jewelry and Ornament
Shou xian, purportedly found at Anhui province, China
Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period
Purportedly discovered in tomb located in Anhui province, Shou xian 
Zhang Naiji (1899–1948), Shanghai, China, then New York, NY 
1948 to early 1950s
Zhang Mei Chien (1901–ca. 1955), New York, NY, inherited upon her husband’s death 
Possibly around 1954 to 1961
C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York, NY, possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY, in the early 1950s 
Possibly from 1961 to 1964
Frank Caro Chinese Art, New York, NY, mode of acquisition unknown 
Possibly to late 1950s
J. T. Tai and Company, New York, NY, possibly purchased from Zhang Mei Chien in New York, NY, during July 1954 
Dr. Paul Singer, Summit, NJ, purchased from J. T. Tai and Company, C. T. Loo and Company, or Frank Caro Chinese Art in New York, NY 
1997 to 1999
In the custody of Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, upon Paul Singer’s death in January 1997 and loan agreement in February 1997 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, Paul Singer, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, and the Children of Dr. Arthur M. Sackler 
 Object published in Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition, February 1940 (Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1940), cat. 234. Catalogue entry notes discovery site as Shou-hsien (now known as Shou xian) where tombs were exposed between 1931 and 1932. During this period the tombs were never properly excavated.
 Zhang Naiji (also known as N. C. Chang) was a businessman, born to a prestigious family in Zhejiang that made their wealth in the silk and salt industries. He collected ancient Chinese art objects and Chinese coins. Zhang amassed his collection whilst living in Shanghai, before leaving for America in 1938, and acquired his objects onsite of archaeological excavations (see Alfred Salmony, Chinese Jade through the Wei Dynasty [New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1963], p. 115).
Zhang lent his collection anonymously to Archaic Chinese Jades: Special Exhibition. We know his identity through letters housed in the Department of Archives, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology
and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (see letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, October 25, 1939, and letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, December 16, 1939), copies in Freer and Sackler COM provenance files. The exhibition was entirely organized by C. T. Loo and Company, New York. Letters exchanged between C. T. Loo and the director of The University Museum, Mr. Horace H. F. Jayne, reveal that Zhang Naiji owned the objects and C. T. Loo and Company had the collection on consignment (see letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, May 28, 1939, and letter from C. T. Loo to Horace Jayne, October 23, 1940, copies in COM provenance files). C. T. Loo and Company kept the jade collection on consignment from 1940 through Zhang’s death in 1948, inventorying the pieces
with a prefix “J” and labeling each item as “Chang [Zhang] Collection.”
 Zhang Mei Chien, Zhang Naiji’s wife, assumed ownership upon his death in 1948. She sold several pieces from her husband’s collection to both C. T. Loo and Company (which later operated as Frank Caro Chinese Art) and
J. T. Tai and Company. She sold to J. T. Tai and Company in July 1954 (for example, see J. T. Tai and Company Stock Record YT 886 and YT 895, copies in COM provenance files). It is unclear when C. T. Loo Chinese Art purchased
items from Zhang Mei Chien. C. T. Loo Chinese Art was led by Frank Caro, the famed dealer C. T. Loo’s associate.
 See note 3. On September 1, 1952, C. T. Loo’s associate Frank Caro (1904–1980) took over daily operations of the New York business, operating as C. T. Loo Chinese Art. Loo continued to play a large role in the business, as he and Caro struck a deal in which profits made on Loo’s stock would be evenly divided, and Loo would maintain the lease and rental payments on the company’s gallery space.
 In 1961, Loo and Caro’s agreement ended. C. T. Loo and Cie., Paris, France, took control of C. T. Loo Chinese Art, New York’s stock that C. T. Loo had added to the inventory before his death in 1957. Frank Caro then opened
Frank Caro Chinese Art. Caro acquired pieces from Loo’s original stock (the mode of acquisition is unknown) and also featured jades with a Zhang provenance in his stock.
 See note 3. J. T. Tai and Company sold several jades with Zhang provenance to Dr. Paul Singer. In Paul Singer’s memoirs he reports that he purchased seventeen “of the Chang Nai-chi [Zhang Naiji] jades, some of which Mr. Chang [Zhang] lent to the 1935–1936 International Exhibition of Chinese Art,” from J. T. Tai and Company (see “Reminiscences of a Transient Custodian,” ms. Paul Singer Papers, Freer and Sackler Archives, p.83–84). It is likely that S2012.9.1474 was one of those seventeen jades.
 Dr. Paul Singer had this object in his collection in the 1980s when writing his memoirs (see note 6). The collection of Chinese art and antiquities assembled by Paul Singer over time was purchased by him on behalf of Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, Jillian Sackler, The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities and was later transferred to the children of Dr. Arthur M. Sackler.
 When Paul Singer died in January 1997, the Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art came into the custody of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. A loan agreement between the Executors of the Singer Estate and the Gallery was signed in February 1997.
 See “The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art Gift Agreement,” March 1999, Freer and Sackler COM Office. The object was formally accessioned into the museum collection in 2012.
Arthur M. Sackler Collection
Archaic Chinese Jades, Special Exhibition (February 1940)
The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution Search this
The Dr. Paul Singer Collection of Chinese Art of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; a joint gift of the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, Paul Singer, the AMS Foundation for the Arts, Sciences, and Humanities, and the Children of Arthur M. Sackler