Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Folio from a Gulistan (Rosegarden) by Sa'di; recto: text with illuminated border; verso: text with illuminated border

Catalog Data

Sultan 'Ali Mashhadi  Search this
Ink, gold, and opaque watercolor on paper
H x W (page): 24.6 x 16 cm (9 11/16 x 6 5/16 in)
Present-day Afghanistan, India, and Iran
Text dated 1468, illumination added early 16th c., paintings repainted ca. 1645
Timurid, Safavid, and Mughal periods
Shah Tahmasp (reigned 1524-1576), Persia [1]
From at least 1558
Akbar (reigned 1556-1605), India, from at least 1558 [2]
Mughal Imperial Library [3]
From at least 1644
Jahan-ara, daughter of Shah Jahan (reigned 1628-1658), from at least 1644 [4]
Marquis of Bute, England [5]
To 1998
The Art and History Trust, Liechtenstein, to 1998
From 1998
Freer Gallery of Art, given by the Art and History Trust in 1998 [6]
[1] According to Curatorial Note 1, Massumeh Farhad, March 16, 1998, in the object record.
[2] See note 1.
[3] See note 1.
[4] See note 1. Shah-Jahan, was the grandson of Akbar.
[5] According to Curatorial Note 4 in the object record.
[6] The Art and History Trust was established in 1991 by Abolala Soudavar and his family of distinguished bibliophiles. Gathered over a period of some thirty years, the collection is presently on long-term loan to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. However, this particular manuscript was given in honor of Ezzat-Malek Soudavar to the Freer Gallery of Art on the occasion of its seventy-fifth anniversary (see Curatorial Note 4, Massumeh Farhad, August 18, 1998, in the object record).
Freer Gallery of Art Collection
Exhibition History:
Engaging the Senses (October 14, 2017 - ongoing)
Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran (July 28 to September 16, 2012)
East of Eden: Gardens in Asian Art (February 24 to May 13, 2007)
Beyond the Legacy--Anniversary Acquisitions of the Freer Gallery of Art (October 11, 1998 to April 11, 1999)
Arts of the Islamic World (May 3, 1998 to January 3, 2016)
Art of the Persian Courts: Selections from the Art and History Trust (November 5, 1992 to April 6, 1997)
Previous custodian or owner:
Shah Tahmasp (1524-1576)
Akbar (reigned 1556-1605)
Mughal Imperial Library
The Art and History Trust
The Art and History Trust
bird  Search this
peacock  Search this
dragon  Search this
flower  Search this
rose  Search this
fox  Search this
rabbit  Search this
Safavid period (1501 - 1722)  Search this
Timurid period (1378 - 1506)  Search this
Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858)  Search this
Gulistan  Search this
illumination  Search this
Afghanistan  Search this
Iran  Search this
India  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of the Art and History Trust in honor of Ezzat-Malek Soudavar
Accession Number:
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery