The previous edition of this book mainly provided a snapshot of the state of the art in terms of species-specific reproductive biology and emerging technologies. The influence of environmental changes on reproductive fitness was introduced but not fully explored. The objectives of this second edition were to (1) emphasize the need for holistic and global efforts to understand and sustain reproduction in a constantly changing environment and (2) provide more knowledge in the reproductive physiology of different taxa. The first section of the book is dedicated to survival and adaptation of species in a changing environment (including chapters on environmental impacts in different taxa, as well as the role of microbiomes). The second section focuses on progress in understanding, assisting or even suppressing reproduction in wild species, keeping in mind the influence of environmental factors as well. It contains chapters from the previous edition that were updated (reproduction in elephants, koalas, marsupials, amphibians, and corals), new chapters on species such as sharks and rays, and contributions about the increasing role of reproductive manipulations, such as assisted reproduction and contraception. While the present book emphasizes the overarching issue of environmental impacts on reproduction (resulting in infertility, subfecundity, or fitness), it also highlights the challenges of maintaining wild species in captivity, including those associated with ensuring good welfare. Captive environments can influence reproduction in a multitude of ways, some unexpected, such as the selection of unwanted genetic traits, an essential dimension to be considered to ensure the success of conservation breeding programs. Lastly, new approaches, such as the use of allostatic load indexes and reproductive microbiome analyses also will be closely examined for the first time in rare and endangered species to address conservation issues.
Comizzoli, Pierre, Brown, Janine L. and Holt, William V. 2019. Reproductive Science as an Essential Component of Conservation Biology: New Edition. <i>Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology<i>, 1200: 1-10. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-23633-5_1