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Baalbeck (Lebanon): Fortified Walls of the Citadel: View of Arabic Inscription No. XIV, in Naskhi Mameluke Script

Catalog Data

Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Sobernheim, Moritz  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
1 Glass negative (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm.)
Archival materials
Glass negatives
BaŹ»labakk (Lebanon)
Lebanon -- Beqaa -- Baalbeck
Scope and Contents:
Handwritten notes accompanying related print in photo file 14, vol. 2 reads, "Baalb. Inscr. 14."
Additional information from Finding Aid reads, "Subseries 4.14: Photo File 14 (2 vols.), "Syria: Architecture & Inscriptions," Subseries 4.14.1: vol. 1; Image No. 130 (Negative Number: 3784). Baalbek, Inscription. XIV."
Additional information from staff reads, "Under the Ayyubids (1175-1250) and the Mamluks (1279-1516), Baalbek witnessed a revival of its political and economic role. To defend the city from crusader attacks, the Ayyubids built a citadel on the site of the temples of Jupiter and Bacchus, which continued to be used during the Mamluk period. Of this citadel and the town that existed within, the fortification wall, a gate, the towers and a mosque remain. Outside the fortified citadel, the old Shiite Mosque, the great and the small Ras al-Ain Mosques, Qubbat al-Amjad, Qubbat Douris and Qubbat as-Saadin were constructed."
Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850, are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves."
Local Numbers:
FSA A.6 04.GN.3784
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
As early as 1893, Ernst Herzfeld, Moritz Sobernheim, and Max Freiherr von Oppenheim participated in Max Van Berchem's project to create a Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum. During the following 25 years, research materials such as glass negatives, photographic prints, drawings, maps, and notebooks were circulating among the four archaeologists. In the case of this glass negative, it may have been taken by Moritz Sobernheim on a visit to Baalbeck between 1899 and 1905, as mentioned in his 1922 publication, "Baalbek in Islamischer Zeit, in Voradruck aus dem Werke: Baalbek, Ergebnisse der Aus rabungen und Unterschungen in den Jahren 1898 bis 1905, Vol. 3."
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Inscriptions, Arabic  Search this
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. FSA.A.06. National Museum of Asian Art Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946.
FSA.A.06, Item FSA A.6 04.GN.3784
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Ernst Herzfeld Papers / Series 4: Photographic Files
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives