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Hawai'i is a complex state that is home to an incredible array of ethnic groups and cultures. Each of these groups has maintained its unique identity and at the same time blended to create "local" traditions that are expressive of the community as a whole. Hawai'i is both geographically and culturally at the crossroads of the Pacific. In this multi-ethnic society, music, crafts, and food all provide important windows into the process of acculturation that occurred in Hawai'i. The acculturated traditions that make up what people in Hawai'i refer to as "local" are the result of adaptation to ever-changing circumstances. At the same time Hawaii's ethnic communities have retained and developed their individual identities that are expressed in the vitality of their traditions. In the two centuries since contact with Western culture, native Hawaiian traditions have been subject to tremendous pressures. Some ancient artistic expressions dwindled completely, while others continued. These losses were the result of a combination of factors including the loss of a functional or ceremonial role for many goods or services. In the wake of massive dislocation of people from their cultures as well as from their land, and in light of the ethnic mix that has resulted, it would seem that little would be left of Hawaiian or even Japanese or Portuguese identity in late 20th century Hawai'i. On the surface this is true. Especially since World War II and statehood in 1959, mass media, tourism (five million visitors a year) and the strategic position that Hawai'i holds in the Pacific have made it difficult for the islands to remain isolated from either mainland. However, even the casual visitor to the islands - or to the 1989 Festival program - could observe that the people of Hawai'i have learned to live with each other while retaining attitudes and (especially in the past two decades) revitalizing institutions and traditions that reflect their ethnic identities. At the same time, cultural borrowing in Hawai'i has been extensive and the state's rich cultural mix is a source of pride for all its citizens. Increasing pressures from foreign investment and mass media are today further disenfranchising native Hawaiians and threatening the stability of several generations of other cultures in the islands. Hawaii's characteristic attitude of tolerance and acceptance, molded in part by centuries of isolation, may be compromised by such pressures. These attitudes and Hawaii's fragile artistic traditions are inextricably tied together. Preserving these arts was seen as crucial by the Smithsonian and its Hawaiian collaborators, for a community's psychic well-being is only as strong as its commitment to protecting its traditions. Richard Kennedy served as Curator for the Hawai'i program, with Barbara Lau and Linda Moriarty as Program Coordinators. Lynn Martin was Program Consultant; Ricardo Trimillos was Music Consultant; and Gordon Velasco was Landscape Consultant. The Hawai'i program was made possible by the State of Hawai'i, John Waihee, Governor with support from the Office of the Governor, the Hawai'i State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, the Hawai'i Visitors Bureau and Hawai'i corporate sponsors: Duty Free Shoppers Inc., Alexander & Baldwin Inc., Aloha Airlines Inc., American Telephone & Telegraph Inc., Bank of Hawai'i, First Hawaiian Bank, Frito Lay of Hawai'i Inc., GTE - Hawaiian Tel, Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc., International Savings/National Mortgage & Finance Co., Japan Travel Bureau, Oceanic Properties Inc., Pacific Resources Inc.
Simeamativa Aga, Keahi Allen, Carlos Andrade, Norma Carr, Marsha Erikson, David Furumoto, Joyce Davis Jacobson, Jay Junker, Pi'ilani Ka'awaloa, Dennis Kana'e Keawe, Alfred Kina, John Koon, Linda Le Geyt, Linda Moriarty, Nathan Napoka, Eileen Momilani Naughton, Puakea Nogelmeier, Keone Nunes, Audrey Rocha Reed, Edna Ryan, Kalena Silva, Lily Siou, Teri Skillman, Charlene Sumarnap, Judy Van Zile, Elaine Zinn
Simeamativa Aga, Mililani Allen, Jeanette Bennington, Mary Jo Freshly, Jay Junker, Dennis Kana'e Keawe, Lasinga Koloamatangi, John Koon, Gaylord Kubota, Lynn Martin, Marie McDonald, Edith McKinzie, Linda Moriarty, Nathan Napoka, Eileen Momilani Naughton, Puakea Nogelmeier, Keone Nunes, Audrey Rocha Reed, Kalena Silva, Barbara Stefan, Marie D. Strazar
Crafts Sherlin Beniamina, shell lei maker, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Wright Bowman, Jr., koa canoe builder, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i William Char, flower lei maker, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Michael Ilipuakea Dunne, woodworker, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Alapai Hanapi, woodworker, Kea'au, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Lisa Hiroe, paper doll maker, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Calvin Hoe, 1945-, hula instrument maker, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Tsugi Kaiama, feather lei maker, Kamuela, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Deborah Kakalia, quilt-maker, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Meali'i N. Kalama, 1909-1922, quilt-maker, Kailua, O'ahu, Hawai'i Samuel Kamaka, stringed instrument maker, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Alfred Yama Kina, textile weaver, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Esther Makua'ole, lauhala weaver, Waimea, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Emilia Mau'ia, fine mat weaver, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Duane J .L. Pang, Taoist priest, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Irmalee Pomroy, flower lei maker, floral designer, Kapa'a, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Leodegario Reyno, 1923-, coconut weaver, Pepe'ekeo, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Robert J. Ruiz, saddle maker, Waimea, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Henry Silva, rawhide braider, Kula, Maui, Hawai'i Kenichi Tasaka, bulrush sandal-maker, Hanalei, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Wah Chan Thorn, calligrapher, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Thomas K. Yoshida, bulrush sandal-maker, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Performance Traditions Kelfred Chang, lion dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Pearl Ulu Garmon, storyteller, Kamuela, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Clement Lum, 1945-, lion dancer, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Camoes Players, Portuguese music -- Camoes Players, Portuguese musicJosephine C. Carriera, 1930-, ukulele player, singer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iMary L. Carvalho, 1914-2003, singer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iAlfred Castro, guitar, ukulele player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iMarilyn Domingo, ukulele player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iHarold Teves, guitarist, mandolinist, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i El Conjunto Boricua, Puerto Rican Kachi-Kachi band -- El Conjunto Boricua, Puerto Rican Kachi-Kachi bandMarcial Ayala III, bongo, guiro player, Waianae, O'ahu, Hawai'iCharles Figueroa, accordion, guiro player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iAugust M. Rodrigues, guitar, quatro player, Pearl City, O'ahu, Hawai'iJulio Rodrigues, Jr., quatro player, Waianae, O'ahu, Hawai'iJulio Deleon Rodrigues III, guitarist, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Family Camarillo, Filipino Banduria band -- Family Camarillo, Filipino Banduria bandDavin Mario Camarillo, 1964-, banduria, bajo, guitar, ukulele player, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iGeorge O. Camarillo, Jr., 1959-, banduria, piano, guitar, bass, trumpet player, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iGeorge O. Camarillo, Sr., 1934-, tenor guitar, bajo, sax, clarinet, flute player, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Halla Pai Huhm Dancers, Korean Dance -- Halla Pai Huhm Dancers, Korean DanceHalla Pai Huhm, dancer and teacher, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iJennifer Cho, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iRemie Choi, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iSo Jin Chong, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iYeon Hi "Mu Sun Pai" Harajiri, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iChristine Won, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Halau 'O Kekuhi, Hawaiian Hula Dance -- Halau 'O Kekuhi, Hawaiian Hula DancePualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele, kumu hula, chanter, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iNalani Kanaka'ole, kumu hula, chanter, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iKau'ilani Almeida, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iT. Kamuela Chun, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iKaipo Frias, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iHokulani Kaikaina, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'i'O'ilipua Kaikaina, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iPunahele Lerma, dancer, Hilo, Hawai'i, Hawai'iKika Keith Nohara, dancer, 'Aiea, O'ahu, Hawai'iKeonaona Trask, dancer, Kurtistown, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Hawaiian Music S. Haunani Apoliona, singer, songwriter, guitarist, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Richard Ho'opi'i, falsetto singer, ukulele player, Kahakuloa, Maui, Hawai'i Solomon Ho'opi'i, falsetto singer, ukulele player, Makawao, Maui, Hawai'i Barney Issacs, steel guitarist, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Ledward Ka'apana, slack key guitarist, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Elodia Kane, singer, Waianae, O'ahu, Hawai'i Raymond Kane, 1925-2008, slack key guitarist, Waianae, O'ahu, Hawai'i Violet Pahu Liliko'i, bass guitarist, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Clyde Halema'uma'u "Kindy" Sproat, 1930-2008, singer, ukulele player, storyteller, Kapa'au, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Iwakuni Group, Obon, Japanese music and dance -- Iwakuni Group, Obon, Japanese music and danceElaine Kaneko, dancer, teacher, Eleele, Kaua'i, Hawai'iKatsuichi Funamura, singer, Koloa, Kaua'i, Hawai'iRobert S. Kato, drummer, Eleele, Kauai, Hawai'iKen K. Morita, singer, Kapaa, Kaua'i, Hawai'iItsue Okada, drummer, Waimea, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Ku'ulei's Own, Hawaiian family band -- Ku'ulei's Own, Hawaiian family bandFaith Ku'ulei Kekiwi, singer, ukulele player, Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawai'iMerton Kekiwi, bass guitarist, Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawai'iFrancis Po'ouahi, Sr., guitarist, Hana, Maui, Hawai'iMelva Po'ouahi, singer, Hana, Maui, Hawai'i Na Hula 'O La'i Kealoha, Hawaiian Hula Dance -- Na Hula 'O La'i Kealoha, Hawaiian Hula DanceElaine Kaopuiki, kumu hula , chanter, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iPearl Ah Ho, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iJuliet Bayez, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iLynette C. Kaopuiki, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iRita Moon, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iSandra Lehua Pate, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'iHeather K. "Kaihi Lani" Romero, dancer, Lana'i City, Lana'i, Hawai'i Nakasone Seifu Kai, Okinawan Music and Dance -- Nakasone Seifu Kai, Okinawan Music and DanceHarry Nakasone, uta sanshin player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iRaelene Balidoy-Noda, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iIssac Ken Hokama, drummer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iTammi Sachiyo Hokama, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iNorman Kaneshiro, lion dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iJames Maeda, 1935-, sanshin player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iScot Moriyama, lion dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iKaren Nakasone, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iKooko E. Nakasone, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iMayuri Lily Nakasone, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iYoshino Majikina Nakasone, dancer and teacher, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iPhyllis Sumiko Shimabukuro, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iKatsuko Teruya, koto player, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Pa'u Riders -- Pa'u RidersCarol Ann Kamila Grace Anana, Waimanalo, O'ahu, Hawai'iNovelene Mahealani Asing, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iDoveline Ka'aloalaikini Borges, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iShirley Kukana Brenner, Pearl City, O'ahu, Hawai'iTracy Lokelani Keali'iho'omalu, Kailua, O'ahu, Hawai'iCorine Puanani Mata, Kailua, O'ahu, Hawai'i Samoan Music Ensemble -- Samoan Music EnsembleLusia Ma'afala, dancer, musician, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iGloria Mane, 1963-, dancer, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iPita Sala, dancer, musician, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'iMataitusi Tauala, orator, dancer, storyteller, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Waimea Hawaiian Church Choir, Himeni Choral Music -- Waimea Hawaiian Church Choir, Himeni Choral MusicAlina Kauinohea Kanahele, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iElama Kanahele, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iIssac Kaahamana Kanahele, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iKaui O Kalome Kanahele, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iMalaki Kanahele, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iLama Kaohelauli'i, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iRama Kaohelauli'i, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iWilliam Kaohelauli'i, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'iMiriam Kaleipua Pahulehua, singer, Makaweli, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Zuttermeister Family, Hawaiian Hula Dance -- Zuttermeister Family, Hawaiian Hula DanceEmily Kau'i Zuttermeister, kumu hula, chanter, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'iNoenoelani Zuttermeister Lewis, hula dancer, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'iHauolionalani Lewis, hula dancer, Kaneohe, O'ahu, Hawai'i Occupational Traditions Henry A. Auwae, 1911-2000, herbalist, healer, Hila, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Thomas Kamaka Emmsley, lava rock wall builder, Hana, Maui, Hawai'i James Keolaokalani Hu'eu, 1914-2002, taro farmer, Haiku, Maui, Hawai'i Eric Ono, herbalist, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Chauncey Pa, throw net fishing, Kilauea, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Foodways Connie Camarillo, Filipino cooking, singer, Hila, Hawai'i, Hawai'i Doris Mary Rodrigues Correia, Portuguese cooking, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Manuel Correia, Portuguese -- forno -- builder, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i Ah Wan Goo, Hawaiian imu cooking, Anahola, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Jane E. Goo, Hawaiian imu cooking, quilt-maker, Anahola, Kaua'i, Hawai'i Kay Kimie Hokama, 1922-, Okinawan cooking, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i June Tong, Chinese cooking, Honolulu, O'ahu, Hawai'i
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1989 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
CFCH.SFF.1989, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1989 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections