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The continuing traditions of the original inhabitants of this nation were presented in the Native Americans area by representatives of the more than 200 Native American communities throughout the United States. Working with the Smithsonian, they had examined their traditions and created the programs, speaking to their way of life today and their hopes for the future. The Native Americans area was designed with Native traditions in mind. The entire area lay within a circle that represented the wholeness of life, emphasizing that, in Native philosophy, everything is interrelated. A corn field formed the outlying circle; corn, the contribution of Native Americans to the peoples of the world, is regarded as the gift of Mother Earth. With squash and beans sharing the field, the entire area was thus surrounded by the three staple foods of the Southwest, the "three sisters" of the Iroquois. The Learning Center, designed by architect Dennis Sun Rhodes, Arapaho, faces East, the direction of sunrise and of life, and visitors were intended to proceed inside sunwise, in a circle. In its design and in its presentations of music, crafts, dance, and discussion, the Native Americans area honored the first Americans. Building upon six years of programming during preceding Festivals, the Bicentennial presentations presented a region-by-region overview of American Indian folklife: June 16-20, Northeast (Six Nations, Iroquois, Mohawk, Seneca, Onandaga, Tuscarora, Algonkian, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Shinnecock, Hassanamisco, Nanticoke, Susquehanna, Wampanoag, Narragansett, Gay Head, Mohegan, Schaghticoke) June 23-27, Great Lakes (Oneida, Ojibwa) July 1-5, Southeast (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Tuscarora, Muskogee, Tunica-Biloxi of Louisiana, Mattaponi, Houma Tribe of Louisiana, Alabama Creek, Lumbee) July 7-11, Southern Plains (Comanche, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Southern Cheyenne) July 14-18, Prairie (Sac and Fox) July 21-25, Northern Plains (Northern Cheyenne) July 28-August 1, Northwest Coast (Alaska Federation of Natives, Confederated Tribes of Siletz, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation) August 4-8, Southwest (San Juan Pueblo, Navaho, White Mountain Apache, Comanche) August 11-15, Plateau (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Indian Nation, Ute, Klamath) August 18-22, Basin (Northern Paiute, Southern Paiute, Washo, Western Shoshone, Walker River Paiute) August 25-29, Northern California (Miwok, Wintun, Pomo, Yurok, Karok, Tolowa, Hupa, Klamath, Tchinook, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla, Quileute) September 2-6, Arctic (Alaska Federation of Natives) Lucille Dawson served as program coordinator, assisted by Thomas Kavanagh. The multi-year program was shaped by the Native Americans Advisory Group, including Louis Bruce, Rayna Green, Dell Hymes, Clydia Nahwooksy, Alfonso Ortiz, and William Sturtevant.
Northeast Six Nations, Iroquois Mohawk Mary Adams, basket maker Mike Adams, basket maker Sally Ann Adams, basket maker Richard Hill, headdress maker Stan Hill, bone carver Tammy Hill, craft sales Mary Longboat, cornhusk worker Margaret Torrence, basket maker Cam Wilson, silversmith Mark Wilson, craft sales Wanda Wilson, dancer Oneida Eula Chrisjohn, cornhusk worker Irving Chrisjohn, cornhusk worker Richard Chrisjohn, Sr., wood carver Richard Chrisjohn, Jr., wood carver Onondaga Andrea Jimerson, dancer Marty Jimerson, dancer Huron Miller, project coordinator James Skye, wood carver Guy Williams, dancer Ruby Williams, dancer Tim Williams, dancer Seneca Helen Harris, dancer Linda Harris, dancer Philman Harris, drum and rattle maker Steve Harris, dancer Hazel Jimerson, dancer Lester Jimerson, dancer Mamie Jones, dancer Paul Jones, dancer Kevin Johnny John, dancer Mike Johnny John, dancer Vera Miller, beadworker Rodney Pierce, dancer Marlene Thomas, dancer Hazel Thompson, gancer Phillip Thompson, dancer Natie Watt, basket maker Ruth Watt, basket maker Tuscarora Louise Henry, beadworker Oscar Moses, Lacrosse stick maker Kevin Patterson, Lacrosse stick maker Wes Patterson, Lacrosse stick maker Edward Sayer, finger weaving Wilmer Wilson, 1925-2002, craft sales manager Algonkian Chuck Comanda, canoe maker Mary Comanda, canoe maker William Comanda, canoe maker Ojibwa Audrey Pawis, quill worker Discussants Asenith D. Vogt, coordinator Joseph A. Nicholas, discussant, Passamaquoddy Andy Akins, discussant, Penobscot Charles Jennings, discussant, Penobscot Brian Miles, discussant, Pequot Eva Smith, discussant, Shinnecock Diane Bess, discussant, Shinnecock Lois Wilcox, discussant, Hassanamisco Kenneth Clark, discussant, Nanticoke Kathy Clark, discussant, Nanticoke Jody Hale, discussant, Susquehanna Lydia Hale, discussant, Susquehanna Edith Andrews, discussant, Wampanoag Naomi Andrews, discussant, Wampanoag Alberta Wilcox, discussant, Narragansett Lloyd Wilcox, discussant, Narragansett Helen Attaquin, discussant, Gay Head Mother Helen Attaquin, discussant, Gay Head Stilson Fands, discussant, Mohegan Trudy Lamb, discussant, Schaghticoke George Mitchell, Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the State of Maine Southeast Cherokee Wanda Barr, dance leader Mike Daniels, pottery Cecil Hall, discussant Don Mabray, discussant Frank Mclemore, discussant Eva Nordwell, discussant Eunice Old Field, weaver Knohovtee Scott, jewelry, silversmith Ross Swimmer, discussant Dick Spahr, head cook Mary Lou Spahr, cook Mrs. Ross Swimmer, discussant Anicl Barr, dancer Sheila Barr, dancer Brenda Johnson, dancer Jeanette Reese, dancer Gina Pritchett, dancer Michelle Ummtukee, dancer Chickasaw Aaron Christy, guide Hazel Christy, dancer, beadwork Overton James, discussant Emma Mose, dancer Buster Ned, dancer Calvin Ned, dancer Rhonda Ned, dancer Wanda Ned, dancer, beadwork Bienum Pickens, dancer, stickball, drummer Adam Sampson, singer, dancer, stickball Richard Sampson, dancer, stickball Junior Thomas, dancer Mary Wallace, dancer Mrs. Overton James Choctaw Clelland Billy, stickball Glendale Billy, food, cook David Gardner, discussant Lucinda Gibson, arts and crafts Eula Goings, cook Hugh Jefferson, stickball, discussant Ray Jefferson, stickball Louise Isscomer, beading Myrtle Lowman, basket weaving Sherrin Matlock, discussant Mrs. David Gardner, discussant Creek Claude Cox, discussant Paul Culley, 1925-, dancer Wynena Evans, beadwork, singer Brian Fife, dancer, discussant Margaret Freeman, cook Hepsey Gilroy, looming, dancer Solomon McCombs, artist Buddy Scott, silversmith, dancer Genda Scott, basket weaving, dancer Gene Timothy, discussant, food, Lacrosse Mrs. Claude Cox, discussant Seminole Beulah Bemo, arts and crafts Mallene Davis, singer, dancer; Miss Indian Oklahoma Kelly Haney, artist, dancer, stickball Samantha Hooper, education guide, dancer Ida Little, food, shell shaker, dancer Terry Little, cook H. T. Miller, stomp dancer, stickball Tom Palmer, stomp dancer, stickball Ida Lee Redbird, shell shaker, dancer Jennie Lee Rice, shell shaker, dancer Ed Tanyan, discussant Mrs. Ed Tonyan, discussant Cherokee William Crow, wood carver Betty Crow, bead worker Tuscarora Ernest Carter, discussant Benjamin Maynor, discussant Muskogee Angela Lyles, discussant Ann Taylor Tate, discussant Tunica-Biloxi of Louisiana Rose Marie Gallardo, discussant Mary Vercher, discussant Mattaponi Chief Curtis Custalow, discussant Gertrude Custalow, discussant Houma Tribe of Louisiana Steve Cheramie, discussant Randolph Francis, discussant Alabama Creek Connie S. Tullis, discussant Buford L. Rolin, discussant Lumbee Donna Chavis Sonya Allen Southern Plains Carla Allrunner, dancer Richard Asenap, program coordinator Joe Attocknie, 1911-1984, singer, flute player Rosalie Attocknie, 1926-2011, artist Bobbi Bradley, artist Hawana Bradley, artist Ronald Burless, artist Ed Chappabitty, singer Evelyn Chappabitty, singer Florence Chasenah, beadworker Gerald Chasenah, dancer James Chasenah, singer Kim Chasenah, dancer Wallace Coffey, narrator, dancer James Cox, narrator, tribal chairman Marie Cox, craftsperson Sam Devenney, historian, photographer Jamie Franklin, dancer Rita Franklin, dancer Patty Hall Carol Hall Melvin Kerchee, singer, dancer Melvin Kerchee, Jr., dancer Nettie Kerchee, 1921-2003, dress maker, bead worker Diane Motah, craftsperson Lee Motah, historian, narrator Haddan Nauni, singer Rose Nauni, craftsperson Leslie Niedo, bead worker Frank Oberly, narrator Mary Oberly, craftsperson Sam "Doc" Peweardy, singer Bill Poafpybitty, graphics, sculptor Richard Ralph Poafpybitty, 1963-1996, actor Sarah Pohosucut, historian Henry Pratt, flute player, dancer, singer Leonard Riddles, artist Kenneth Saupitty, narrator Gene Sovo, war dancer Junior Sovo, war dancer Margie Sovo, moccasin maker Jerome Tahawah, singer Edmond Tate, dancer Joyce "Doc" Tate Nevaquaya, 1932-1996, flute player, dancer, artist Jermone Tahawah, singer May Tonips, beadworker, graphics, sculptor Rick Tosee, dancer George Wallace, singer Juanita Wallace, singer Eva Watchataker, beadworker George "Woogee" Watchataker, dancer, flute player Junior Weryackwe Eva Weryackwe Patricia Whitewolf, shawl maker Sheryle Whitewolf, dancer Elmer Winnerchy, 1917-1986, singer Evelyn Winnerchy, 1917-1996, dancer Prairie Sac & Fox Tribe Bill Grass John Gakey Shannon Franklin Omer Jefferson, Jr. Kate Walker Winnie Gibson Delphine Foreman Sarah Riley Sharon Byers Bill Foreman Jerry Nanaeto Kimberly Nanaeto Harriet Nanaeto Barbara Hawkins Kartherine Franklin Ronnie Harris Sandy Harris R.J. Harris Merle Boyd Tammy Boyd Pamela Boyd Mabel Harris George Harris Leona Starr Jimmy Starr James L. Starr Leota Black Carl Butler Cecil Littlehead Clarissa Littlehead Oma Patrick Irene Harris Georgianna LeClair Teresa LeClair Larry Blanchard Linda Standing Karen "Candy" Hunter Henry O. Hunter Douglas Franklin Dino Riley George Switch Jessica Patterson Muriel Patterson Valerie Patterson Carol Patterson Frances Coker Richard Mullake Kay Kay Goodeagle Mary Clark Donald Marland Mary Mack Guy Wakalee Huge Wakalee Marilyn Thurman Herschel Tiger Jack Thorpe Lee Bass, Jr. Elmer Manatowa, Jr. Northern Plains Northern Cheyenne Harry Littlebird, Sr., gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Annie Joyce Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Richard Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game Serena Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Limona Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Rose Ann Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Ginger Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Theresa Brady, dancer, gourd dance, arts & crafts, cook Curtis Brady, dancer, gourd dance, hand game Steve Brady, dancer, gourd dance, hand game Eggonn Brady, dancer, gourd dance, hand game Elsie Wick, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Donna Wick, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Christine Wick, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts James Wick, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Dennis Wick, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Ernest King, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Grover Wolfvoice, 1890-1978, hand game, arts & crafts Dale Brady, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Joe Lonewolf, dancer, gourd dance, arts & crafts, singer Crawford Lonewolf, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, singer Charles Brady, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Arnie Brady, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Hilda Manley, dance, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook James Littlebird, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Harriet Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Geofredo Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, singer Clinton Birdhat, dancer, hand game, singer Marlene Belly Mule, dancer, gourd dance, arts & crafts, cook Ruth Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Stacey Gwen Littlebird, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts Rose Medicine Elk, hand game, arts & crafts, cook John Medicine Elk, Sr., gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer John Killsontop, Sr., gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Rose Killsontop, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Mike Bearcamesout, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Robert Bearchum, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Robert Redwoman, hand game, arts -- & -- crafts, singer Mary Redwoman, hand game, arts & crafts, cook Elmer Fightingbear, dancer, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Tommy Rockroads, dancer, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Dave Glenmora, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Wilson Brady, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Tim Littleboy, dancer, hand game, arts & crafts Webby Runsabove, dancer, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Billy Runsabove, dancer, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Fernando Littlebird, dancer, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer Steve Littlebird, gourd dance, hand game, arts & crafts, singer, coordinator Northwest Coast Les Houck Merle Holmes Charles Rick Charles McKnight Edmund Ben Delores Pigsley Archie Ben Paul Jackson Shirley Walker Raymond Ben Judy McKnight Melvin McKnight Bunni Houck Jerry Running Foxe Paulene Rick Joe McKnight Randy Rick Boby Dumont Victoria Ben Dave Harley Carlene Easter Delbert Bell Caroline Easter Alaska Federation of Natives Judy Brady Herman Davis Ruth Farquhar Sharon Frank Larry Garrity Laura Eliz Joseph Larry Judy Alice Kitka Marla Kitka Donna Lang Dorothy Lord Tim McGraw Lillian Nielsen Mike Spoon Martin Strand, Jr. Martina Strand Marlene Thomas Cynthia Williams Ethel Williams Karin Williams Janice Williams Isabella Brady Ethel Makinen George Ramos Marie Thiemeyer Margy Johnson Southwest Amos Beatty Jimmy Thompson Charles Henry Ron Quay Wilkie Dazen John Chissay Mike Cooley Pat Cooley Bruce Cooley Theresa Truesdell Myrna Tessay Wilfred Peaches Manuelita Early Jerry Lupe Mike Truesdell Bernice Endfield Lula Machuse Azlie Lupe Pheobe Gooday Nelson Lupe, Sr. Shirleen Bullock Beverly Machuse June Marie Dale Ophelia Peaches Maria Endfield Umatilla Traditional Long House Group from Pendleton, Oregon Edith K. McCloud, narrator, bead worker Lillian E. Hoptowit, craftsperson, bead worker Terry L. Hoptowit, dancer Rosie McCloud, dancer Eliza B. Nez, dancer Joseph P. Tias, dancer Bernadette B. Nez, dancer Anthony G. Hoptowit Sr., crafts Anna Marie Brown, buckskin worker James Hoptowit, dancer Donna B. Nikolaide, dancer, assist. Willard D. Showay, singer Arthur Williams, singer, crafts-beadwork Lonnie R. Selam Sr., singer William A. Johnson Sr., feather worker Mrs. Arthur Williams, bead worker Phillip Jackson, dancer, assist. Eliza Bill, coordinator Norma June Mosquito, dancer Beksee Mosquito, singer, drummer John Willard Hoptowit, dancer Maisie McCloud, dancer David Dean McKay, dancer Babette Cowapoo, dancer Ellen Taylor, dancer Julie Taylor, dancer Alberta Taylor, dancer Ellen Johnson, bead worker Cidric Bill, dancer Anthony G. Hoptowit Jr., dancer Emile Bill, dancer Robert Bill, dancer Sheila Bill, dancer Sonny Gail McCloud, dancer Angie McCloud, dancer Raphael Bill, dancer, assist. Veva E. Bill, storyteller Sylvester Selam, dancer Gabriel Selam, singer Sandy Sampson, dancer, narrator, sign language The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Indian Nation of Toppenash, Washington will also be featured. Simon Sampson is the coordinator. We will feature the Ute Reservation led by Gwen Mojado, the Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada led by Harold Wyatt, and the Klamath Tribe of Oregon led by Leonard Norris. Northern California Miwok Tribe William Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Cora Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Margaret Villa, dancer, lecturer, jewelry maker Theresa Coy, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Carl Mathiesen, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Inez Mathiesen, dancer, lecturer, hand game player David Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Ronnie Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player James Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Norman Franklin, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Robert Coy, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Elaine Barber, dancer, lecturer, hand game player Dorothy Stanley, food demonstration, lecturer Dwight Zutchke, dancer, lecturer Wintun Tribe Mary Norton, food sales Frances McDaniel, basket maker Pomo Tribe Elsie Allen, 1899-1990, basket maker, Ukiah, California Yurok Tribe Elaine Glairy, jewelry maker Mary Birchfield, food sales Ollie Foseide, 1921-, basket maker, Hoopa, California Warren Abbott, food sales, dancer Lareta James, dancer, singer Dewey George, 1899-1985, boat maker, dance leader, McKinleyville, California Rosie Silva, dancer, singer Julius Aubrey, boat making assistant, dancer Oscar Taylor, net maker, singer, dancer Eileen Figueroa, basket maker, singer Sam Jones, 1913-1996, stick game player Mark Sundberg, stick game player, dancer, canoe assistant Lisa Sundberg, dancer, jewelry maker Joy Sundberg, Northern California coordinator, lecturer Karok Tribe Charlie Tom, singer, drummer, dancer Jo Peters, 1923-, jewelry maker, basket maker, lecturer, Hoopa, California Tammy Peters, dancer, jewelry maker Laura George, guide, assistant Lorna Dodge, lecturer, guide, assistant Tolowa Tribe Billy Richards, dancer Mark Richards, dancer Nicole Richards, dancer Loren Bommelyn, 1956-, lead singer, Fort Dick, California Fred Moorehead, lead singer Betty Green, dance assistant Kim Richards, dancer Tanya Richards, dancer Ronnie Richards, dancer Marvin Richards, dancer Denise Lopez, dancer, guide Denise Richards, dancer, guide Pam Mattz, dancer Joan Richards, food sales Darlene Richards, food sales Lorene Richards, dancer William Richards, food sales Viola Richards, food sales Bill Bommelyn, dancer Walter Richards, singer Lila Moorehead, sand bread maker, cook Hupa Tribe Merve George, band leader, dancer Eleanor Abbott, language class leader Andy Andrioli, lecturer, guitar player, dancer Kim Yerton, dancer, learning center assistant Janice Yerton, learning center assistant Endora Saxson, dancer Mike Waterman, drummer Doug Duncan, lead guitar player George Disdy, guitar player Ann Taylor, assistant Pat Andrioli, assistant Paiute Tribe Joseph Saulque, lecturer, historian Film and Video Presentation Vern Korbe Carol Korbe Dick O'Rourke Lorraine O'Rourke Brian Tripp Dolly Tripp Daniel O'Rourke Klamath Tribe Leonard Norris, Jr., Coordinator Cecil L. Gallagher Nick Kimbal Charlie Bates Rhonda Jimenez LaNell L. Jackson Rose Mary Tree Top Jean Tina Bates Bill L. Jackson Anna Marie Jackson Valgene Teeman Marc McNair Tchinook Tribe of Oregon Karleen F. McKenzie Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Leslie Minthorn, Coordinator Quileute Tribe Robert Bojorcas, 1943-, Coordinator, Eugene, Oregon
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
CFCH.SFF.1976, Series 6
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Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1976 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections