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Drawing made by a Comanche Indian

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22.4 cm x 29.6 cm; 8 13/16 in x 11 5/8 in
image: 15.3 cm x 20.5 cm; 6 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
drawing
Object Type:
Place Made:
United States
North America
Date made:
ca 1880
ca 1869
ca 1882
Subject:
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Ledger Drawings
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.50
Catalog number:
2008.0175.050
Accession number:
2008.0175
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1868
“Drawing made by a Comanche Indian”
[Title given by collector Dr. Edward Palmer]
Media: Colored inks on paper
This drawing of a Comanche warrior was likely prepared and collected in 1868 at the Kiowa and Comanche Agency in present-day Oklahoma. The artist’s representation of a warrior on horseback follows a tradition of pictographic imagery which presents the subject on one plane without the illusion of depth. Here both of the warrior’s legs and leg sashes are imaged on the viewer’s side of the horse.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Drawing made by a Kiowa Indian

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 30 cm x 22.4 cm; 11 13/16 in x 8 13/16 in
image: 16.9 cm x 11.5 cm; 6 5/8 in x 4 1/2 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Place Made:
United States
Date made:
ca 1880
ca 1869
ca 1882
Subject:
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Ledger Drawings
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.51
Catalog number:
2008.0175.051
Accession number:
2008.0175
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1868
“Drawing made by a Kiowa Indian”
(Title given by collector Dr. Edward Palmer)
Media: Pencil on paper
This Kiowa Indian drawing was likely prepared and collected in 1868 at the Kiowa and Comanche Agency in present-day Oklahoma. Non-Indians were known to have offered paper and illustrating equipment to Plains Indians as early as the 1830s. The drawing displays a Kiowa warrior’s head and neck ornament (possibly a peace medal), and his leg sashes.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Cheyenne Pictures. Soldiers Charging on Sioux and Cheyennes.

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 26.2 cm x 36.1 cm; 10 5/16 in x 14 3/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
North America
Date made:
ca 1894
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
GA*08109
Catalog number:
GA*08109
Accession number:
1897.031963
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1894
“Cheyenne Pictures. Soldiers Charging on Sioux and Cheyennes.”
Pencil and colored pencil
This drawing of U.S. Army cavalry soldiers in a charge displays the uniformity of the colors, equipment, and methods of the military. The soldiers fire their rifles at the Sioux and Cheyenne targets ahead of them. Some of these drawings are so accurate that the specific unit uniforms and types of firearms can be identified.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

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Cheyenne Pictures. Cheyennes Charging on U.S. Troops

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 25 cm x 33.2 cm; 9 13/16 in x 13 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
North America
Date made:
ca 1894
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
GA*08110
Catalog number:
GA*08110
Accession number:
1897.031963
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1894
“Cheyenne Pictures. Cheyennes Charging on U.S. Troops.”
Pencil, colored pencil, ink and watercolor
The Cheyenne Indians pictured in this drawing are displayed in identifiable warrior society clothing. The warriors ride at a gallop, the hoof marks indicating movement, while firing their rifles at the U.S. troops. Two riders lean low behind the necks of their trained war horses shielding themselves from the bullets flying in all directions.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Buffalo Chase

Original artist:
Shave Head
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11.4 cm x 18.1 cm; 4 1/2 in x 7 1/8 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.59
Accession number:
2008.0175
Catalog number:
2008.0175.059
Description:
Shave Head, or O-uk-ste-uh,
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
“Buffalo Chase”
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Pencil, colored pencil, and ink
Cheyenne warriors participate in the challenge of the buffalo chase. Four warriors, bows drawn and ready, ride close to the buffalo in order to kill the buffalo with one well directed arrow.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Cheyenne Pictures. Warrior Killing a Soldier

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 26.5 cm x 33.5 cm; 10 7/16 in x 13 3/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
North America
Date made:
ca 1894
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
GA*08112
Catalog number:
GA*08112
Accession number:
1897.031963
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1894
“Cheyenne Pictures. Standing Elk’s Horse Killed in Fight with Troops.”
Pencil, ink, and watercolor
The central focus of this image is a wounded horse, bleeding from head and rump, being fired on by U.S. troops at the right. Standing Elk, with his name glyph above him, has dismounted and appears to be safe from the rifle shots. The suggestion of concern by the warrior indicates the high value placed on horses by Plains tribesmen.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Buffalo Chase and Encampment

Original artist:
Bear's Heart
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 12.7 cm x 20.6 cm; 5 in x 8 1/8 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.54
Catalog number:
2008.0175.054
Accession number:
2008.0175
Description:
Bear's Heart, or Nock-ko-ist,
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
"Buffalo Chase and Encampment"
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Colored pencil, ink, colored ink, and watercolor
This drawing shows an encampment, and men and women courting outside their tipis. The men are dressed in black and the women in blue and green. Above them, in another level of the story drawing, are warriors on a buffalo hunt. Three riders prepare to kill the buffalo, with bows drawn and ready.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Indians discovery U.S. Cavalry

Original artist:
Koba
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 12.6 cm x 20.4 cm; 4 15/16 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.52
Catalog number:
2008.0175.052
Accession number:
2008.0175
Description:
Koba aka Wild Horse (Kiowa),
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
"Indian Discovery of U.S. Cavalry"
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Colored pencil, ink, and watercolor
The focus of this drawing by Koba is a Kiowa warrior coming down from his lookout hill. He carries a pair of field glasses (either a trade item or possibly taken from an enemy combatant) which assisted him in the discovery of the cavalry unit riding nearby. The Kiowa camp below is at rest; tribesmen welcome the scout's return and warning.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Hunting Buffalo

Original artist:
Shave Head
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 12.8 cm x 20.5 cm; 5 1/16 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.57
Accession number:
2008.0175
Catalog number:
2008.0175.057
Description:
Shave Head, or O-uk-ste-uh (Cheyenne),
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
“Hunting Buffalo”
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Colored pencil and colored ink
Shave Head uses a two-level drawing shows a buffalo hunt with four wounded animals, and a separate hunt and the wounding of an elk. The Cheyenne warriors wear full headdress and four of the five also wear their mountain lion bow and quiver, symbolically powerful pieces of hunting gear.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Cheyenne Pictures. 'High Wolf' kills a Shoshone or Snake Indian.

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 25 cm x 33.8 cm; 9 13/16 in x 13 5/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
North America
Date made:
ca 1894
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
GA*08113
Catalog number:
GA*08113
Accession number:
1897.031963
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1894
“Cheyenne Pictures. High Wolf Kills a Shoshonee or Snake Indian.”
Pencil, colored pencil, ink and watercolor
This drawing shows a mounted warrior with a name glyph - a symbol for the personal name “High Wolf” - riding victoriously over a fallen Snake (Shoshone) warrior, identified by his shield. The artist depicts High Wolf counting coup on his enemy by showing a riding whip (quirt) touching the shield of the fallen Shoshone warrior. Counting coup - in this instance touching an adversary in battle - was considered an act of bravery that could gain war honors.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

On the Lookout for Game

Original artist:
Koba
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 12.7 cm x 20.5 cm; 5 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.58
Accession number:
2008.0175
Catalog number:
2008.0175.058
Description:
Koba, aka Wild Horse,
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
"On the Lookout for Game"
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Colored pencil, ink, and watercolor
This illustration by Koba shows a band of Kiowa traveling to the right. Both men and women carry various supplies, bow and quiver cases, rifles, and umbrellas (a popular trade item). The route of the band is imaged using dashes on the ground. A scout keeps a lookout on the highest hill. The Kiowa hunt on foot, in the old way, though they use both old and new weapons.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Council (or more properly, Sun Dance or Medicine Lodge)

Original artist:
Bear's Heart
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 12.8 cm x 20.4 cm; 5 1/16 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.56
Accession number:
2008.0175
Catalog number:
2008.0175.056
Description:
Bear's Heart, or Nock-ko-ist (Cheyenne),
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
"Council" (or more properly, Sun Dance or Medicine Lodge)
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Colored pencil, ink, colored ink, and watercolor
The drawing of a Sun Dance or Medicine Lodge gathering offers a partial view of one moment in the most sacred of Plains Indian ceremonies. The event is represented here by the Sun Dance lodge with its cloth and tree-branch offerings flying. The people stand outside to bear witness to the sacred offerings being made, while four painted Sun Dancers stand ready to make their sacrifices inside. Four men, probably warrior society officers, stand guard over the ceremony.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Buffalo Chase

Original artist:
Wohaw
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11.4 cm x 18.1 cm; 4 1/2 in x 7 1/8 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Engraving
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.53
Catalog number:
2008.0175.053
Accession number:
2008.0175
Description:
Wohaw, aka Beef, Wolf Robe, Gu hau de (Kiowa),
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
"Buffalo Chase"
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Pencil, colored pencil, and watercolor
Wohaw's drawing shows a party of Kiowa warriors participating in a buffalo hunt. The warriors ride tightly together behind the herd. One buffalo has been successfully killed.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

In Pursuit of Game

Original artist:
Shave Head
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11.4 cm x 18 cm; 4 1/2 in x 7 1/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Engraving
Place Made:
United States: Florida, Anastasia Island, Fort Marion
Date made:
ca 1875-1878
Subject:
Ledger Drawings
Communications
Art
Cultures & Communities
Military
ID Number:
2008.0175.55
Accession number:
2008.0175
Catalog number:
2008.0175.055
Description:
Shave Head, or O-uk-ste-uh (Cheyenne),
drawn between 1875 and 1878 at Fort Marion, Florida
“In Pursuit of Game”
Collected by Richard Henry Pratt about 1878
Pencil, colored pencil, ink and colored ink
This drawing shows two Cheyenne warriors hiding and hunting in a wooded area. Buffalo, elk, a turkey, and a flying bird are present. One of the warriors points his rifle towards the elk and buffalo. The other warrior aims his arrow at the flying bird.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Warrior Killing a Soldier

Original artist:
unknown
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 25.8 cm x 36 cm; 10 3/16 in x 14 3/16 in
Object Name:
drawing
Object Type:
Drawings
Place Made:
North America
Date made:
ca 1875
Date made:
ca 1894
Subject:
Art
Communications
Cultures & Communities
Military
Ledger Drawings
National Treasures exhibit
Related Publication:
Kendrick, Kathleen M. and Peter C. Liebhold. Smithsonian Treasures of American History
Publication title:
Treasures of American History online exhibition
Publication author:
National Museum of American History
Publication URL:
http://americanhistory.si.edu/treasures
ID Number:
GA*08111
Accession number:
1897.031963
1897.31963
Catalog number:
GA*08111
Description:
Unknown artist, about 1894
“Cheyenne Picture. Warrior Killing a Soldier.”
Ink and watercolor
This drawing shows the victory of a Cheyenne warrior over a U.S. Army soldier. The artist depicts the warrior counting coup on his enemy by touching the fallen soldier with his riding whip (quirt). Counting coup - in this instance touching an adversary in battle - was considered an act of bravery that could gain war honors. This single event took place during a larger battle against many adversaries, as indicated by the large number of rifles at the left.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
National Treasures exhibit
Ledger Drawings
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Ledger Drawing

Donor:
Michael Epstein, Non-Indian
Rhoda Epstein, Non-Indian
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite, colored pencil
Techniques:
Drawn, colored
Dimensions:
12.8 x 9 cm
Culture/People:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Plains; USA, Canada (inferred)
Site Name:
Plains
Date Created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
26/1538
Collection History:
Formerly in the collection of Michael and Rhoda Epstein; donated to NMAI by Mr. and Mrs. Epstein in 2002.
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Ethnographic Items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
Visitor Tag(s):

Ledger drawing

Artists/Makers:
Zotom (Biter/Zo-tom/Paul Caryl Zotom), Kiowa, 1853-1913
Donor:
Eleanor Sherman Fitch, Non-Indian, 1876-1959
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite, crayon
Techniques:
Drawn
Dimensions:
26.3 x 19.8 cm
Culture/People:
Kiowa
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos); Saint Augustine; Saint Johns County; Florida; USA
Site Name:
Fort Marion (Castillo de San Marcos)
Date Created:
1875-1878
Catalog Number:
20/6235
Collection History:
Commissioned and annotated by Colonel Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924, US Army), who conducted educational experiments with Native prisoners at Fort Marion before going on to found the Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania; sent to General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) by Pratt to solicit support for Indian education efforts; inherited by Philemon Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) or other family members; subsequently inherited by General Sherman's granddaughter, Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) and donated to MAI by Miss Fitch in 1943.
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Ethnographic Items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne, 1866

Creator:
Roman Nose (Lakota chief)
Annotator:
Strong, Samuel E
White, Charles C
Physical description:
1 disbound volume of 83 drawings+ 3 pages of notes : graphite, colored pencil, and ink ; 20 x 32 cm
Culture:
Lakota
Cheyenne Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Type:
Ledger drawings
Collection descriptions
Date:
1866
Local number:
NAA MS 1303
Summary:
Ledger book of drawings, now disbound, with scenes of warfare, horse raiding, and a few of courting. The book contains drawings by multiple artists, probably both Lakota and Cheyenne, based on the events and war medicine depicted, esp. shield designs. Inscriptions in the volume give the history of acquisition and identify activities in each scene. The identifications are often in error regarding the nature of the scene and the tribal identity of the enemies
Inscription on the final drawing, NAA INV 11013402, indicates that all explanations were provided by Charles C. White, also known as Fast Horse, former Sioux interpreter at Pine Ridge Agency
Cite as:
Manuscript 1303, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Ledger book of drawings, probably Lakota and Cheyenne 1866
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Additional Online Media:

Pochoir print of Jack Hokeah drawing of buffalo dance, 1929

Creator:
Hokeah, Jack 1902-1969
Physical description:
1 painting : watercolor applied with pochoir ; 89 x 72 cm
Culture:
Kiowa Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Type:
Ledger drawings
Paintings
Date:
1929
Local number:
NAA INV 09064600
NAA MS 7536
OPPS NEG 92-11393
Summary:
Inscription on verso reads: "The Buffalo Dance."
Cite as:
Manuscript 7536, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five 1929
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Pochoir print of Jack Hokeah drawing of hummingbird dance, 1929

Creator:
Hokeah, Jack 1902-1969
Physical description:
1 painting : watercolor applied with pochoir ; 89 x 72 cm
Culture:
Kiowa Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Type:
Ledger drawings
Paintings
Date:
1929
Local number:
NAA INV 09064700
OPPS NEG 92-11411
NAA MS 7536
Summary:
Inscription on verso reads: "The Humming Bird Dance."
Cite as:
Manuscript 7536, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Pochoir prints of ledger drawings by the Kiowa Five 1929
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

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