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Typewriter

Type:
typewriter
Accession Number:
2009.0004.0008
Description:
tyewriter and case/Frank Jackson collection
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Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
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Yost 1 Typewriter

Maker:
Yost Writing Machine Company
Measurements:
overall: 10 in x 12 in x 15 in; 25.4 cm x 30.48 cm x 38.1 cm
Object Name:
typewriter
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
Typewriters
ID Number:
ME*314928
Catalog number:
314928
Accession number:
212904
Description:
This is a Yost Typewriter manufactured by the Yost Writing Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut. The typewriter is the Yost 1, which was first produced in 1887. The machine is an upstriking non-visible typewriter, but unlike the Sholes and Glidden design before it, the types were held to the side of the machine rather than hanging below. Resting against an inkpad, the key would pivot out horizontally before rising up vertically to strike the faceted platen. The double keyboard consists of 8 rows of keys in the QWERTY arrangement, the three upper black keys are upper case letters, and the three lower white keys are lowercase characters. The top row of keys is symbols and the second row is the numbers.
George W.N. Yost worked with a variety of early typewriting companies including Remington and Caligraph before starting his own company. The Yost Writing Machine Company operated from 1887 until 1924, when it ended production of its last typewriter model, the Yost 12. The September 30, 1895 New York Times obituary for George Yost reveals an interesting aspect of Yost’s later life. “Although a shrewd man of business, Mr. Yost had a tendency in his nature which led him into abstract speculation and made him a devoted Spiritualist.” The biggest example of Yost’s Spirtualist activities is a book entitled “Posthumous Memoirs of Helena Petrovna Blatatsky from the Spirit World upon the typewriter independent of contact under the supervision of G. W. N. Yost to bring the things of truth and affirm the continuity of life and activity of the soul immortal” which was composed on a new Yost typewriter during a séance in which noted Spiritualist Helena Blatatsky was claimed to have materialized.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
Typewriters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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typewriter

Manufacturer:
Adler Werke
Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
typewriter
Credit Line:
Gift of Barry Friedman and Patricia Pastor
Accession Number:
1986-99-17-a,b
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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typewriter

Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
typewriter
Credit Line:
Gift of Barry Friedman and Patricia Pastor
Accession Number:
1986-99-20-a,b
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Typewriter (a) comprising mechanics set in black metal housing on flat leather-covered base; open keyboard; black ribbon. Black plastic keys with metal rims. Black leather-covered lid (b) with handle at front.
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Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
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Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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Olivetti Studio 64 typewriter

Medium:
metal, plastic, paint
National Origin:
American
Type:
Typewriter
Accession Number:
2004.0007.0001
Description:
Science fiction writer Octavia Butler wrote her fantasy stories using this typewriter.
Octavia Butler was the first African American women to gain national recognition as a science fiction writer. In 1979 she wrote her first novel, "Kindred," a time travel novel in which a contemporary African American woman is transported back to slavery. She was one of the first science fiction writers to examine race and gender in her work. In 1995 Butler became the first science fiction writer to receive the coveted "Genius" Grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
This artifact was included in the exhibition, "All the Stories Are True: African American Writers Speak," held at the Anacostia Community Museum, from June-December 2004.
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Anacostia Community Museum Collection
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Anacostia Community Museum
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Typewriters (series title)

Collector:
Warshaw, Isadore d. 1969
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Topic:
Typewriters
Summary:
This portion of the Warshaw collection remains unprocessed. At this time, there is no finding aid available. Researchers interested in these materials should consult the survey forms for the collection. Any questions should be directed to the reference archivist or collection specialist.
Cite as:
Typewriters, Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, box ##, folder ###, digital file number ####
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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana ca. 1724-1977
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
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Typewriter

Media/Materials:
Metal, wood, plastic
Techniques:
Commercially produced/manufactured
Dimensions:
35 x 35.5 x 19 cm
Culture/People:
Non-Indian
Object Type:
Art and Printing tools
Place:
New York City, Manhattan; New York County; New York; USA (inferred)
Island Name:
Manhattan Island
Date Created:
1915-1916
Catalog Number:
26/2904
Collection History:
Formerly owned by George Gustav Heye; maintained by NMAI as memorabilia and catalogued as part of the NMAI collections in 2003.
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Ethnographic Items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Underwood Model 5

Maker:
Underwood Typewriter Company
Physical Description:
metal (body material)
Measurements:
overall: 12 in x 18 in x 12 in; 30.48 cm x 45.72 cm x 30.48 cm
Object Name:
typewriter
Date made:
1914
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Typewriter
Office Machines
Artifact Walls exhibit
American Enterprise
ID Number:
ME*312108
Accession number:
161692
Catalog number:
312108
Description:
The Underwood Model 5, introduced in 1899, is the result of almost thirty years of innovation and improvements in typewriter manufacture. It became the ubiquitous office machine for another thirty years, and its sales led Underwood to dominate the market. The Model 5 became the modern standard of how a typewriter worked and what it looked like.
The first successful commercial typewriter, developed by Christopher Scholes and Carlos Glidden, was brought to the public in 1874 by the Remington Company. Two elements from that first machine remained dominant in the design of eventual typewriters: the QWERY keyboard, a pattern of letters on the keyboard, and the telegraph type key movement. At first sales were slow, but the typewriter industry grew as businesses expanded along with their need to retain records, and process paperwork at fast speeds. More and more people, mostly women, learned the new skill of typing, creating a new class of clerical worker, according to historian JoAnne Yates.
There were a handful of typewriter manufacturers by the end of the 1880s such as Remington, a leader in the industry, L.C. Smith & Brothers, Caligraph, Hammond, and a number of smaller firms. As the number of manufacturers grew, so too did the improvements, including the addition of a shift key to activate upper and lower case letters, the size and weight had been reduced but until 1895, but typists could not see what they had typed until the typed page advanced forward.
In the early 1890s, Franz X Wagner, a German immigrant, engineered the first reliable "visible" typewriter that allowed the typist to see the text as they typed. Wagner had already designed several earlier typing machines. John T. Underwood, producer of office supplies such as carbon paper and ribbons, purchased Wagner's design and manufactured it as the Underwood Model 1 in 1895. Unlike earlier machines, which had an up strike type bar from underneath the paper, the new design in
After six years and two other models that improved touch, and tab function and provided quieter operation, Underwood came out with the Model 5 in 1900. Compared to earlier machines of the 1870s, this machine is plain. The machine in the collection was produced in 1910. It has a black frame with gold lettering and stripping.
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
Artifact Walls exhibit
American Enterprise
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Underwood Elliott Fisher Company Typewriter (with special keyboard)

Medium:
metal, leather, ink, plastic
Type:
Typewriter
Date:
early 20th-mid 20th Century
Accession Number:
2003.0032.0369a
Description:
The Underwood Typewriter Company began manufacturing typewriters in 1895. In the 1920s it introduced portable models. Throughout the history of typewriter manufacture in the United States, customization was an option for individuals and companies with particular typing needs; typewriter keyboards could be modified to print in such diverse "languages" as Chinese, Japanese, Braille, Shorthand, as well as various numeric keyboards. Dr Turner had his typewriter customized with keys bearing International Phoenetic Alphabet symbols to allow for phonetic typing of certain dialectic sounds, which enabled him to transcribe his work efficiently.
See more items in:
Lorenzo Dow Turner Collection
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
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Royal Model KMM, ca 1940

Maker:
Royal Typewriter Company
Measurements:
overall: 9 in x 10 in x 14 1/2 in; 22.86 cm x 25.4 cm x 36.83 cm
Object Name:
typewriter
Date made:
1940
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
American Enterprise
ID Number:
ME*311904
Accession number:
156624
Catalog number:
311904
Description:
The Royal Typewriter Company manufactured this Royal Magic Margin typewriter around 1940. The typewriter’s patented Magic Margin design allowed the typist to set both the left and right hand margins with a simple push of a lever. With easy margin-switching, the Royal KMM could easily address envelopes, tabulate figures, and create tables.
The Royal Typewriter Company was founded in 1906 by Thomas Fortunes Ryan and Edward B. Hess, with Ryan providing the capital and Hess providing the inventiveness. Hess owned over 150 patents, many of which were assigned to the Royal Typewriter Company. Hess’s most noteworthy patents related to increasing the ease of typing, including an accelerating typebar, anti friction roller escapement, Magic Margins, and selective touch control.
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
American Enterprise
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Sholes, Glidden, & Soule Typewriter Patent Model

Inventor:
Sholes, C. Latham
Glidden, Carlos
Soule, Samuel W.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
brass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/4 in x 12 1/4 in x 12 1/8 in; 13.335 cm x 31.115 cm x 30.7975 cm
Object Name:
patent model, typewriter
Associated place:
United States: Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Date made:
1868-06
Patent date:
1868-06-23
Subject:
Typewriters
Computers & Business Machines
ID Number:
ME*251210
Catalog number:
251210
License number:
79265
Accession number:
48865
48865
Patent number:
79,265
Description:
This Sholes, Glidden, & Soule typewriter patent model was awarded patent number 79,265 on June 23rd, 1868. C. Latham Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and Samuel Soule were living in Milwaukee, Wisconsin when they began to make progress towards a commercially viable type-writing machine after several aborted attempts. The improvements named in this patent include a “better way of working type bars, of holding the paper on the carriage, of moving and regulating the movement of the carriage, of holding and applying the inking ribbon, a self adjusting platen, and a rest or cushion for the type-bars.” Many early typewriters used piano keys in their designs, including this model with only six keys.
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
Typewriters
Exhibition:
Inventing In America
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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No. 5 Oliver Standard Visible Typewriter

Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
Typewriter
Object Name:
Typewriter
Credit Line:
Gift of Martha Lamarque Sarno in memory of Eduardo Abril Lamarque
Accession Number:
1997-72-1
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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Design for Royal Typewriter

Draftsman:
Roland Stickney, American, 1892 - 1975
Designer:
Henry Dreyfuss, American, 1904–1972
Medium:
Gouache, pen and black ink, white chalk, graphite on cream illustration board
Culture:
American
Type:
industrial design
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Designed in:
New York City, USA
Date:
1944
Credit Line:
Gift of John Bruce
Accession Number:
1993-65-1
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Detailed rendering of standard black Royal Typewriter placed centrally on a blue background.
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Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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Hansen Writing Ball Patent Model

Maker:
Hansen, Hans R. M. J.
Inventor:
Hansen, Hans R. M. J.
Physical Description:
mahogany (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 in x 12 1/2 in x 10 in; 12.7 cm x 31.75 cm x 25.4 cm
Object Name:
patent model, typewriter
Associated place:
Danmark: København, Copenhagen
Date made:
1872-04-23
Patent date:
1872-04-23
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
Typewriters
ID Number:
ME*308874
Catalog number:
308874
License number:
125,952
Accession number:
89797
Patent number:
125,952
Description:
This typewriter patent model accompanied the patent application of Hans R. Malling J. Hansen of Copenhagen, Denmark in his patent application that received patent number 125,952 on April 23, 1872. The model only shows a portion of the machine, with three letters in the “type-ball.” This patent was one of the earlier designs of Hansen’s unique writing ball typewriter. In his patent Hansen claimed the combination of converging types arranged circularly that met at the same point. Hansen also claimed the use of a spring or electro-magnet as a means of paper carriage movement. The electromagnet in the typewriter operated by closing the circuit on each descent of the type before it makes it impression on the paper. Closing the circuit causes an attraction of the armature of the magnet, moving the drum before the type hits. After the drum moved a full line, the mechanism would move it down a line.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
Typewriters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Lynn's Portable

Artist:
Robert Cottingham, born New York City 1935
Medium:
woodcut
Dimensions:
image: 16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm) sheet: 22 x 21 in. (55.9 x 53.3 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
2004
Topic:
Still life\other\typewriter
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the artist
Object number:
2009.3.16
Copyright Credit Line:
© Robert Cottingham
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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[Olivetti Studio 64 typewriter ribbons]

Medium:
metal, plastic, paint
National Origin:
American
Type:
Typewriter Ribbon
Accession Number:
2004.0007.0002
Description:
Boxes of line ribbon for Science Fiction Octavia Butler's typewrighter.
Octavia Butler was the first African American women to gain national recognition as a science fiction writer. In 1979 she wrote her first novel, "Kindred," a time travel novel in which a contemporary African American woman is transported back to slavery. She was one of the first science fiction writers to examine race and gender in her work. In 1995 Butler became the first science fiction writer to receive the coveted "Genius" Grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
See more items in:
Anacostia Community Museum Collection
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum
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A.W. Nelson at a typewriter

Subject:
Nelson, A. W. (Andrew Walfrid)
Physical description:
1 photographic print : b&w ; 16 x 11 cm.
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1914 January 24
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)15967
Summary:
Photo is signed by Nelson on front: A.W. Nelson; author of "Yankee Swanson," Jan. 24th, 1914.
Handwritten note on verso (also in Nelson's hand): S.S. "Korea"; Honolulu H.J. Nov. 3rd, 1913; till min [?] syster [?] Hedda Holmgren; A.W. Nelson, Cmdr. S.S. "Korea"
See more items in:
Elmer Bischoff papers, 1914-1990
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
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Terence Robsjohn-Gibbings sitting with a typewriter

Subject:
Robsjohn-Gibbings, Terence Harold
Physical description:
1 photographic print : b&w ; 13 x 11 cm.
Type:
Photographs
Date:
between 1940 and 1949
Topic:
Portrait photography
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)15334
Summary:
Date based on approximate age of Robsjohn-Gibbings in photo.
Stamp on verso: Photograph by Rawlings.
Shows Robsjohn-Gibbings seated with his legs slung over the side of a chair, a binder in his lap and his hand on a typewriter.
See more items in:
Terence Harold Robsjohn-Gibbings papers, 1898-1977, bulk 1915-1977
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
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James Baldwin by His Typewriter, Istanbul 1966

Created by:
Sedat Pakay, Turkish, born 1945
Subject of:
James Baldwin, American, 1924 - 1987
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image and Sheet): 10 15/16 x 13 15/16 in. (27.8 x 35.4 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Place captured:
Istanbul, Turkey
Date:
1966
Topic:
African American
Literature
Photography
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2011.20.2
Rights:
Sedat Pakay © 1966
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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Corona Typewriter

Maker:
Corona Typewriter Company
Measurements:
overall: 6 in x 11 1/2 in x 9 1/2 in; 15.24 cm x 29.21 cm x 24.13 cm
Object Name:
typewriter
Date made:
1923-1925
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
Typewriters
Credit Line:
Immaculata School
ID Number:
ME*336759
Catalog number:
336759
Accession number:
1978.2479
Serial number:
590430
Description:
This Corona typewriter was manufactured by the Corona Typewriter Company, Inc. of Groton, New York sometime around 1923-1925. The typewriter is a front-striking model with a three row QWERTY keyboard, likely the Corona No. 3 although it lacks the “3” numbering on the frame below the spacebar. The Standard Typewriting Company began producing a folding model of typewriter in Groton around 1907.
The success of the Standard Typewriter Company’s Corona model typewriter prompted the company to change its named to the Corona Typewriting Company in 1914. In 1926 the company joined with the L. C. Smith & Brothers Typewriting company to become Smith-Corona. Smith-Corona manufactured typewriters and typewriter accessories throughout the 20th century, becoming Smith Corona Marchant in 1958. After two bankruptcies, Smith-Corona returned to operation in 2010 as a thermal paper manufacturing company.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanisms
Typewriters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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