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Trek 5500 bicycle used by Lance Armstrong in the 2000 Tour de France

User:
Armstrong, Lance
Maker:
Trek USA
Physical Description:
metal (part material)
rubber (part material)
Measurements:
overall: 40 in x 18 in x 65 in; 101.6 cm x 45.72 cm x 165.1 cm
Object Name:
bicycle
Date made:
2000
Used during certain stages:
2000-07-01 to 2000-07-21
Subject:
Sports & Leisure
Lance Armstrong
Bicycling
Bicycling
Racing
Event:
Tour de France
ID Number:
2005.0214.01
Accession number:
2005.0214
Catalog number:
2005.0214.01
Description:
American professional racing cyclist Lance Armstrong (b. 1971) may have written a book called It’s Not About the Bike, but his seven Tour de France victories, now annulled as a result of a 2012 investigation by the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), all benefited from increasingly advanced racing bicycles.
For almost a century, race bikes used steel tubing construction. Steel was stiff and durable, but was also relatively heavy. High-quality steel frames without wheels or components weighed around 3.75 to 4.5 lbs. Because a lighter bike has a significant advantage on long climbs in the mountains, bike manufacturers attempted to reduce weight as much as possible. During the 1980s, modern manufacturers began experimenting with lighter and more versatile construction materials such as aluminum alloys, titanium, and most recently, carbon fiber. Armstrong’s, now-voided, first Tour de France victory in 1999 was on a carbon fiber Trek 5500. The 5500 frame was still comparatively heavy by modern standards, weighing around 3.85 lbs. At the time of his second tour attempt in 2000, Armstrong was riding both the 5500 frame, as well as a lighter and more advanced 2.75 lb Trek 5900 frame for the mountain stages. Other weight savings and technological improvements found on both bicycles include a larger 1 1/8” steerer tube, a threadless headset, and 9-speed Shimano Dura Ace components.
Armstrong brought several bikes to the 2000 Tour de France. This particular bicycle was raced on some of the flatter stages, such as Stage 11 from Bagnères-de-Bigorre to Revel in Southwest France, as well as the final stage on the Champs-Élysées in Paris. During the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, Australia, Armstrong used this bike as a spare, but did not ride it in competition.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Sport and Leisure
Lance Armstrong
Bicycling
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Breezer 1 Mountain Bike

Maker:
Breezer Bicycles
Maker; designer:
Breeze, Joe
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
rubber (tires material)
blue (overall color)
aluminum (components material)
Measurements:
overall: 37 in x 29 in x 64 in; 93.98 cm x 73.66 cm x 162.56 cm
Object Name:
mountain bike
bicycle
Place made:
United States: California, Mill Valley
Date made:
1977
Subject:
Sports & Leisure
Bicycling
Bicycling
ID Number:
2012.0066.01
Catalog number:
2012.0066.01
Accession number:
2012.0066
Serial number:
JBX1
Description:
First prototype of the JBX1 "Breezer 1” mountain bike. Hand built by Joe Breeze in 1977, the JBX1 was the first bicycle frame designed specifically for mountain biking.
The “Breezer 1” was constructed with components that could withstand the repeated pounding of mountain bike riding, such as Araya brand 26” steel rims, Phil Wood hubs, Sun Tour derailleurs, and Dia-Compe brakes. The steel “riser” handlebars and Magura brand brake levers were repurposed from motorcycles and adapted to work with the “Breezer 1’s” stem and brake calipers. The large size of the Magura motorcycle levers provided increased braking leverage and was advantageous when trying to ride in wet conditions with slippery steel Araya rims. Other parts, such as the Sun Tour thumb shifters were adapted from five-speed touring bikes and only came in right hand models. The left side thumb shifter, which controlled the front derailleur, was a right hand shifter that was mounted backwards.
Prior to the construction of the “Breezer 1”, mountain bike racers would modify vintage cruiser bikes, nicknamed “clunkers”, with coaster or drum brakes, sturdier wheels with knobby “balloon tires”, and “fork braces” to keep the frames from bending under the stresses of off-road riding. Mountain bike riders in Marin County, California would race these “clunkers” down mountain trails in events called “Repack Races”. The term ”Repack” was coined because the hub-based brakes would inevitably overheat, lose their effectiveness, and have to be disassembled and repacked with fresh grease prior to another ride down the mountain.
Joe Breeze’s “Breezer 1” design served as a benchmark for mountain bikes to build and improve upon. In 1979 Tom Ritchey of Redwood City, California, started building fat-tire mountain bikes, which were sold by two veterans of the “Repack Races”, Gary Fisher and Charlie Kelly. In 1982, mountain bicycles were offered by two separate companies -- Specialized Bicycles came out with the Stumpjumper and Univega released the Alpina Pro. The following year, Gary Fisher founded his own mountain bicycle company, which sold bicycles under the brand "Gary Fisher" from 1983 to 2010.
The 1980s and 1990s saw mountain biking evolve from a niche sport to an International Cycling World Championship event in 1990. It became an Olympic event at the 1996 Atlanta games. Additionally, mountain biking became an increasingly popular amateur sport. Once only available from specialty shops, mountain bikes were suddenly being sold as recreation bikes at department stores and big box retailers.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Sport and Leisure
Bicycling
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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1965 Super Deluxe Sting-Ray Schwinn Bicycle

Maker:
Arnold, Schwinn and Co.
Object Name:
bicycle
Date made:
1965
Subject:
Transportation
Road Transportation
Credit Line:
Gift of Arnold, Schwinn & Co.
ID Number:
TR*326804
Catalog number:
326804
Accession number:
265701
Description:
In 1963, Schwinn introduced a low-slung child’s bicycle that had begun as a fad in southern California. The California custom bikes had small wheels, “Longhorn” handlebars, and a slim, elongated seat. The mass-produced Schwinn Sting-Ray was an instant success; it was perfect for wheelies, and the “banana” seat accommodated the rider and his “date.” The Sting-Ray came in vibrant colors, including Flamboyant Lime, Radiant Coppertone, Sky Blue, and Violet. As sales boomed, Schwinn added the Fastback and Manta Ray, several models for girls, and the Orange Krate, Apple Krate, Lemon Peeler, and Pea Picker. This bike was donated by the manufacturer.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Transportation, Road
Road Transportation
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Photographing Our Country Cousins

Artist:
William H. Rau, born Phildelphia, PA 1855-died Phildelphia, PA 1920
Publisher:
William H. Rau, born Phildelphia, PA 1855-died Phildelphia, PA 1920
Medium:
albumen silver prints mounted to stereographic card
Dimensions:
sheet and image (each): 3 1/8 x 3 1/4 in. (7.9 x 8.3 cm.) arched top
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1896-1903
Topic:
Figure(s) in exterior\rural
Architecture\vehicle\bicycle
Occupation\art\photographer
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment
Object number:
1994.91.243
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Bicycle pump

Physical Description:
cellulose nitrate (overall material)
metal (fittings material)
Measurements:
overall: 41.8 cm x 2.8 cm; 16 7/16 in x 1 1/8 in
Object Name:
bicycle pump
Place made:
United Kingdom: England
Subject:
Celluloid
Sports & Leisure
Bicycling
ID Number:
2006.0098.1565
Catalog number:
2006.0098.1565
Accession number:
2006.0098
Description (Brief):
A bicycle pump made of cream celluloid with metal fittings. It was made in England. A trademark etched into the barrel depicts a man in Elizabethan clothing holding a shield with the letters "R I."
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Celluloid
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Bicycle Race

Artist:
Elizabeth Olds, born Minneapolis, MN 1896-died Sarasota, FL 1991
Medium:
lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
image: 10 1/2 x 17 in. (26.5 x 43.0 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
n.d.
Topic:
Figure group
Travel\land\bicycle
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Audrey McMahon
Object number:
1968.98.21
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Man with bicycle, circa 1957

Creator:
Albert, Ethel Mary 1918-1989
Physical description:
1 slide : color
Type:
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Burundi
Mwaro (Burundi : Province)
Rusaka (Burundi)
Date:
1957
circa 1957
Topic:
Bicycles
Local number:
Image ID albert_papers_077
Summary:
Man and child with bicycle by the side of a road in Rusaka, Mwaro Province, Burundi. The date on the slide is APR 57
Cite as:
Ethel Mary Albert Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ethel M. Albert slides 1955-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Push toy bicycle

Maker:
Undetermined peoples
Medium:
Wire, plastic bag, paint
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 28.5 x 50 x 16 cm (11 1/4 x 19 11/16 x 6 5/16 in.)
Type:
Toy and Entertainment
Geography:
Free State, South Africa
Date:
1984-1987
Topic:
bicycle
male
Credit Line:
Gift of Kenneth and Bonnie Brown
Object number:
S009.18
Label Text:
Across Africa, toys are frequently made of wire and other recycled or found materials. Many have moving parts, and all demonstrate an extraordinary imagination. Their linear quality and lively sense of animation have influenced local artists and inspired multiple museum exhibitions. Entertaining toys in the form of sewing machines, bicyclists and figures paddling canoes are proving so popular in some areas that artists now devise easily packable versions for the tourist market.
See more items in:
National Museum of African Art Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art
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[Bicycle.] 6995 Interpositive.

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on glass
1 item, 4" x 5"
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900-1910
Topic:
Bicycles
Couples
Dwellings
Laundries
Local number:
RSN 27101
Notes:
Currently stored in box 3.2.53 [122], moved from [59]
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

Toy Bicycle Rider

Medium:
mixed media
Dimensions:
6 x 6 1/2 x 2 in. (15.2 x 16.5 x 5.1 cm)
Type:
Sculpture-Maquette
Date:
1869
Topic:
Object\toy\bicycle
Object\other\patent model
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Alan and Ann Rothschild
Object number:
2011.37.11
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
On View:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Luce Foundation Center, 3rd Floor, 21A
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Luce Foundation Center
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Luce Foundation Center, 3rd Floor
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Roper Steam Velocipede, about 1869

Maker:
Roper, Sylvester H.
Measurements:
overall: 3 15/16 ft x 2 1/8 ft x 6 9/16 ft; 1.1936 m x .64008 m x 2.0065 m
Object Name:
bicycle
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Date made:
ca 1869
Subject:
Road Transportation
Transportation
Credit Line:
Gift of John H. Bacon
ID Number:
1956.209499.01
Catalog number:
314809
Accession number:
209499
Description:
Sylvester Roper, a machinist and inventor in Massachusetts, built this steam velocipede and demonstrated it at fairs and circuses. It is believed to be the oldest existing American motorcycle. With its forged iron frame and wooden wheels, it resembles a velocipede, a popular bicycle of the late 1860s. The saddle served as a water tank for the boiler, which was heated by a firebox that burned charcoal. Twisting the handlebar controlled the throttle and brakes. Roper built several other steam vehicles, including another motorcycle in 1895, but he died just before the motor vehicle manufacturing industry got underway.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Transportation, Road
Road Transportation
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Draisine, ca. 1818

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
paint (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 42 in x 50 in x 41 in; 106.68 cm x 127 cm x 104.14 cm
Object Name:
bicycle, 1818
bicycle
Date made:
ca 1818
Subject:
Transportation
National Treasures exhibit
Road Transportation
Related Publication:
Kendrick, Kathleen M. and Peter C. Liebhold. Smithsonian Treasures of American History
Publication title:
Treasures of American History online exhibition
Publication author:
National Museum of American History
Publication URL:
http://americanhistory.si.edu/treasures
Credit Line:
Gift of Preston R. Bassett
ID Number:
TR*325369
Catalog number:
325369
325369
Accession number:
254379
Description:
In 1817, Karl Drais, a young baron and inventor in Baden (Germany), designed and built a two-wheel, wooden vehicle that he straddled and propelled by walking swiftly. A forester for the Grand Duke of Baden, Drais used his "lauf-maschine" (running machine) to inspect the Duke's forests--he could make his rounds more quickly and efficiently on wheels than on foot. The lauf-maschine soon became a novelty among Europeans, who named it the "draisine." Copies were made in cities across the continent, and rentals, races, and public demonstrations became popular forms of recreation and entertainment. In England, men and women took pleasure rides on a lighter, simpler version called the hobby horse. By 1818 the draisine craze reached the United States. Charles Wilson Peale, a well known portrait artist, helped to popularize the draisine by displaying one in his museum in Philadelphia. Many American examples were made, and rentals and riding rinks became available in eastern cities. Riding downhill at high speed was a particularly enjoyable activity that compensated for the draisine's lack of a propulsion mechanism. On both continents, however, the draisine fad ended by 1820. The high cost of the vehicle, combined with its lack of practical value, limited its appeal and made it little more than an expensive toy. Rough roads and accidents discouraged many riders and caused conflicts with local citizens. The draisine is historically significant because it was the first widely available vehicle that was not animal-powered, and it intrigued many people with the possibility of moving about on a personal, mechanized vehicle. But the success of two-wheelers would not become sustained until pedals were added to the front wheel some fifty years later. The exact origin of this draisine is unknown; it is a typical example dating from the late 1810s.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Transportation, Road
National Treasures exhibit
Road Transportation
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

[Bicycle.] 8479 Interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on glass
1 item, 4" x 5"
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900-1910
Topic:
Architecture
Baby carriages
Bicycles
Buildings
Local number:
RSN 27313
Notes:
Currently stored in box 3.2.54 [67]
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[Bicycles.] 02805 Interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
H.C. White Co
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on glass
1 item, 3 3/4" x 7"
Type:
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Date:
1900-1910
Topic:
Arches
Bicycles
Buildings
Sculpture
Towers
Local number:
RSN 8978
Video number 08150
Notes:
Currently stored in box 1.2.22 [8]
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[Bicycles.] 4823 Interpositive

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on glass
1 item, 4" x 5"
Type:
Photographs
Place:
Canada
Date:
1900-1910
Topic:
Bicycles
Buildings
Carriages
Horses
Mountains
Local number:
RSN 26559
Notes:
Currently stored in box 3.2.50 [106]
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

Bicycles and Carriage

Artist:
Howard Cook, born Springfield, MA 1901-died Santa Fe, NM 1980
Medium:
wood engraving
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Topic:
Figure group
Animal\horse
Architecture\vehicle\carriage
Architecture\vehicle\bicycle
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Barbara Latham
Object number:
1980.122.152
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Cycling Shoes

Wearer:
Hammer, Sarah
Maker:
Specialized Bicycle Components, Inc.
Physical Description:
synthetic leather (overall material)
silver (stripe; trim color)
carbon fiber (sole material)
black (sole color)
white (overall color)
Measurements:
overall (individual shoe): 10 1/8 in x 3 1/2 in; 25.7175 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
cycling shoes
Date made:
2010
Used date:
2010-2011
Subject:
Sports & Leisure
Cycling
Bicycling
ID Number:
2012.0212.02
Catalog number:
2012.0212.02
Accession number:
2012.0212
Description:
These cycling shoes were used by American track cycling World Champion Sarah Hammer (b. 1983) and were worn between 2010 and 2011. Manufactured by Specialized Bicycle Components, the shoes were first released in the winter of 2009 as a part of their top tier S-Works line of bicycles and equipment.
Hammer’s S-Works shoes incorporate several features that are specific to cycling footwear. The soles are made using carbon fiber, which is an extremely light but rigid material. A rigid material is preferred, since flexing under load reduces the rider’s power output as they perform their circular pedaling motion originating at the leg, through the shoe, pedal, and crankarm. A Shimano brand cycling cleat bolted to the sole of the shoe locks into a road cycling pedal, which allows the rider apply more power throughout the pedal stroke. The shoe’s uppers are constructed of synthetic leather, which is more resistant to stretching than real leather. The two dials on the uppers of the shoes are a proprietary system made by Boa Technology that independently tightens and loosens a steel lace and are easier for the wearer to adjust the fit of the shoe while riding than Velcro or laces.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Sport and Leisure
Bicycling
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

[Woman standing with bicycle. Active no. 21607 : photonegative.]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
American Stereoscopic Co
Physical description:
Film
1 item, 4" x 5"
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
1910
1900-1910
Topic:
Bicycles
Local number:
RSN 10625
Notes:
NOTE! REVERSE COPIED ON VIDEODISC! Same as RSN 10626
Currently stored in box 2.1.20 [116], moved from [108]
Company acc. no. 21613
Summary:
Wooded area in background
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

[Woman standing with bicycle. Active no. 21607 : photonegative.]

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
American Stereoscopic Co
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on film
1 item, 4" x 5"
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1900
1910
1900-1910
Topic:
Bicycles
Local number:
RSN 10626
Notes:
Same as RSN 10625
Currently stored in box 2.1.20 [116], moved from [108]
Company acc. no. 21613
Summary:
Wooded area in background
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH
Visitor Tag(s):

Bicycle Shop Sign

Artist:
Louis Simon, born Bessarabia, Russia 1884-died New York City 1970
Medium:
carved and painted wood, gesso, metal and rubber bicycle parts, marbles, and metal hardware
Dimensions:
34 1/2 x 14 3/4 x 23 1/2 in. (87.6 x 37.5 x 59.7 cm)
Type:
Sculpture
Folk Art
Date:
early 1930s
Topic:
Figure male
Architecture\vehicle\bicycle
Travel\land\bicycle
Miscellaneous\advertisement\bicycle
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Herbert Waide Hemphill, Jr. and museum purchase made possible by Ralph Cross Johnson
Object number:
1986.65.265
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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