Barbara Stevenson, born St. Louis, MO 1912-died 2006
oil on canvas
31 1/4 x 29 1/8 in. (79.3 x 74.1 cm.)
Barbara Stevenson painted Apple Vendor for the Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), a New Deal program created by the federal government to give financial and moral support to American artists during the Great Depression. Artists were encouraged to go out and paint "the American Scene," meaning they should record the look and feel of the country. This scene depicts an old man seated on a street corner, crate in front of him with piles of yellow and red apples for sale at "5 cents a piece." The man’s figure dominates the composition, creating a heroic and monumental presence. In the background the factory chimneys, a sign of industry and hope, strike a silhouette against the golden sky. Perhaps we can also sense optimism for the future in the inclusion of a mother and child in this scene, completing a generational timeline next to the apple vendor.
Figure(s) in exterior\urban
Figure male\full length
New Deal\Public Works of Art Project\Missouri
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the U.S. Department of Labor
overall: 1/2 in x 6 in x 3 7/8 in; 1.27 cm x 15.24 cm x 9.8425 cm
On their farm commune in upstate New York in the early 1970s, Ruth, her husband Steve and their fellow communards had to learn to use many new tools as they applied methods of food production, preparation, and preservation learned from alternative sources such as Mother Earth News, their food co-op’s cookbook, and their farming neighbors in the area. They would often buy their tools at second hand shops, farm sales, and yard sales in the area. The Mason jars, canning funnels (used to fill the Mason jars with food to be preserved (by canning), apple slicers, and books, such as Stalking the Wild Asparagus, were all tools new, but necessary to the new farmers and foragers of the 1970s and thereafter.
“Coming out of the 1960s, we were concerned about the war, where the country was going. . . [By] going to the farm, we would be accountable and have responsibility for our lives, for the way that we lived. .. . We had the Whole Earth Catalog, Mother Earth News. Reduce, reuse, recycle. We learned from the farm community. . . Be self-sufficient, live off the land. . . My whole life [on the commune] revolved around food. . . . We had a three-acre garden. . . canning and freezing. . .600 quarts of tomatoes , three 20 ft. freezers full [of] corn, broccoli, cabbage, potatoes, carrots“. . . . . . . “The Co-op opened a whole new world for us, things we’d never seen before. . . sprouts, mung beans. We used their cookbook. . .” —Ruth, a 1970s farm commune member, interview, 2011.
During the 1960s and 1970s, as waves of cultural and political change swept through American society, food became a tool of resistance, consciousness-raising, and self-expression. Embracing the motto “You are what you eat,” hippies, feminists, religious seekers, ethnic nationalists, and antiwar and civil rights activists rejected mass-marketed, mass-produced food, which they termed “slave” food, “corporate” food, and “white-bread,” as symbols of the establishment they rallied against. They questioned how the food Americans ate was produced, prepared, and consumed and advocated new models of food production and new diets. A major part of these movements were served, in the 1970s and forward, by the “back-to-the-landers,” those who left their mostly middle class or privileged lives to live “off the grid,” to feed themselves, to farm, to cook, to forage, to raise animals, to live self-sufficiently.
Joseph H. Hirshhorn, New York, 22 October 1958-17 May 1966
Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966
DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS. "Sculpture in Our Time: Collected by Joseph H. Hirshhorn," 5 May-23 August 1959, no. 28, p. 18 (not on tour).
SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, New York. "Modern Sculpture from the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection," 3 October 1962-6 January 1963, no. 103, p. 212.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Inaugural Exhibition," 4 October 1974-15 September 1975, no. 84.
HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Relief Sculpture: Selections from the Museum's Collection," 26 January-13 April 1986, no cat; checklist no. 7HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Relief Sculpture: Selections from the Museum's Collection," 26 January-13 April 1986, no cat; checklist no. 4.HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. "Relief Sculpture: Selections from the Museum's Collection," 26 January-13 April 1986, no cat; checklist no. 4..
MUSEUM OF NEW MEXICO, MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, SANTA FE. "Explorations in Bronze: Degas and Contemporary New Mexico Sculptors" 10 June 2005 - 18 September 2005.
REWALD, JOHN. Degas: Works in Sculpture, A Complete Catalogue (New York: Pantheon, 1944), no. 1, p. 19, ill. p. 33. (Illustration may not be HMSG's cast.)
REWALD, JOHN. Degas Sculpture: The Complete Works (New York: Abrams, 1956), no. 1, p. 141, fig. 1. (Illustration may not be HMSG's cast.)
UNSIGNED. Detroit News (3 May 1959), p. 25.
LERNER, ABRAM, et al. The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (New York: Abrams, 1974), pp. 68, 680, ill. 84.
RICHARD, PAUL. "A Matter of Great Relief," Washington Post (3 February 1986), Style, p. B4.
REWALD, JOHN. Degas's complete sculpture (San Francisco: Alan Wofsy Fine Arts, 1990) no. 1, pp. 44-45.
PINGEOT, ANNE. Degas Scuptures (Paris: Reunion des Musees Nationaux, 1991), no. 72, p. 187.
CAMPBELL, SARA. "A catalogue of Degas' bronzes," Apollo 142/402 (August 1995), no. 37, E, p. 29.
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966
overall: 11 cm x 37.3 cm x 47 cm; 4 5/16 in x 14 11/16 in x 18 1/2 in
United States: California, Cupertino
This Black Apple, model number A2S1048B, was a version of the Apple II Plus made by Apple Computer, Inc. and sold only to educational institutions by Bell & Howell, at that time a company specializing in audiovisual equipment. It earned the nicknames "Black Apple" and "Darth Vader" because its case was black instead of the usual beige color of the Apple II Plus. To make the computer more versatile, Bell & Howell added audio and video slots onto the Apple II Plus and also made it UL-compliant. By allowing Bell & Howell to sell their modified product, Apple was able to succeed in the educational market.