overall: 50.5 cm x 40.5 cm; 19 7/8 in x 15 15/16 in
A Nickolas Muray dye transfer photograph of apples. One apple is cut, one is whole. A knife lays across the fruit.
Recto: Signed by artist bottom right (pencil). Verso: Muray stamp. Muray label."Apples" (pencil). "#50" (pencil).
Nickolas Muray was born in Szeged, Hungary on February 15, 1892. Twelve years after his birth, Muray left his native town and enrolled in a graphic arts school in Budapest. Enrolling in art school was the first step on a road that would eventually lead him to study a photographic printing process called three-color carbro. In the course of his accomplished career, Muray would become an expert in this process and play a key role in bringing color photography to America.
While attending art school in Budapest, Muray studied lithography and photoengraving, earning an International Engraver's Certificate. Muray was also introduced to photography during this time period. His combined interest in photography and printmaking led him to Berlin, Germany to participate in a three-year color-photoengraving course. In Berlin, Muray learned how to make color filters, a first step in the craft that would one day become his trademark. Immediately after the completion of the course, Muray found a good job with a publishing company in Ullstein, Germany. However, the threat of war in Europe forced Muray to flee for America in 1913. Soon after his arrival in New York, Muray was working as a photoengraver for Condé Nast. His specialty was color separations and half-tone negatives.
By 1920, Muray had established a home for himself in the up-and-coming artists' haven of Greenwich Village. He opened a portrait studio out of his apartment and continued to work part time at his engraving job. Harper's Bazaar magazine gave Muray his first big assignment in 1921. The project was to photograph Broadway star Florence Reed. The magazine was so impressed with his photographs that they began to publish his work monthly. This allowed him to give up his part time job and work solely as a photographer. It did not take long for Muray to become one of the most renowned portrait photographers in Manhattan. Muray spent much of the early 1920s photographing the most famous and important personalities in New York at the time.
In his spare time Muray enjoyed fencing. In 1927, he won the National Sabre Championship and in 1928 and 1932, he was on the United States Olympic Team. During World War II, Muray was a flight lieutenant in the Civil Air Patrol.
In this interior view the play of light enlivens the image, transforming an everyday still life into something much more animated. The bright reds and greens of the fruit appear to echo throughout the painting, from the richly mottled floor and wall to the wooden chair, glowing in the sunlight. Leigh Palmer painted the two apples in such detail that they appear three-dimensional, as if we can reach forward and take one from the sun-soaked table.
Architecture Interior\domestic\dining room
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the Sara Roby Foundation
case: 36 cm x 31 cm x 7 cm; 14 3/16 in x 12 3/16 in x 2 3/4 in
Apple Computer manufactured this PowerBook G3 laptop computer in the fall of 2000. Photojournalist Pete Souza used the computer to transmit images to the Chicago Tribune from Afghanistan as he covered the war in the early 2000s. Souza made his way into Afghanistan by crossing the Hindu Kush mountains with his gear carried on mules. At one point his gear fell, resulting in a crack in the laptop’s screen.
overall: 6.3 cm x 21.4 cm x 21.4 cm; 2 1/2 in x 8 7/16 in x 8 7/16 in
geometric models, set of
Deutschland: Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart
From the early 1800s, teachers advocated the use of devices to teach arithmetic, proposing objects such as the blackboard and the teaching abacus. To illustrate the meaning of fractions, some brought an apple to class and cut it up. By the 1920s, some made special beads for the teaching abacus, divided to represent fractions. Hugo Jung of Stuttgart, Germany, developed an improved version of this apparatus. His “apples” were to have a hollow metal core, attached to a flange that allowed various fractions to be removed (halves, thirds, etc.). The core would then slide on the rods of a numeral frame. In this form of his apples, the core is solid, and individual apples are used to teach students about specific fractions.
The set consists of nine varnished wooden balls, sliced into segments representing fractions. A metal flange at the base of each apple holds both a central cylindrical core that runs through it and metal pins that hold the various slices in place. The first of the nine “apples” is divided into two halves, the second into three thirds, and the third into one half and two fourths. The fourth apple is divided into five fifths, the fifth into one half and three sixths, and the sixth into seven sevenths. The seventh is divided into one half, one fourth, and two eighths. The eighth apple has two thirds and three ninths and the last has one half, two fifths, and one tenth.
The balls fit into a square cardboard box that is divided into nine compartments. A label glued to the inside of the box reads: “ARCHIMEDES” (/) the divisible apple to learn the calculation of fractions.; Made in Germany; Protected by patent in all civilised countries [/] D.R.P. No. 489 439; Sole manufacturer: Rudolf Loebelenz, Stuttgart.
Hugo Jung, D.R.P. 489,439, July 23, 1930.
Hugo Jung, British Patent 343,323, February 24, 1930.