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Inka Engineering Symposium 4: Suspension Bridge Technology

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-11-19T16:46:06.000Z
Metadata Updated:
2014-05-31T16:06:58.000Z
Topic:
Native Americans
American Indians
YouTube Category:
Education
Views:
486
Video Title:
Inka Engineering Symposium 4: Suspension Bridge Technology
Description:
In Part 4 of Engineering the Inka Empire: A Symposium on Sustainability and Ancient Technologies, John Ochsendorf presents Engineering in the Andes: Indigenous Suspension Bridge Technology. The Inka Empire relied on an extensive network of roads and bridges to connect the various regions under Inka control. Though the Inka road system has been studied in some detail, scholars have largely neglected the role of bridges. These functional works enabled the expansion of the Inka Empire and often dictated the location of roads, tambos, and other Inka sites. The role of bridges in Andean history raises important questions and demands greater attention from historians of the built environment. Due to the detailed chronicles of the construction process, suspension bridges provide a unique opportunity for understanding the organization of construction in the Inka Empire. This presentation draws on primary source material from chroniclers' descriptions of the bridges to identify important Inka bridges, explore their origins, and pose questions for future research in Inka engineering. John Ochsendorf has been on the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 2002, and is the Class of 1942 Professor of Architecture and Civil and Environmental Engineering. He earned his Bachelor of Science in structural engineering and archaeology from Cornell University, where his undergraduate thesis carried out the first technical study of Andean suspension bridges. Ochsendorf earned a Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Princeton University and a PhD in structural engineering from the University of Cambridge. He is a founding partner of Ochsendorf DeJong and Block LLC, a consulting firm specializing in historical structures. He has won numerous awards for research in structural engineering and architecture, including a Graduate Research Fellowship from the National Science Foundation, a Fulbright Pre-Doctoral Scholarship from the J. William Fulbright Foundation, a Rome Prize from the American Academy in Rome, and a MacArthur Fellowship from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. This symposium was webcast on November 14, 2013 from the Rasmuson Theater at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C.
Video Duration:
1690 seconds
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Inka Engineering Symposium 6: Road Construction Technologies

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-11-20T15:52:29.000Z
Metadata Updated:
2014-07-29T13:40:43.000Z
Topic:
Native Americans
American Indians
YouTube Category:
Education
Views:
1687
Video Title:
Inka Engineering Symposium 6: Road Construction Technologies
Description:
In Part 6 of Engineering the Inka Empire: A Symposium on Sustainability and Ancient Technologies, Christine Fiori and Cliff Schexnayder present Road Construction Technology in the High Cordillera. The engineers of the Inka Empire had a unique consciousness of nature, with construction skills founded in lessons learned from careful observation of the power of nature. The Inka Road demonstrates the superior Inka understanding of nature. Built without the use of iron, the wheel, or stock animals, it represents important milestones in the development of civil engineering knowledge. The road's creators understood the fundamental laws of nature and employed impressive engineering strategies in response to the challenges presented by the aggressive physical geography of western South America. The Inka Road, or Qhapaq Ñan, in scale alone is one of man's monumental engineering achievements. This engineering masterpiece rests on careful attention to the power of water, the energy expended by the users of the road (man and llama), and the energy required to construct the road. Keeping these concepts in mind, with the support of the University of Piura, Peru, and the assistance of Professor Luis Gerardo Chang Recavarren, the researchers investigated the construction techniques employed by the Inkas in the building of the road. Ground penetrating radar technology was employed to assess the subsurface structure of the road, slopes were measured, and grade and width were verified to understand the construction methods utilized. The investigation of the various methods to control water and erosion helped in developing an understanding of why the road has endured for centuries. Christine Fiori is the Associate Director of the Myers-Lawson School of Construction at Virginia Tech. She received her PhD in Civil Engineering with a concentration in Geotechnical Engineering from Drexel University in 1997. Her interest in ancient construction led to a National Science Foundation grant to explore the construction techniques of the Inka, specifically the Inka road throughout Peru. Fiori leads the Construction Engineering and Management program and also facilitates the service learning programs for the Myers-Lawson School of Construction. She has led diverse groups of student teams to Vietnam, Kenya, Belize, Haiti, and Guatemala to complete construction projects and community engagement programs. Currently her work is focused in Haiti and Belize. Cliff Schexnayder (Choctaw) is the Emeritus Eminent Scholar, Del E. Webb School of Construction, Arizona State University. He holds Civil Engineering BS and MS degrees from Georgia Institute of Technology and a PhD from Purdue University. Before entering academia he worked with major heavy/highway construction contractors as field engineer, estimator, and corporate Chief Engineer. In South America he has taught construction engineering at the Universidad de Piura and Ricardo Palma Universidad in Peru. Schexnayder is a member of the National Academy of Construction, the Academia Panamericana de Ingeniería, and is a Distinguished Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He served as chairman of the ASCE's Construction Division and the Transportation Research Board's Construction Section. This symposium was webcast on November 14, 2013 from the Rasmuson Theater at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C.
Video Duration:
2236 seconds
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Museum of History and Technology, Civil Engineering Hall

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
6.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Civil engineering
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-3382]
Summary:
Completed cases for Civil Engineering exhibits removed from their storage case and in preparation for final installation
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

The American journal of science

Physical description:
v. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1880
1880-
Topic:
Science
Call number:
Q1 .A512
Notes:
Publisher varies: Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University <1985- >
Applied science & technology index 0003-6986
Chemical abstracts 0009-2258
Coal abstracts 0309-4979
Computer & control abstracts 0036-8113 Jan. 1972-
Electrical & electronics abstracts 0036-8105 Jan. 1972-
Energy information abstracts 0147-6521
Energy research abstracts 0160-3604
Engineering index annual (1968) 0360-8557
Engineering index bioengineering abstracts 0736-6213
Engineering index energy abstracts 0093-8408
Engineering index monthly (1984) 0742-1974
Environment abstracts 0093-3287
Excerpta medica
GeoRef 0197-7482
International aerospace abstracts 0020-5842
Physics abstracts. Science abstracts. Series A 0036-8091 Jan. 1972-
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

The Quarterly journal of science

Quarterly journal of science, and annals of mining, metallurgy, engineering, industrial arts, manufactures, and technologyJournal of science
Physical description:
16 v. : ill., plates (part col.), ports., maps ; 22 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1864
1879
1864-1879]
Topic:
Science
Notes:
Title from caption
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Civil Engineering Hall

Subject:
Fisher, James
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
6.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Civil engineering
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-3380]
Summary:
Museum aide James Fisher. Ceilings in a few engineering halls were omitted to permit visitors to see ducts, conduits, pipes, values, mixing chambers and other mechanical equipment of a modern building. This image shows a portion of the Tunneling Section of the Civil Engineering Hall, showing installation of wooden and steel bracing structures for soft earth. The exhibits for these were prepared in advance of the completion of the building
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Rocket Engine, Liquid Fuel, Apollo Lunar Module Descent Engine

Manufacturer:
Space Technology Laboratories (STL)
Materials:
Nozzle, phenolic ablative liner; propellant lines, stainless steel; valves, stainless steel; injector, aluminum.
Dimensions:
Overall: 7 ft. 8 in. long x 4 ft. 9 1/2 in. diameter (233.68 x 146.05cm)
Type:
PROPULSION-Rocket Engines
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Inventory Number:
A19720824000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Summary:
This is a Descent Engine designed by Space Technology Laboratories as used on the Project Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (LM) to land on the Moon. The engine could be throttled between 1,000 and 10,000 pounds of thrust and was also the first gimballed and throttable rocket engine used on a spacecraft.
The engine shown here is an early developmental model dating to 1966. During the Apollo lunar missions from 1969-1972, there were no problems with the Descent Engine, although on the Apollo 13 mission, no Moon landing was made and the Descent Engine served another purpose, that of taking the craft out of lunar orbit and back home. The engine was donated to the Smithsonian in 1972 by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Apollo to the Moon
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Science conspectus / Society of Arts of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Author:
Litchfield, Isaac W
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Society of Arts
Physical description:
6 v. : ill., maps (1 folded), diagrs. ; 26 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1910
1916
1910-1916
Topic:
Science
Call number:
Q1 .S38
Notes:
Editor: 1910-1916, I. W. Litchfield
Summary:
Includes lists of members of the society
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
6.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2931]
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2932]
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
4/1974
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2935]
Summary:
Pike Shop Lounge
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2937]
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X9.5
Culture:
Chemistry
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2934]
Restrictions:
All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email OSIAREF@si.edu)
Summary:
Chemistry Laboratory of about 1790
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology Records, 1978-1984

Creator:
History of Science Society
Subject:
Warnow-Blewett, Joan 1931-
American Institute of Physics
Joint Committee on Archives of Science & Technology (U.S.)
Society for the History of Technology
Society of American Archivists
Physical description:
1.5 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (1 document box)
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Date:
1978
1978-1984
Topic:
Science--History
Local number:
SIA Acc. 99-120
Summary:
These records consist of files of the Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology (JCAST). JCAST was comprised of three professional organizations - the History of Science Society (HSS), the Society for the History of Technology, and the Society of American Archivists. These records were created and maintained by Joan Warnow-Blewett, Chair of JCAST, and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) Archivist Emeritus. Per the request of HSS, these records were transferred from AIP and made part of the HSS collections at SIA. Materials include correspondence, notes, meeting minutes, grant proposals, reports, guidelines, position papers, outlines, and schedules
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Chemistry
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2933]
Summary:
Chemistry Laboratory of about 1790
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

The Philippine journal of science

Author:
Philippines National Science Development Board
Philippines Bureau of Science
Philippines Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce
Institute of Science (Philippines)
Institute of Science and Technology (Philippines)
National Institute of Science and Technology (Philippines)
Philippines National Science and Technology Authority
Industrial Technology Development Institute (Philippines)
Philippines Dept. of Science and Technology
Science and Technology Information Institute (Philippines)
Physical description:
v. ill., (some col.) maps, (some fold.) 27 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Date:
1906
Topic:
Science
Call number:
Q75 .P51X
Notes:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 133, no.1 (June 2004)
Chemical abstracts 0009-2258
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Scofield-Thacher Engineer's Slide Rule

Maker:
Scofield, E. M.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
paper (laminate material)
Measurements:
overall: .9 cm x 61 cm x 5.4 cm; 11/32 in x 24 1/32 in x 2 1/8 in
Object Name:
slide rule
Place made:
United States: Ohio, Youngstown
Date made:
1901-1926
Subject:
Science & Mathematics
Mathematics
Slide Rules
Engineering, General
Rule, Calculating
Credit Line:
Gift of John N. Welsh
ID Number:
MA*333710
Catalog number:
333710
Accession number:
300658
Description:
The scales on this 22-inch, two-sided wooden slide rule are printed on paper. The front has two scales on the left end of the base labeled B and C and two scales labeled A on the left end of the slide. These scales run half the length of the instrument. The B and two A scales are identical, divided logarithmically from left to right and running from 1 to 10. The C scale is divided logarithmically from right to left and runs from 10 to 1. It is labeled RECIPROCALS.
The right end of the base has two D scales, both labeled ROOTS, with two additional A scales on the right end of the slide. The A scales are divided logarithmically from left to right and run from 1 to 10. The top D scale runs from 1 to 3.16 and shows square roots of the numbers on the A scale below it. The bottom D scale runs from 3.16 to 10 and shows square roots of the numbers on the A scale above it, between 10 and 100. Written in pencil on the back of the slide and underneath the slide is the number 1096.
The back of the rule contains two scales on the base labeled F and two scales on the slide labeled E. The top F scale runs the length of the scale and is divided logarithmically from 1 to 10. The sections between 1 and 2, between 2 and 3, between 3 and 4, and between 4 and 5 are subdivided. The lower F scale is similarly divided, but starts from the center of the rule (running from the square root of 10, or 3.16, to 10 and then from 1 to the square root of 10). The E scales are identical to the adjacent F scales. Written in pencil on the back of the slide and underneath the slide is the number 1097.
The bottom of the base on both sides is marked: Patented July 2, 1901. The top edge of the rule is marked: THE ENGINEERS (/) SLIDE RULE. It is also marked: From E. M. Scofield, Bridge Engineer. (/) Sta. A, – Youngstown, – Ohio. (/) Rule sent prepaid on receipt of price. (/) Factory, – Youngstown, Ohio. The paper pasted on this edge also has the formula ex/f, a description of how to solve this formula with the instrument, and tables of equivalents. The bottom edge of the rule gives seventeen more formulas and instructions. It is marked: DIRECTIONS FOR SCALES A • B • C & D (/) FOR "Op." READ "OPPOSITE" (/) FOR "—" READ "ON SCALE" (/) FOR "Ans." READ "FIND ANSWER" (/) FOR LAST SIX PROBLEMS REVERSE SLIDE.
Edson Mason Scofield (1867–1939) developed this rule in 1891, while he worked for Edwin Thacher (inventor of the cylindrical slide rule bearing his name; see, for example, MA*312866). Thacher applied for a patent on the design in 1900 and assigned a half-interest to Scofield when the patent was issued in 1901. According to the instrument, Scofield may have distributed the rule himself. It was also sold by Eugene Dietzgen Company of Chicago from about 1901 through at least 1931. The price for model 1787 ranged from $5.00 to $7.00. By 1926, Dietzgen marked the rule with its company name. This instrument is identical to MA*325990.
John N. Welsh (1904–1999), the donor of this slide rule, was a chemical engineer who obtained his B.S. from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1925. He was associated with Hall Laboratories, Inc. of Pittsburgh (later CALGON) from 1939 through at least 1968. By 1972, when this slide rule was briefly placed on exhibit, Welsh was living in Florida.
References: Edwin Thacher, "Slide Rule" (U.S. Patent 677,817 issued July 2, 1901); Catalogue & Price List of Eugene Dietzgen Co., 7th ed. (Chicago, 1904), 173; Catalog of Eugene Dietzgen Co., 12th ed. (Chicago, 1926), 177; Conrad Schure, "The Scofield-Thacher Slide Rule," Journal of the Oughtred Society 3, no. 1 (1994): 20–25; Peter M. Hopp, Slide Rules: Their History, Models, and Makers (Mendham, N.J.: Astragal Press, 1999), 161; Who's Who in Engineering (New York and West Palm Beach: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1964), 1996.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Slide Rules
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Additional Online Media:

Museum of History and Technology, Hall of Physical Sciences

Subject:
Ellicott, Andrew 1754-1820
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7.5X8
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Physical sciences
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2936]
Summary:
Laying out the Nation's Capitol - Diorama of Andrew Ellicott Surveying Washington, D.C
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

W. B. Chapman

Subject:
Chapman, W. B
Chapman Engineering Company
Carnegie Institute of Technology
International Conference on Bituminous Coal
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Topic:
Engineering
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2008-0209]
Summary:
W.B. Chapman was President of The Chapman Engineering Co. The photograph was provided to newspapers in conjunction with Second International Conference on Bituminous Coal, Carnegie Institute of Technology, November 1928
Cite as:
Acc. 90-105 - Science Service, Records, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of History and Technology, Information Technology Exhibit

Subject:
Mauchly, John W (John William) 1907-1980
Eckert, J. Presper (John Presper) 1919-1995
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)
Physical description:
7X9.5
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Information technology
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2901]
Summary:
ENIAC was the first electronic digital computer. Built at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering of the University of Pennsylvania between 1944 and 1946. It was used at the Aberdeen Proving Ground of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department from 1947 until 1955. ENIAC, whose full name was Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, spent much of its life integrating systems of differential equations which the Army and Air Force needed to compute ballistics tables
Cite as:
Record Unit 285, National Museum of History and Technology, Office of the Director, Photographs, 1920s-1970s, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
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