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Bachelder Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 3/4 in x 8 1/2 in x 8 3/4 in; 12.065 cm x 21.59 cm x 22.225 cm
in oak case - from catalog card: 8 1/4 in x 5 in x 8 3/4 in; 20.955 cm x 12.7 cm x 22.225 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Date made:
1887
Description:
Thomas and Bushnell manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 482, based on a design by Joseph Bachelder, who received patent number 360644 on April 5, 1887. It consists of a brass piston, a brass cylinder, and a large drum with a coil spring and a single record. The cantilever spring is enclosed in the tube; an adjustable fulcrum renders one spring usable over a range of values. Two springs are included: one low pressure 10-25 (20-50 pounds) and one high pressure 30-90 (60-175 pounds).
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316789
Catalog number:
316789
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Tabor Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co.
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
walnut case-from catalog card: 8 1/2 in x 6 in x 10 in; 21.59 cm x 15.24 cm x 25.4 cm
overall: 5 7/8 in x 9 3/4 in x 8 in; 14.9225 cm x 24.765 cm x 20.32 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Connecticut, manufactured this Tabor steam engine indicator, serial number 2418. It consists of a steel piston with three grooves and a guide below the spring; a vented brass cylinder; an internal, single wound spring, which can be changed; a large drum with a coil spring and a single record. There is a Houghtaling worm gear reduction apparatus and a conical brass stylus. The piston, spring, and parts of the linkage are missing. Accompanying the indicator is a box with extra springs, piston, and worm reduction gear.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316790
Catalog number:
316790
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Tabor Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co.
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 6 1/4 in x 9 7/8 in x 8 5/8 in; 15.875 cm x 25.0825 cm x 21.9075 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 6 1/2 in x 8 1/2 in x 10 in; 16.51 cm x 21.59 cm x 25.4 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Connecticut, manufactured this Tabor steam engine indicator, serial number 2325. It consists of a brass piston with three grooves; a vented brass cylinder; an internal, single wound spring, which can be changed; a large drum with a coil spring and a single record. The end of the linkage that holds the stylus is missing, as is the pulley. Accompanying the indicator is a box with several springs.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316791
Catalog number:
316791
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Tabor Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co.
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
walnut case-from catalog card: 8 in x 8 1/2 in x 10 in; 20.32 cm x 21.59 cm x 25.4 cm
overall: 7 1/2 in x 9 3/4 in x 8 1/4 in; 19.05 cm x 24.765 cm x 20.955 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Connecticut, manufactured this Tabor steam engine indicator, serial number 7171. It consists of a brass piston with three grooves; a vented brass cylinder; an external, single wound spring, which can be changed; a large drum with a coil spring and a single record. The small knob to adjust the stylus pressure is missing. Accompanying the indicator is a box with several springs and reduction gear.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316792
Catalog number:
316792
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Integrating Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 7/8 in x 9 3/4 in x 10 in; 12.3825 cm x 24.765 cm x 25.4 cm
overall - from catalog card: 4 in x 7 in x 7 in; 10.16 cm x 17.78 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Description:
This device is designed to integrate the area under the indicator diagram and will total the work for several strokes of the piston. A small metal cylinder about one inch by three-quarters is geared to a counter. The cylinder turns about its horizontal axis, and a small metal disc bears against the cylinder. The plane of the disc coincides with the axis of the cylinder and is turned by the motion of the indicator piston. The motion of the engine piston moves the cylinder horizontally. This combined action results in the rotation of the cylinder. The increment to rotation is proportional to the angle of the disc.
The manufacturer of this indicator is unknown. The spring is missing, although Thompson indicator springs will fit it. Similar instruments are described in William Robinson’s book Gas and Petroleum Engines: A Manual for Students and Engineers (Spon & Chamberlain, New York: 1902).
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illlinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316793
Catalog number:
316793
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Tabor Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co.
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/4 in x 9 1/4 in x 8 3/8 in; 13.335 cm x 23.495 cm x 21.2725 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 5 1/4 in x 7 1/2 in x 9 1/4 in; 13.335 cm x 19.05 cm x 23.495 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
Ashcroft Mfg. Co. of Bridgeport, Connecticut, manufactured this Tabor steam engine indicator, serial number 2329. It consists of a steel piston with a guide below the spring; a vented brass cylinder; an internal, single wound spring, which can be changed; a large drum with a coil spring and a single record. The piston, spring, and parts of the linkage are missing.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316794
Catalog number:
316794
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Crosby Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 5/8 in x 7 3/4 in x 7 1/8 in; 11.7475 cm x 19.685 cm x 18.0975 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 4 3/4 in x 6 3/4 in x 7 3/4 in; 12.065 cm x 17.145 cm x 19.685 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 3309. It consists of a piston, which is stuck inside the cylinder. A brass stylus can record onto a large small drum with a spiral spring and a single record. Accompanying the indicator is a box with twelve springs and a spring wrench.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316795
Catalog number:
316795
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Crosby Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 10 in x 8 1/8 in; 13.97 cm x 25.4 cm x 20.6375 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 10021. It consists of a steel piston with four grooves, a vented brass cylinder, an internal spring (which is missing), a small drum with a spiral spring and a single record, and a brass stylus. Accompanying the indicator is a box with twelve springs, double wound.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316796
Catalog number:
316796
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
10021
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Crosby Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company
Physical Description:
wood (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 3/4 in x 10 in x 8 1/2 in; 14.605 cm x 25.4 cm x 21.59 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 5 3/4 in x 7 3/4 in x 10 in; 14.605 cm x 19.685 cm x 25.4 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 1074D. It consists of a steel piston; a vented brass cylinder; an external, double wound spring, which can be changed; a large drum with a spiral spring and a single record; and a brass stylus. Accompanying the indicator is a box with twelve springs and some small tools.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316797
Catalog number:
316797
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
1074D
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Crosby Gas Engine Indicator

Maker:
Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 3/8 in x 8 1/2 in x 8 in; 13.6525 cm x 21.59 cm x 20.32 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 5 1/2 in x 7 in x 8 1/2 in; 13.97 cm x 17.78 cm x 21.59 cm
Object Name:
indicator, gas engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 8619. It consists of a steel piston with four grooves, a vented brass cylinder, an internal spring (which is missing), a small drum with a spiral spring and a single record, and a brass stylus. Accompanying the indicator is a box with twelve springs, double wound, and some small tools.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316798
Catalog number:
316798
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
8619
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Crosby Gas Engine Indicator

Maker:
Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company
Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 3/8 in x 8 in x 6 3/4 in; 11.1125 cm x 20.32 cm x 17.145 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 4 1/2 in x 6 1/2 in x 8 in; 11.43 cm x 16.51 cm x 20.32 cm
Object Name:
indicator, gas engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
Crosby Steam Gauge & Valve Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 6163. It consists of a small steel piston (1/8 inch); a vented brass cylinder; an internal, double wound spring, which can be changed; a small drum with a spiral spring and a single record; and a brass stylus. Accompanying the indicator is a box with fourteen springs, small tools, and an extra piston with top stem.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
ID Number:
MC*316799
Catalog number:
316799
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
6163
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Lippincott Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
oak (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 9 1/2 in x 9 7/8 in; 13.97 cm x 24.13 cm x 25.0825 cm
oak case - from catalog card: 6 in x 9 1/2 in x 9 1/2 in; 15.24 cm x 24.13 cm x 24.13 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: New Jersey
Description:
The Lippincott Steam Specialty and Supply Co. manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 1380. It consists of a steel piston with two grooves and a bottom guide; a brass cylinder; an internal spring, which is missing; a small drum with a spiral spring and single record. The stylus is missing, but assumed to be a lead pencil point. Accompanying the indicator is a box with four springs, and extra piston, a wrench, reduction pulleys, record cards, and scales.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316800
Catalog number:
316800
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
1380
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Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Thompson Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (case material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 5/8 in x 8 5/8 in x 7 in; 11.7475 cm x 21.9075 cm x 17.78 cm
walnut case-from catalog card: 4 1/2 in x 7 1/4 in x 9 in; 11.43 cm x 18.415 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
The American Steam Gauge Co. of Boston, Massachusetts, manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 1875. J.W. Thompson patented this style of indicator on August 31, 1875, patent number 167,364.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
Work
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IIlinois
ID Number:
MC*316801
Catalog number:
316801
Accession number:
228496
Patent number:
2547
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Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Star Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (container material)
Measurements:
walnut case-from catalog card: 6 in x 9 in x 10 in; 15.24 cm x 22.86 cm x 25.4 cm
overall: 5 5/8 in x 9 3/4 in x 8 5/8 in; 14.2875 cm x 24.765 cm x 21.9075 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts
Description:
The Star Brass Mfg. Co. manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 485. It consists of a steel piston; a steel cylinder; an external spring, which is missing; a small drum with a spiral spring and a single record. The stylus is missing, but is likely a pencil point. The accompanying box has five double wound springs.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
ID Number:
MC*316802
Catalog number:
316802
Accession number:
228496
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Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Calkins Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 3/4 in x 9 3/4 in x 10 in; 12.065 cm x 24.765 cm x 25.4 cm
walnut case - from catalog card: 5 in x 9 3/4 in x 9 3/4 in; 12.7 cm x 24.765 cm x 24.765 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: New York
Description:
The Engineers Instrument Co. manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 66, which is based on patent 442102, granted to Almon B. Calkins of Bridgeport, Connecticut, on December 9, 1890. It consists of a brass piston with two grooves; a brass cylinder; and internal spring, which can be changed; a large drum with coil spring and single record. The stylus and grease cup are missing. Accompanying the indicator is a box with twelve springs.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
ID Number:
MC*316803
Catalog number:
316803
Accession number:
228496
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Maihak Steam Engine Indicator

Physical Description:
wood (container material)
Measurements:
walnut case-from catalog card: 6 in x 21 in x 12 in; 15.24 cm x 53.34 cm x 30.48 cm
overall: 6 in x 21 in x 12 1/4 in; 15.24 cm x 53.34 cm x 31.115 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
Deutschland
Date made:
1906
Description:
This case contains two steam engine indicators, serial numbers 3027 and 3028, manufactured by H. Maihak of Hamburg, Germany. It consists of a steel piston with three grooves; a steel cylinder; an external spring, which is missing on both indicators; a large drum with a spiral spring and continuous record; and a brass stylus. The record paper is inside the drum and uses a ratchet and pawl to turn and retrieve it.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Museum of Steam & Marine Engineering, St. Louis, Missouri
ID Number:
MC*316891
Catalog number:
316891
Accession number:
229655
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Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Robertson-Thompson Steam Engine Indicator

Measurements:
box - from catalog card: 7 in x 9 1/2 in x 10 1/2 in; 17.78 cm x 24.13 cm x 26.67 cm
overall: 7 1/4 in x 6 in x 2 in; 18.415 cm x 15.24 cm x 5.08 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: New York
Date made:
ca 1900
Description:
This Robertson-Thompson steam engine indicator, serial number 7735, consists of a brass piston with two grooves; a brass cylinder; an internal, single wound spring, which can be changed; a medium sized drum with a coil spring and a single record; and a short pencil lead for the stylus. Accompanying the indicator is a box with two extra springs, drum springs, seven wooden pulleys for the reducer, two scales, and two extra pistons.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Mr. William Slater Allen, Providence 7, Rhode Island.
ID Number:
MC*318483
Catalog number:
318483
Accession number:
234643
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Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

McNaught-Novelty Steam Engine Indicator

Measurements:
overall: 12 5/8 in x 4 1/2 in x 2 1/8 in; 32.0675 cm x 11.43 cm x 5.3975 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
Novelty Iron Works manufactured this McNaught steam engine indicator. It consists of a brass piston and cylinder with a steel spring under the pencil holder. It takes a direct reading with no linkage on a large drum.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Yale University, Mason Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut
ID Number:
MC*319481
Catalog number:
319481
Accession number:
237917
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Richards-Elliott Steam Engine Indicator

Measurements:
overall: 9 1/4 in x 7 in x 4 1/2 in; 23.495 cm x 17.78 cm x 11.43 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place made:
United States: Connecticut
Description:
The Elliot Bros. of London manufactured this steam engine indicator. It consists of a brass piston with single groove; a vented brass cylinder; an internal, single wound spring, which can be changed; a large, brass drum that is nickel plated with a coil spring and single record; and a heavy, steel stylus.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Yale University, Mason Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut
ID Number:
MC*319482
Catalog number:
319482
Accession number:
237917
Patent number:
3243
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Star Steam Engine Indicator

Maker:
Star Brass Manufacturing Company
Measurements:
overall: 9 3/4 in x 6 1/2 in x 2 in; 24.765 cm x 16.51 cm x 5.08 cm
Object Name:
indicator, steam engine
Place Made:
United States: Connecticut; United States: Massachusetts, Boston
Date made:
ca 1907
Description:
The Star Brass Mfg. Co. manufactured this steam engine indicator, serial number 760. It consists of a steel piston with one groove; a vented brass cylinder; an external, double wound spring, which can be changed; a small drum with a spiral spring and a single record. The stylus is missing.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Work
Industry & Manufacturing
Indicators
Credit Line:
Gift of Yale University, Mason Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut
ID Number:
MC*319483
Catalog number:
319483
Accession number:
237917
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Indicators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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