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Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

Maker:
Harmison, Lowell T.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 35 cm x 81.5 cm x 56 cm; 13 25/32 in x 32 3/32 in x 22 1/16 in
Object Name:
heart, artificial, implantable
total artificial heart
Place made:
United States: Maryland, Bethesda
Date made:
ca 1969
Date(s) of previous ownership:
1985-03-28
Subject:
Cardiology
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Invention
Government, Politics, and Reform
Artificial Hearts
Credit Line:
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Instiutes of Health
ID Number:
1985.0329.03
Accession number:
1985.0329
Catalog number:
1985.0329.03
Description:
A functional mock up of a totally implantable artificial heart. Displayed on a wooden base covered with a sheet of metal with the battery in the middle of the display. Finally there is a monitor encased in a wood box, on a little pedestal. The monitor has a small screen and various knobs and switches. There are two rows of little lights marked Up/ Hold/ Down for monitoring heart rate. The mock-up was developed by Lowell T. Harmison, Ph.D., (1937-2011). He was the Director of the Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health from 1967 to 1974.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

DeBakey By-Pass Pump

Physical Description:
dacron (overall material)
salastic (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 13 cm x 7 cm; 5 1/8 in x 2 3/4 in
Object Name:
pump, by-pass, cardiac
by-pass pump
Place made:
United States: Texas, Houston
Date made:
ca 1965
Date(s) of previous ownership:
1985-03-28
Subject:
Cardiology
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Invention
Government, Politics, and Reform
Artificial Hearts
Related Publication:
DeBakey, Michael E., M.D., FACC. Left Ventricular Bypass Pump for Cardiac Assistance
Credit Line:
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health
ID Number:
1985.0329.06
Accession number:
1985.0329
Catalog number:
1985.0329.06
Description:
The DeBakey paracorporeal left ventricular assist device was developed by scientists at Baylor and Rice Universities. The pump is gas generated and is made with Dacron reinforced with Salastic. A diaphragm separates the gas chamber from the blood chamber.
This example was developed by Dr. Michael DeBakey (1908-2008) in the mid-1960's. The pump lies outside the body, one tube is inserted into the left atrium, and a second tube goes into the right auxiliary artery. DeBakey reported on three cases using this pump in a 1971 article "Left Ventricular Bypass Pump for Cardiac Assistance" in The American Journal of Cardiology.
This pump is a direct descendant of an earlier by-pass pump developed in DeBakey’s laboratory. See Accession 256189.01.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart

User:
Drummond, Michael
Designer:
Jarvik, Robert
Maker:
Symbion, Inc.
Physical Description:
polyurethane (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
polycarbonate (overall material)
Measurements:
average spatial: 13.7 cm x 10.1 cm x 9.6 cm; 5 13/32 in x 3 31/32 in x 3 25/32 in
overall: 4 1/4 in x 6 in x 9 in; 10.795 cm x 15.24 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
artificial heart
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Associated place:
United States: Arizona
Date made:
1985
Associated date:
1985-08-29
Subject:
Cardiology
Surgery
Health Care
Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Credit Line:
University Medical Center of the University of Arizona
ID Number:
1987.0474.01
Catalog number:
1987.0474.01
Accession number:
1987.0474
Description:
This Jarvik-7 total artificial heart was used in the first authorized bridge to organ transplant operation. A bridge to transplantation is a temporary measure that replacs a failing heart with a mechanical pump while waiting for a human heart for implantation. Jack G. Copeland, M.D, performed the surgery on August 29, 1985 at the University Medical Center, University of Arizona. The patient, 25 year old Michael Drummond, lived with the mechanical pump for nine days until a donor heart could be implanted. Later, Drummond kept the heart in his home before its donation to the Smithsonian.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Soft Shell Mushroom Artificial Heart

Maker:
Kolff Laboratory
Physical Description:
silastic (overall material)
epoxy (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
brass (overall material)
nylon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 41.5 cm x 10 cm x 12 cm; 16 11/32 in x 3 15/16 in x 4 23/32 in
overall: 3 3/4 in x 5 1/2 in x 16 in; 9.525 cm x 13.97 cm x 40.64 cm
Object Name:
total artificial heart
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Date made:
1968
Subject:
Medicine
Artificial Organs
Invention
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Credit Line:
Willem J. Kolff, M.D.
ID Number:
1998.0035.039.01
Collector/donor number:
5.6.5
Accession number:
1998.0035
Catalog number:
1998.0035.039.01
Description:
The Soft Shell Mushroom Total Artificial Heart has an actively opening and closing mushroom-shaped inflow valve. An air sac around the stem of the mushroom when inflated expels the blood from the ventricle during systole. A hard septum is held partly over the left ventricle. Dacron netting is attached to it to constrain the ventricle during systole. The heart was made by Willim Kolff's sons Alfred and Cornelis (Case), and implanted by Dr. Clifford Kwan-Gett in the summer of 1968 at the University of Utah.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Atomic Artifical Heart

Maker:
Kolff Laboratory
Akutsu, Tetsuzo
Physical Description:
silicone (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 1/2 in x 2 3/4 in x 3 in; 13.97 cm x 6.985 cm x 7.62 cm
overall: 3 3/8 in x 3 5/8 in x 7 1/2 in; 8.5725 cm x 9.2075 cm x 19.05 cm
Object Name:
artificial heart
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Ohio, Cleveland
Date made:
1962-1964
Subject:
Government, Politics, and Reform
Cardiology
Surgery
Health Care
Artificial Organs
Artificial Hearts
Related Publication:
Hiller, Kirby W.; et al.. An Electronic-Mechanical Control for an Intrathoracic Artificial Heart
Credit Line:
Willem J. Kolff, M.D.
ID Number:
1998.0035.040.02
Catalog number:
1998.0035.040
Accession number:
1998.0035
Description:
This is one side of an artificial heart made to be used with a drive system developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center (the John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field) for Dr.Willem Kolff in the Department of Artificial Organs at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. The heart was driven with air, and used electric coils as transducers. The drive system regulated and provided air to the ventricles.
The heart is a rounded U-shape with two openings at the top for artificial ball heart valves. It is of made of silicone, and has layered Dacron netting for strength. At the front of the heart are two tubes which connect to the drive system. On the opposite side from the tube, there is a system of wires and coils implanted into the wall of the heart. Wires extend from top of the heart and connect to the coil system. No pumping membranes or valves are present. There are three prongs inside one of the blood openings, that shows where valve would be positioned.
This artificial heart was made by Tetsuzo Akutsu, and was one of the earliest (1962-1964) to be developed in Kolff's laboratory. Experiments with dogs lasting approximately twenty-four hours demonstrated the feasibility of this design, however, several problems including thrombosis and emboli were a serious complication.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Test Rig for the Atomic Energy Artificial Heart

Maker:
Kolff Laboratory
Physical Description:
silastic (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
surgical tape (overall material)
brass (overall material)
white metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 16 cm x 26.5 cm x 13 cm; 6 5/16 in x 10 7/16 in x 5 1/8 in
overall: 5 1/4 in x 10 1/2 in x 6 1/2 in; 13.335 cm x 26.67 cm x 16.51 cm
Object Name:
test rig
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Date made:
1972
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Government, Politics, and Reform
Cardiology
Artificial Hearts
Credit Line:
Willim J. Kolff, M.D.
ID Number:
1998.0035.042.02
Accession number:
1998.0035
Catalog number:
1985.0035.042.02
Description:
This test rig was used to analyze the ventricles made for the Atomic Energy Artificial Heart. An artificial heart driven by atomic energy was financed by the Atomic Energy Commission, and by Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). In 1977 the ERDA became the United States Department of Energy, which lost interest in the development of a nuclear heart. The engine was made by North America/Phillips while the silastic ventricles were made in Kolff's laboratory. Kolff replaced the Sterling engine with a small electromotor on the pump and obtained survival of a calf for 35 days with this artificial heart.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Right side Ventricular Assist Device

Maker:
Kolff Laboratory
Physical Description:
dacron (overall material)
graphite (overall material)
pellethane (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 62 cm x 7.5 cm x 7 cm; 24 13/32 in x 2 15/16 in x 2 3/4 in
overall: 3 3/4 in x 10 5/8 in x 7 1/2 in; 9.525 cm x 26.9875 cm x 19.05 cm
Object Name:
heart, artificial
ventricular assist device
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Date made:
1987-12-04
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Cardiology
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Manufacturing technique described in article.:
Pantalos, G.M., et al.. Development of Smaller Artificial Ventricles and Valves Made by Vacuum Forming
Credit Line:
Willim J. Kolff, M.D.
ID Number:
1998.0035.050
Accession number:
1998.0035
Catalog number:
1998.0035.050
Collector/donor number:
5.13
Description:
This polyurethane right ventricular assist device (RVAD), is made by vacuum forming and assumes the pumping function of the right ventricle. It can also be used in conjunction with a left ventricular assist (LVAD) to form a total artificial heart. The flexible, multilayer diaphragm separates the blood and gas chambers of a circular ventricle and has a volume of 50 cc. A graphite coating acts as a lubricant between the diaphragm's layers. An air drive line tube emerges from the base of the pump sac with Dacron netting at the junction where clotting is likely to occur. Dacron's rough surface anchors and isolates blood clots to prevent embolization. The tube delivers compressed air to the gas chamber to actuate the pumping diaphragm. Dacron fibrils are at the junction between the diaphragm and blood chamber housing. Clots are more likely to form inside ventricles with rough intima. Dacron fibrils had been applied inside with thin pellethane and loose fibrils removed with air pressure. Remaining fibrils are coated with a thin pellethane layer for a smooth surface. Two snouts with sinus valsavae, petal-shaped backflow regions. Inflow port contains a bell-shaped pellethane cuff for connecting to the right atrium. The cuff is lined on the outside with Dacron velour. The outflow port contains a corrugated Dacron graft for connection to the pulmonary artery. Polyurethane trileaflet valves are cheaper and cause less trauma to the blood than mechanical valves.
The RVAD is accompanied by a quality-control checklist for the vacuum-formed housing. No quick connects. Indicates mold temperature and pellethane type and thickness. Chronic quality. Approved for mandatory .060 thickness of port walls. Checklist also includes condition of valve junctions, diaphragm-housing junction, and webbing.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Electrohydrolic artificial heart

Maker:
Kolff Laboratory
Physical Description:
salastic (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
metal (overall material)
velcro (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 5 in x 6 1/2 in; 12.7 cm x 16.51 cm
overall: 4 in x 7 1/4 in x 7 3/4 in; 10.16 cm x 18.415 cm x 19.685 cm
Object Name:
heart, artificial
artificial heart, electrohydraulic
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Date made:
1977-10-28
Subject:
Cardiology
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Kolff, Willem J., M.D. et al.. Electrohydraulic-Clamshell Heart with Energy Converter Inside the Compliance Reservoir
Credit Line:
Willim J. Kolff, M.D.
ID Number:
1998.0035.169
Accession number:
1998.0035
Catalog number:
1998.0035.169
Description:
This electrohydraulic artificial heart is an early prototype for the Jarvik-7 artificial heart. The left and right chambers of the heart are connected with Velcro©. The electrohydrolic heart was featured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, September 1981 proclaiming, “The Artificial Heart Is Here.”
The electrohydraulic heart has only one moving part, the reversible impeller or turbine. Blood does not go through the impeller, therefore there is not supposed to a concern with blood damage. Numerous scientists and engineers worked on the development of the artificial heart, but it was Robert Jarvik, M.D. in the Kolff laboratory who changed the TAH from a sphere to an elliptical shape allowing it to fit more easily into the chest cavity. Jarvik also added a third and fourth bladder to each ventricle creating more flexibility and durability. The addition of two extra rubber bellows allowed for more vigerous blood flow. His improvements allowed the correct amount of blood 100cc's, to circulate through the body. Jarvik also experimented with materials using polyurethane Biomar to create surfaces inside the housing which prevented blood thrombosis or clotting.
The first implantation of a Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart occurred December 1982. The TAH was implanted in Barney Clark by Dr. William DeVries at the University of Utah Medical Center. The highly publicized artificial heart operations brought attention to the triumphs of scientific technology its limitations,and its costs, both literal and figurative.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Mayo-Gibbon Heart-Lung Machine

Physical Description:
chromium plate (overall material)
stainless steel (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
plexiglass (overall material)
teflon (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 182 cm x 77 cm x 96 cm; 71 5/8 in x 30 5/16 in x 37 13/16 in
part 6: 47 cm x 7 cm x 15.6 cm; 18 1/2 in x 2 3/4 in x 6 1/8 in
Object Name:
heart-lung machine
Place made:
United States: Wisconsin, Rochester
Date made:
ca 1957
Subject:
Medicine
Artificial Organs
Cardiology
Surgery
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Shumacker, Harris B.. The Evolution of Cardiac Surgery
Fye, W. Bruce. American Cardiology: The History of a Speciality and College
Credit Line:
Edwards Lifesciences, LLC
ID Number:
2002.0151.01
Catalog number:
2002.0151.01
Accession number:
2002.0151
Description:
The invention of the heart-lung machine is one of the most significant contributions in the history of cardiac surgery. These machines are used to temporarily replace the function of the heart and lungs, supporting the circulation of blood through the body. The natural heart is by-passed and the heart-lung machine takes over for the patients organs.
The Mayo-Gibbon heart-lung machine was patterned after the Gibbon heart-lung machine designed by John Gibbon, M.D. in 1949. Four years later John Kirklin and his associates at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota began using and improving upon a Gibbon-type heart-lung machine.
In the past three decades, the application of heart-lung machines has been greatly expanded not only for cardiopulmonary bypass during open-heart surgery but also for long-term pulmonary or cardiopulmonary support, called extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or precutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS).
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
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Rotating Screen Oxygenator

Maker:
Clarence Dennis
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plexiglass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 95 cm x 99 cm x 61.6 cm; 37 13/32 in x 38 31/32 in x 24 1/4 in
Object Name:
heart-lung machine
Place made:
United States: Minnesota, Minneapolis
Date made:
1951
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Surgery
Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Shummacker, Harris B., Jr.. The Evolution of Cardiac Surgery
Credit Line:
Edwards Lifesciences, LLC
ID Number:
2002.0151.02
Accession number:
2002.0151
Catalog number:
2002.0151.02
Description:
Several types of heart-lung machines and oxygenators were developed in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Smithsonian’s collection includes roller pumps, membrane, and bubble oxygenators. This rotating screen oxygenator was developed by Clarence Dennis (1909-2003) and colleagues in 1947. Blood entered the oxygenator through a low speed jet in the center of the revolving screen disc and a film of blood is laid on the disc by centrifugation and gravity. The rotating screen oxygenator was efficient and relatively easy to clean.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

AbioCor Total Artificial Heart

Patient:
Tools, Robert L.
Cardiac surgeon:
Gray, Laman
Dowling, Robert
Maker:
ABIOMED, Inc.
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
titanium (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 11.8 cm x 9.2 cm x 15 cm; 4 21/32 in x 3 5/8 in x 5 29/32 in
overall: 4 1/8 in x 5 1/2 in x 4 7/8 in; 10.4775 cm x 13.97 cm x 12.3825 cm
Object Name:
artificial heart
artificial heart
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Danvers
Date made:
ca 2001
Subject:
Health & Medicine
Science & Mathematics
Surgery
Cardiology
Surgery
Artificial Organs
Artificial Hearts
Event:
Implantation of Total Artificial heart
Related Publication:
Renee C. Fox and Judith P. Swazey with the asistance of Judith C. Watkins. Spare Parts
Credit Line:
ABIOMED Inc.
ID Number:
2003.0166.01.1
Accession number:
2003.0166
Catalog number:
2003.0166.01.01
Description:
The AbioCor Total Artificial Heart is the first electro-hydraulic artificial heart implanted in a human. Approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for clinical trials, this AbioCor artificial heart was implanted in Robert Tools by cardiac surgeons Laman A. Gray Jr. and Robert D. Dowling on July 2, 2001, at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky. The historic operation marked the first time an artificial heart was used as a permanent replacement for a human heart since the air-powered Jarvik-7 artificial heart more than fifteen years before.
The AbioCor is a two-chamber pump designed to perform like a natural human heart. It is powered by batteries, and pumps more than 2.5 gallons of blood a minute to the lungs and then to the rest of the body.
Tools, who suffered from irreversible congestive heart failure, chose to have his diseased heart removed and replaced with the plastic and titanium pump. He lived for five months, well beyond the clinical trials goal of sixty days.
The development of the AbioCor involved a team of engineers, scientists, and physicians from across the United States. Completely contained within the body, no tubes protrude through the skin, nor is the patient tethered to a noisy bedside console, as with air-powered hearts. Instead the heart is powered by rechargeable batteries and microcomputer technology that regulates the heartbeat according to the patient's activities.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Cardio West Total Artificial Heart

Maker:
CardioWest Technologies Inc.
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
steel (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 35 cm x 14 cm x 8 cm; 13 25/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 5/32 in
overall: 4 in x 5 1/2 in x 14 in; 10.16 cm x 13.97 cm x 35.56 cm
Object Name:
artificial heart
cardiology
Place made:
United States: Arizona, Tucson
Date made:
1985
Subject:
Cardiology
Surgery
Health Care
Artificial Organs
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Copeland, Jack G. et al. Bridge to transplantation with the CardioWest total artificial heart: the international experience 1993 to 1995
Copeland, Jack G., III, M.D. et al. Comparison of the CardioWest Total Artificial heart, the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist system in bridge to transplantation
Credit Line:
National Museum of American History
ID Number:
2003.0337.01
Catalog number:
2003.0337.01
Accession number:
2003.0337
Serial number:
35328L089
Description:
The CardioWest Artificial Heart is a smaller version of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart developed in the 1980's at the University of Utah. The CardioWest is used as a bridge to transplant, a temporary measure replacing a failing diseased heart with a mechanical pump while waiting for a human heart for transplantation.
Location:
Currently not on view
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Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart

Maker:
Symbion, Inc.
Physical Description:
polyurethane (overall material)
polyvinylchloride (overall material)
dacron (overall material)
velcro (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 3 3/8 in x 5 3/8 in x 6 5/8 in; 8.5725 cm x 13.6525 cm x 16.8275 cm
overall: 10 cm x 13.5 cm x 11 cm; 3 15/16 in x 5 5/16 in x 4 11/32 in
Object Name:
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Utah, Salt Lake City
Date made:
ca 1984
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Cardiology
Health Care
Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Credit Line:
William C. DeVries, M.D.
ID Number:
2010.0200.01.01
Accession number:
2010.0200
Catalog number:
2010.0200.01
Description:
This dissected Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart (TAH), was implanted in Murray Haydon, the third artificial heart recipient, July 20, 1986. The operation took place at the Humana Heart Institute International in Louisville, Kentucky. Haydon lived with the implanted blood pump for 488 days. The Jarvik-7 TAH has a right and left ventricle with four tilting disc valves. Each ventricle contains a flexible diaphragm constructed of multi layered polyurethane. The TAH is driven by an external pneumatic pump, the Utah drive System II. Mr. Haydon lived with the artificial heart for 488 days.
William DeVries, is a cardio-thoracic surgeon became who became recognized around the world as the surgeon who implanted the first Jarvik-7 in dentist Barney Clark in December 1982. He received his medical degree from the University of Utah, and completed his residency at the Duke Medical Center. He was a research associate in the Kolff laboratory while still in medical school.
Numerous scientists and engineers worked on the development of the artificial heart, but it was Robert Jarvik, M.D. in the Kolff laboratory who changed the TAH from a sphere to an elliptical shape allowing it to fit more easily into the chest cavity. Jarvik also added a third and fourth bladder to each ventricle creating more flexibility and durability. The addition of two extra rubber bellows allowed for more vigorous blood flow. His improvements allowed the correct amount of blood 100cc's, to circulate through the body. Jarvik also experimented with materials using polyurethane Biomar to create surfaces inside the housing which prevented blood thrombosis or clotting. The highly publicized artificial heart operations brought attention to the triumphs of scientific technology as well as its limitations, and costs, both literal and figurative.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Blood Pump and Energy Convertor

Maker:
Novacor Medical Corporation
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
steel (overall material)
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2 5/8 in x 12 1/2 in x 13 in; 6.6675 cm x 31.75 cm x 33.02 cm
overall: 16.5 cm x 13.7 cm x 6 cm; 6 1/2 in x 5 13/32 in x 2 3/8 in
Object Name:
blood pump and energy convertor
cardiology
Place made:
United States: California, Berkeley
Date made:
ca 1984
Subject:
Medicine
Cardiology
Health & Medicine
Artificial Organs
Surgery
Artificial Hearts
Credit Line:
Gift of World Heart Corporation
ID Number:
2011.0197.06
Accession number:
2011.0197
Catalog number:
2011.0197.06
Patent number:
4,167,046
Description:
This blood pump/drive unit is the original version of the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist (LVAS). It is the world's first clinically implanted electromechanical Ventricular Assist Device (VAD). While some researchers worked on developing a total artificial heart as a bridge to transplant several groups of scientists and engineers worked on developing the smaller heart assist device. In select cases the LVAD can be used as a long term recovery solution (destination therapy) to chronic heart failure. Groups working on both the artificial heart and VAD's encountered many of the same problems, particularly material compatibility to avoid blood clotting. In 1998, the Novacor LVAS was given FDA approval as a bridge to transplant.
A Ventricualr Assist Device (VAD) is a mechanical pump used to partially or completely replace a diseased human heart. Unlike a Total Artificial Heart, the patient’s human heart is left in place. The VAD assists the ventricles push blood through the body.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

The N 100PC Blood Pump and Energy Convertor

Maker:
World Heart Corporation
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
copper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2 1/2 in x 5 1/2 in x 6 1/2 in; 6.35 cm x 13.97 cm x 16.51 cm
overall: 19.8 cm x 15.5 cm x 6 1/2 in; 7 25/32 in x 6 3/32 in x 16.51 cm
Object Name:
blood pump and energy convertor
cardiolgy
Place made:
United States: California, Berkeley
Date made:
ca 1990
Subject:
Medicine
Cardiology
Artificial Organs
Health Care
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Daniel, M. A.; Lee, J.; LaForge, D. H.; Chen, H.; Miller, P. J.; Ramasamy, N.; Strauss, L. R.; Jassawalla, J. S.; Portner, P. M.. Clinical evaluation of the Novacor totally implantable ventricular assist system. Currrent status
Credit Line:
Gift of World Heart Corporation
ID Number:
2011.0197.08
Accession number:
2011.0197
Catalog number:
2011.0197.08
Patent number:
4,167,046
Description:
This version of the N100PC ventricular assist drive without encapsulation shows the inner workings of the pump. The N100PC was used in clinical trials between1993 and 2011.
A Ventricular Assist Device (VAD), is a mechanical pump used to partially or completely replace a diseased human heart. Unlike a total artificial heart, the patient’s human heart is left in place, helping the damaged to push blood through the body.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Kolff-Brigham Artificial Kidney

Maker:
Edward A. Olson Co.
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 156.5 cm x 75 cm x 114 cm; 61 5/8 in x 29 17/32 in x 44 7/8 in
Object Name:
artificial kidney machine
artificial kidney
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Boston
Date made:
ca 1949
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Medicine
Kidney dialysis
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Kolff, Willem J.. The Artificial Kidney-Past, Present and Future
Credit Line:
John P. Merrill, M.D.
ID Number:
MG*291118
Catalog number:
M-13845
Accession number:
291118
Description:
Physician Willem J. Kolff (1911-2009) known as the “Father of Artificial Organs” invented the first workable artificial kidney and was a pioneer in the field of artificial internal organs. As a young doctor practicing in Groningen, The Netherlands under Nazi occupation Kolff built a rotating drum artificial kidney out of scraps of metal, wood and sausage casing. After fifteen unsuccessful attempts to filter urea from patients whose kidneys could not process wastes, his sixteenth patient pulled through. The artificial kidney seen here is a second generation artificial kidney known as the Kolff-Brigham Artificial Kidney
In 1950 Kolff, his wife and children immigrated to the United States. Kolff spent the next seventeen years in the at the Cleveland Clinic working mostly on artificial kidneys and hearts. Kolff and Dr. Tet Akutsu successfully implanted an artificial heart in a dog in 1957.
In 1967, Kolff moved to the University of Utah in Salt Lake City where he established a Biomedical Engineering laboratory for artificial organs. The Jarvik-7 Total Artificial Heart was developed in his laboratory, and in 1982, Barney Clark a retired dentist was implanted with the first permanent artificial heart. In 2002 Kolff received the Lasker award for his work with artificial kidneys.
The Kolff-Brigham artificial kidney consists of a cylindrical metal mesh drum, the top portion of which is covered by a second half drum of clear plastic with a handle in the front. Two silver colored, adjustable metal lighting fixtures are attached to the back of the plastic cover. A rectangular metal basin sits below the drum. The drum is supported by a metal frame that rests on four black rubber wheels. There is a control panel on the front left side with a round, clear plastic knob next to four ON/OFF switches (two brown, two white) at the top. Two vertically aligned, dome shaped lights (one red, one clear) are centered on the control panel next to a directional control button. There are three black switches on the lower right of the control panel. On the reverse side of the control panel there are two black electrical outlets. A length of plastic tubing is attached to the right rear light fixture.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Dodrill GMR Heart

Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
chromium (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
glass (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 25 in x 18 in x 15 in; 63.5 cm x 45.72 cm x 38.1 cm
overall, tubing: 1 5/8 in x 14 in x 8 in; 4.1275 cm x 35.56 cm x 20.32 cm
overall, artificial heart: 22 1/2 in x 20 in x 14 in; 57.15 cm x 50.8 cm x 35.56 cm
overall: 23 in x 19 1/2 in x 13 in; 58.42 cm x 49.53 cm x 33.02 cm
Object Name:
heart, mechanical
Heart, Mechanical
artificial heart
Place made:
United States: Michigan, Detroit
United States: Michigan, Detroit
Date made:
1952
ca 1952
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Cardiology
Medicine
Surgery
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Related Publication:
Dodrill, Forest D., M.D.. Some Physiologic Aspects of the Artificial Heart Problem
Credit Line:
General Motors Corporation, Research Laboratories Division
ID Number:
MG*M-06790
Accession number:
203312
Catalog number:
M-06790
Description:
“The Mechanical Heart” also known as the Michigan Heart had the ability to bypass both the patient’s heart and lungs allowing surgeons a “dry” field on which to work. The Dodrill-GMR heart project was a collaborative effort led by Dr. Forest Dewey Dodrill of Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan and General Motors Research Laboratory.
The Dodrill-GMR Heart was used in the first successful open heart operation July 3, 1952. The patient, a forty-one year old male, had a deformed mitral valve which was successfully repaired
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Sewell Heart Pump

Maker:
Sewell, William H.
Rowell, Glenn
Unlinked Name
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
glass (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
silicone (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 3/4 in x 12 in x 14 1/4 in; 9.525 cm x 30.48 cm x 36.195 cm
overall: 9.5 cm x 24 cm x 35 cm; 3 3/4 in x 9 7/16 in x 13 25/32 in
Object Name:
heart pump
heart, artificial
pump
Place made:
United States: Connecticut, New Haven
Associated place:
Unlinked Place
Date made:
ca 1950
Associated dates:
1959 01 06 / 1959 01 06
Subject:
Medicine
Invention
Cardiology
Science
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Credit Line:
Mrs. William H. Sewell
ID Number:
MG*M-08015
Accession number:
223384
Catalog number:
M-08015
Description:
This heart pump was built by William H. Sewell (-1993) and William W. L. Glenn (1914-2003), and was intended for physiological experiments. The pump was made from an Erector© Set, glass cylinders, cannula and rubber tubing. All that remains today is the erector set.
Sewell built the pneumatically powered pump for his medical thesis at Yale University. He graduated in 1950. The object of the pump was to by-pass the right side of a dog's heart, and to look for any abnormalities the pump may have caused to the heart or the blood.
A cannula was inserted into the animal’s jugular vein and maneuvered into the right auricle and finally into the vena cava. Compressed air was used to pump blood through the dog's system. The first experiment took place in June 1949. The artificial heart worked and the dog made a complete recovery.
The total cost of the pump came to $24.80. The most expensive part at $9.00 was the erector set and motor.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Liotta-Hall Intracorporeal Heart Pump

Designer:
Hall, C. William
Liotta, Domingo
Physical Description:
dacron (overall material)
salastic (overall material)
silicone (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/8 in x 8 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 2.8575 cm x 21.59 cm x 8.89 cm
overall: 11 cm x 3.2 cm x 28.5 cm; 4 11/32 in x 1 1/4 in x 11 7/32 in
Object Name:
intrathoracic pump
cardiology
pump, heart
Place made:
United States: Texas, Houston
Date made:
ca 1963
Subject:
Artificial Organs
Cardiology
Surgery
Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Health & Medicine
Artificial Organs
Credit Line:
Gift of Baylor University
ID Number:
MG*M-10837
Catalog number:
MG*M-10837
M-10837
Accession number:
256189
Description:
The ventricular assist device or the intrathoracic bypass pump as it was originally named was developed by a surgical research team led by Michael DeBakey (1908-2008), C. William Hall (1922-1992) and Domingo Liotta (1924- ) at Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. The pneumatically powered pump is made of Silastic® and utilizes two ball-type valves to direct blood flow in one direction. It was the first bypass pump implanted in a human.
Heart assist devices or ventricular assist devices (VAD’s) are used to provide circulatory assistance to a weakened heart. The device helps pump blood through the aortic valve and into the aorta supplying blood to the rest of the body.
On July 18, 1963 this intrathoracic bypass pump was implanted into a 42 year old man who had undergone surgery to replace a diseased aortic valve. Hours later the patient suffered a cardiac arrest developing anuria (the decline of urine production) and fluid (edema) build up in his lungs. Although the pump help to relieve the edema the patients urine output never increased. The patient died four days after the pump was implanted.
Doctors considered the pump and other new mechanical devices such as the pacemaker and artificial heart valves successful, but they discovered that supplementing and indeed replacing the natural heart would not be easy. Among the problems which they encountered included damage to blood cells and the rejection of the device by the body. In the end physicians concluded, due to its long term support capabilities and the increase of blood circulation an internal artificial pump was feasible.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Liotta-Cooley Artificial Heart

Maker:
Liotta, Domingo
Physical Description:
dacron (overall material)
polyurethane (overall material)
silastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 7 1/2 in x 9 in x 6 1/2 in; 19.05 cm x 22.86 cm x 16.51 cm
overall: 18.7 cm x 22.8 cm x 16.4 cm; 7 3/8 in x 8 31/32 in x 6 15/32 in
Object Name:
artificial heart
heart, artificial
Place made:
United States: Texas, Houston
Date made:
1969
Subject:
Cardiology
Health & Medicine
Surgery
Government, Politics, and Reform
National Treasures exhibit
Cardiology
Surgery
Health Care
Artificial Organs
Artificial Hearts
Credit Line:
Denton Cooley, M.D.
ID Number:
1978.1002.01
Accession number:
1978.1002
Catalog number:
1978.1002.01
Description:
This is the first total artificial heart implanted in a human body. It was developed by Domingo Liotta and implanted by surgeon Denton Cooley on April 4, 1969, at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston. The recipient, Haskell Karp, lived for sixty-four hours with the artificial heart pumping oxygenated blood through his body until a human heart was available for transplant.
Although Karp died soon after receiving a real heart, and some criticized the surgery as unethical because it was without formal review by the medical community, the procedure demonstrated the viability of artificial hearts as a bridge to transplant in cardiac patients.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
National Treasures exhibit
Artificial Hearts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

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