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1906 Chinese Immigrant’s Lacquer Trunk

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
leather (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
trunk closed: 34 cm x 46 cm x 70 cm; 13 3/8 in x 18 1/8 in x 27 9/16 in
Object Name:
trunk
Place made:
China
Arrived at:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1906
Subject:
Cultures & Communities
Family & Social Life
Transportation
Chinese American
Immigration
Immigrants
Chinese American
Event:
The Emergence of Modern America
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.01
Catalog number:
1992.0620.01
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
In 1906 Ng Shee Lee packed her clothes and belongings in this trunk and left China for America. It was a difficult trip. She slept next to the noisy engine room; arriving tired and sick in San Francisco she was met by the devastating 1906 earthquake. Ng Shee then made her way alone by train across Canada to New York where she rejoined her husband, Lee B. Lok.
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Exhibition:
On the Water
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

1936 Chinese American Baby Carrier

Maker:
Lee Ng Shee
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
cotton (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 60 cm x 304 cm; 23 5/8 in x 119 11/16 in
Object Name:
baby carrier
Place made:
United States
Date made:
1936
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.03
Catalog number:
1992.0620.03
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
In America, Mrs. Lee made this decorated carrier for her granddaughter, Jade. Chinese women carried children on their back in carriers such as this. The child sat in the carrier with their feet around the mother’s waist; the four strips of fabric at each corner knotted at the parents’ front.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

1919 Chinese American Baby Bonnet

Maker:
Lee Ng Shee
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
wool (overall material)
fur (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 30 cm x 42 cm; 11 13/16 in x 16 17/32 in
Object Name:
bonnet, baby
Object Type:
Bonnet
Boy
Headwear
Place made:
United States
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
1919
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.07
Catalog number:
1992.0620.07
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
Mrs. Lee made this "dog head" bonnet for her only son, Peter. Chinese mothers traditionally dressed their one year old children in such bonnets to protect them from evil spirits. According to lore, if evil forces met the child they would pass by, thinking it were an animal, and of no value. Fur lines the bonnet's "dog's ears" and the padded wool of the hat lined Peter's head.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

1900 - 1910 Chinese American Woman's Blouse

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
wool (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 75 cm x 90 cm; 29 1/2 in x 35 7/16 in
Object Name:
blouse, woman's
Object Type:
Main Dress
Blouse
Woman
Place made:
China
Date made:
ca 1905
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.08
Catalog number:
1992.0620.08
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
In America, Mrs. Lee wore this tunic-length satin blouse with side buttons made from 1890 Hong Kong coins. The generously cut blouse or sam, often reaching the calf, was worn over trousers.
Mrs. Lee wore traditional Chinese clothes when she occasionally accompanied her children to the local movie houses. According to her daughter Grace, since she did not understand English she made up her own storyline to accompany the films’ images.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

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1895 - 1905 Chinese American Woman's Skirt

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
satin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 88 cm x 107 cm; 34 21/32 in x 42 1/8 in
Object Name:
skirt, woman's
Object Type:
Skirt
Woman
Main Dress
Place made:
Zhonghua: Hong Kong, Colony of
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1900
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.20
Accession number:
1992.0620
Catalog number:
1992.0620.20
Description (Brief):
Ng Shee (1874 - ?) had this two paneled skirt as well as trousers made in Hong Kong at the time of her marriage to Mr. Lee B. Lok in China around 1900. After the marriage Ng Shee lived with her mother in law in China until she joined Mr. Lee in New York City in 1906.
The pleated skirt was often worn with a rectangular apron or wei chu’u over a pair of matching trousers.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

1895 - 1905 Chinese American Woman's Trousers

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 49 cm x 100 cm; 19 9/32 in x 39 3/8 in
Object Name:
trousers, woman's
Object Type:
Trousers
Woman
Main Dress
Place made:
Zhonghua: Hong Kong, Colony of
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1900
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.21
Catalog number:
1992.0620.21
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
Ng Shee (1874 - ?) had this two paneled skirt as well as trousers made in Hong Kong at the time of her marriage to Mr. Lee B. Lok in China around 1900. After the marriage Ng Shee lived with her mother in law in China until she joined Mr. Lee in New York City in 1906.
The pair of matching trousers was often worn under the pleated skirt with a rectangular apron or wei chu’u.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

1925 - 1930 Chinese American Woman's Skirt

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
silk (skirt, lower material)
cotton (waistband material)
Measurements:
overall: 88 cm x 56 cm; 34 5/8 in x 22 1/16 in
Object Name:
skirt
Object Type:
Skirt
Woman
Main Dress
Place made:
China
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Date made:
ca 1930
Subject:
Weddings
Chinese American
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Family & Social Life
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of Mrs. Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
2000.0274.02
Accession number:
2000.0274
Catalog number:
2000.0274.02
Description (Brief):
Mrs. Lee ordered this skirt from China to wear on formal occasions, such as weddings. The waistband, of a different fabric, was covered by a blouse.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

1915 - 1925 Chinese American Girl's Trousers

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 45 cm x 67 cm; 17 23/32 in x 26 3/8 in
Object Name:
trousers, girl's
Object Type:
Trousers
Girl
Main Dress
Place made:
unknown
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1920
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Photograph, Lee family portrait
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?view=&dsort=&date.slider=&q=AC0555-0000003.tif
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.10
Catalog number:
1992.0620.10
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
One of the Lee daughters wore this casual Chinese-style outfit on special occasions, for none of the children wore Chinese dress for every day wear. The trouser band or fu tau , translated as the “head of the trousers,” was folded over and secured with a belt or cord and covered by the vest.
Lee B. Lok, his wife Ng Shee, and their seven children lived above the Quong Yuen Shing & Co. store in New York City's Chinatown. Though the children wore Western clothes and participated in the local Scout troop and other clubs, their parents required them to attend Chinese school each day, from 4-7 PM.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

1915 - 1925 Chinese American Girl's Vest

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
fabric (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 41 cm x 57 cm; 16 5/32 in x 22 7/16 in
Object Name:
vest, girl's
Object Type:
Vest
Girl
Main Dress
Place made:
unknown
Date made:
ca 1920
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Photograph, Lee family portrait
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?view=&dsort=&date.slider=&q=AC0555-0000003.tif
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.11
Catalog number:
1992.0620.11
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
One of the Lee daughters wore this casual Chinese-style outfit on special occasions, for none of the children wore Chinese dress for every day wear. The trouser band or fu tau , translated as the “head of the trousers,” was folded over and secured with a belt or cord and covered by the vest.
Lee B. Lok, his wife Ng Shee, and their seven children lived above the Quong Yuen Shing & Co. store in New York City's Chinatown. Though the children wore Western clothes and participated in the local Scout troop and other clubs, their parents required them to attend Chinese school each day, from 4-7 PM.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Circa 1930 Women's Gown (cheong sam)

User:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
satin (overall material)
silk (overall material)
embroidered (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 51 cm x 116 cm; 20 3/32 in x 45 21/32 in
Object Name:
dress
Object Type:
Dress
Woman
Main Dress
Place made:
China
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1930
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Photograph, Portrait of Virginia Lee in a cheongsam dress
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?view=&dsort=&date.slider=&q=AC0555-0000006.tif
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.16
Catalog number:
1992.0620.16
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description:
The donor, Virginia Lee, posed in a similar cheong sam for a US World War II poster and for the "Miss China" contest in New York. Also known as a qu pao, the Chinese traditional loose dress shape was modified by Western designers in the 1920's to be more close-fitting to accentuate a woman's figure. The altered dress form became broadly popular in the United States as evening wear in the late 1950's and 1960's.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

1895 - 1896 Chinese American Man's Gown

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
silk (overall material)
satin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 72 cm x 131 cm; 28 3/8 in x 51 9/16 in
Object Name:
gown, man's
Object Type:
Man
Main Dress
Gown
Place made:
China
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1896
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Event:
Li Hongzhang visit to New York
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.24
Catalog number:
1992.0620.24
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
Lee B. Lok (1869-1942) immigrated to San Francisco from Guangdong Province, China in 1881 and soon after moved to New York City's Chinatown where he worked in the Quong Yuen Shing & Co. store.
Lee B. Lok ordered this gown from China to wear at the 1896 arrival ceremony in New York of Li Hongzhang, emissary of the Empress Dowager of China. Soon after Lee came to America he abandoned Chinese clothes for daily use and cut his queue. However on special occasions Lee wore clothing that identified him as Chinese. This Manchu style gown splits at the back, front, and both sides to allow for easy movement on horseback – a reflection of the Manchu people’s equestrian background.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

1895 - 1900 Chinese American Man's Slippers

Maker:
unknown
Physical Description:
satin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 1/4 in x 3 in x 2 3/4 in; 23.495 cm x 7.62 cm x 6.985 cm
Object Name:
slippers, pair of, man's
Object Type:
Man
Slippers
Footwear
Place made:
China
Worn:
United States: New York, Manhattan, Chinatown
Date made:
ca 1896
Subject:
Chinese American
Family & Social Life
Immigration
Immigrants
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Chinese American
Publication title:
Lee Chinese -American Family Papers, ca. 1915-1970
Photograph, Mr. Lee B. Lok at his store
Publication author:
Mead, Virginia Lee
Mead, Virginia Lee
Publication URL:
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=set_name:%22Lee+Chinese-American+Family+Papers%2C+ca.+1915-1970%22
http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?view=&dsort=&date.slider=&q=AC0555-0000001.tif
Credit Line:
Gift of James Edgar Mead and Virginia Lee Mead
ID Number:
1992.0620.27.a-b
Catalog number:
1992.0620.27.a-b
1992.0620.27a-b
Accession number:
1992.0620
Description (Brief):
Mr. Lee only wore these slippers in his home or with his traditional Chinese clothes on special occasions. The slipper sole was thick, flat, inelastic, and shorter than the upper sole to give enough spring for walking.
For much of his early life, the Chinese New Year was Lee’s only day of rest from the Quong Yuen Shing & Co. general store and a time when he might wear these slippers.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Costume
Chinese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

What do disability history and Pinterest have in common?

Creator:
National Museum of American History
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 02 Jul 2015 17:52:07 +0000
Topic:
American History
Description:

Curator Dr. Katherine Ott invited students in Dr. Samuel J. Redman's Museum/Historic Site Interpretation Seminar to explore the museum's collections and write blog posts sharing their research. 

Screenshot of the museum's Pinterest boards, including a "Today in history" board, "Remembering Abe," "Think Pink."

On the surface, disability history and social networks such as Pinterest do not appear to have anything in common. One is a story of a fight for the passage of laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, which prohibited discrimination on the basis of disability. The other is a popular social media site that allows people to exchange information and ideas on everything from recipes, to crafts, and more.

White pin. Red text in bold typeface: "CIVIL RIGHTS." Blue text in bold typeface: "SIGN THE BILL!"

However, the answer to the question is quite simple: Pins! Disability rights activists used pins for clothing (also called buttons or pin-backs) to convey quick, simple messages aimed at raising awareness for disability issues as well as trying to convince people to support the passage of the ADA.

As a person who grew up during the digital age, I have to confess that I thought pins were a thing of the past. It was not until my friend Chelsea showed me her backpack covered in buttons that I realized how wrong I was. When I asked her what was so special about buttons, she told me that the pins served multiple functions. For Chelsea, they are a way to "add personal flair to an accessory." She told me that many of her pins were gifts from friends and that "it always feels good to carry something with you that is both portable and has sentimental value." On the other hand, Chelsea also uses the pins to raise awareness for a number of issues, including her union, body positivity, gender politics, and reproductive rights. In this way, she uses them "to show solidarity with other activists in the community, or peers who might be struggling with these issues."

Chelsea showed me that despite the proliferation of digital pins, physical pins still have the power to spread messages while also serving as a neat collectible. The power of physical pins made me wonder just how long these pins have inspired similar feelings of activism and collecting. I found out that political pins have been used for hundreds of years. Commemorative garment pins were used for every presidential election or administration. The museum even has a clothing button souvenir from George Washington's inauguration!

In the 1820s, political candidates began to use buttons and other material objects specifically for campaigning purposes. In 1893, a Boston woman named Amanda Lougee invented a button where a textile surface was covered by a thin sheet of transparent celluloid (a material considered the first semi-synthetic plastic) with a fastener on the back. The Whitehead and Hoag Company from New Jersey acquired the patent to her design in 1896. According to Roger Fischer, author of the book Tippecanoe and Trinkets Too: The Material Culture of American Presidential Campaigns, 1828-1984, "no other innovation in the history of material culture in American politics ever gained acceptance so rapidly or on such a massive scale." Lougee's design is basically the same as modern-day buttons; the only real difference is the current use of paper rather than textile.

Yellow pin with cartoon face in center. The zero in "504" covers the mouth of the face. Text: "National Committee We Are Watching."

In the early 20th century, pins became easier and cheaper to manufacture, which facilitated their use by politicians and activists alike. Disability activists certainly used this easy method of increasing awareness. One interesting pin in the museum's collections is one that says "National Committee, 504, We are Watching" with a caricature of Ronald Reagan. The number "504" refers to Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, a predecessor to the American with Disabilities Act. The presidential administration of Ronald Reagan often sought to weaken the regulations of Section 504 and successfully eliminated disability benefits for nearly half a million people. Thus, this pin represents the views of a person who disapproved of the actions of Reagan and promised to continue watching the administration.

Physical pins have a long history in American culture; digital pins are much newer, but the digital version certainly has a significant place in current activism and communication. On Pinterest, users post virtual pins to boards based on a theme, such as Activism, Recipes, History, Places to Go, or Disability Pride. Though many users' pins focus on crafting or fashion, there are no limits to the themes. The Smithsonian actually has many boards that showcase museum collections, such as Critters in the Collection and Fashion Backward.

The pins also contain links to their original source (i.e. a website). Physical pins work the same way. Through short, pithy sayings, the pins entice people to ask a wearer about what the button refers to. It's the same thing as when Twitter users post short messages with a hashtag. If Twitter had existed during the fight to pass ADA, many activists might have used tweets containing #ADA or #SignTheBill, not only to draw awareness to their message but also to connect to the wider community of activists.

Pin pin. In yellow bold text: "We've got the power! (ADA)!"

No matter what pins people wear on their clothes or on their social media pages, they ultimately are an expression of interests and causes, as well as membership in a wider community of people who share the same views. Anybody looking at my Pinterest page could immediately see that I am a graduate student from the Midwest/Upland South who loves pithy quotes, Christmas, and innovative home designs. Other people use Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook to convey their interests, often through the use of quick, catchy slogans, hashtags, or graphics—all of which could have been used on clothing pins in earlier times.

Blue pin with white text

Today, buttons are still fairly cheap and proliferate at social activities, sporting events,and rallies. Of course, social media pins and tweets are even cheaper and quicker, but it seems that physical pins have quite a bit of staying power for not only spreading political messages but also as a neat collectible.

Rebecca Schmitt is a graduate student in the Public History Program at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She is also an avid social media user and has a Pinterest board dedicated to all things history, featuring pins of objects from the Smithsonian collections. 

Author(s): 
Rebecca Schmitt, graduate student in Public History, University of Massachusetts Amherst
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Data Source:
National Museum of American History
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