The Saginaw treaty of 1819 between General Lewis Cass and the Chippewa Indians, written for the centennial celebration of the treaty, September 19th, 1919, by Fred Dustin. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on history and records
Ambrotype of Chief Okemos [Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)] photographed by Henry H. Smith in 1858.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains one 1/4 plate ambrotype depicting Chief Okemos [Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)], photographed by Henry H. Smith of Cheboygan, Michigan in 1858. The upper, right hand portion of the ambrotype glass is broken and missing. The ambrotype is housed in a leather case and features a brass mat and preserver.
Inside the case is a handwritten note that reads, "See back of picture for photographer and date." However, due to the photo's fragility, current NMAI Archives staff have not removed the ambrotype from its case to confirm the photographer and date.
Also included in the case are two newspaper clippings about Chief Okemos that are glued together. The first appears to be from the Lansing Journal and reads, "Old Okemus. –Our friend [paper missing] has left on our table a very fine ambrotype of Okemus, the well known chief of the Chippawas, whose residence in this part of the State has made his name and fame familiar to most of our readers. The old Chief paid a visit to our village a few days since. He is not far from one hundred years old, and although his step is feeble, yet he is as erect as in his palmier days. He has heretofore objected to having his likeness taken, under the impression it would shorten his life. At best he has but a few more days on earth. He carries scars upon his head and shoulder into which a man could lay his finger, which he claims to have received at the battle of Thames and while he was aiming his tomahawk at the head of Col. Johnson, just after he had shot Tecumseh. He also claims to have held a captain's commission in the British government. His position as chief has been usurped by younger hands. – Lansing Jour[word cut off]".
The second clipping is from Springfield (Mass) Republican on December 22, 1858 and reads, "The Potawatamie Chief Okemos, who has for a long time lived near Lansing, Michigan died on Sunday last. His precise age was not known, but it is supposed to have been over one hundred years".
This ambrotype is housed in an archival phase box.
Biographical / Historical:
There is conflicting information about the details of Chief Okemos' biography including his birth year. It is believed that Chief Okemos was born circa 1769 possibly in the Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa) settlement of Ketchewandaugoning on the Shiawassee River (near present day Bloomfield, Michigan). Other spellings of his name included Okemus, Okemans, Ogimaus, Okemos, O-ge-mah, and O-Gee-Manse.
He fought in several battles including the battle of Tippencanoe, Indiana (1811), the War of 1812, the Battle of Sandusky (1813), and the Battle of the Thames (1813). During the War of 1812, Okemos suffered an injury, which left him with a large scar on his forehead. Chief Okemos also signed several treaties on behalf of the Anishinaabe including the Treaty of Saginaw (1819).
His family included his wife Waindegoquayzance; his son Paymechewaysawdung (1829-1899; also known as John); his son Waygeshegome (1845-1902; also known as James); his daughter Kawbaishcawmoquay (1845-1896); and his daughter Shawusquahbenoquay (d.1852). Chief Okemos died on December 5, 1858 in Michigan.
There are only 3 other known photographs of Chief Okemos. Two are in private collections and the third is an ambrotype held in the Archives of Michigan (Record Group 2005-13).
The NMAI Archives Center also holds other photographs (NMAI.AC.142) and objects collected by artist and collector Joseph Imholf.
This ambrotype was formerly in the collection of Joseph Imhof (1871-1955, Western artist); lent to MAI by Joseph Imhof in 1930; donated to MAI by Joseph Imhof's widow Sarah Imhof (1872-1966) in 1961.
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Ambrotype of Chief Okemos, P12521, NMAI.AC.385; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Tracings on linen of steam engines of all types, pumping, histing, air compressing, mining, material handling, power transmission, mine structures, mining machinery, and buildings by Erasmus D. Leavitt, Jr. for Calumet Heclas, Inc. of Calumet, Michigan.
Scope and Contents note:
These papers contain engineering drawings by Leavitt from the Calumet & Hecla Mining Company including tracings and blueprints of 2000 to 8000 horsepower compound hoisting engines, 1889-1917; hoisting plants, 1891-1901; shaft hoisting gear, 1887-1902; Calumet & Hecla compressor houses, 1877-1882; waterworks; and electric plants. Also included are notebooks containing engine drawings and calculations; account books, 1885; a diary; a letterpress volume of sketches and office memoranda, 1884-1890; scrapbooks.
The collection is arranged into one series by drawing number. Descriptions contain a category designation beginning with a letter. For example, drawings associated with Torch Lake in Michigan are desginated as Category K. In some instances, the drawings are categorized as XY with no further description or are un-numbered.
Series 1: Drawings
A Pumping Engine No. 2
B Boiler House and Gear House
C Gearing for Pump and Man Engine
D Hoisting Engine No. 1, Hecla Mine
E Calumet Mine General
F Calumet Pond Water Works
G Hecla Mine General
H No. 4 Stamp for Calumet Mill
I Calumet & Helca Mine General
J Calumet Hoisting Gear
K Torch Lake
L Hoisting Engine "Superior"
M Miscellaneous Engine Parts
N Pumping Engine "Arcadian"
O Engine "Wabeek"
P Pumping Engine "Ontario"
Q Hoisting Engine "Frontenac"
R Engine "Erie"
S Engine "Hecla"
T Pumping Engine No. 1
U Black Hills Hoisting Gear
V Hoisting Engines "Gratiot", "Houghton" & "Seneca"
W Pumping Engines "Michigan" & "Winnipeg"
X Hoisting Engines "Minong" & "Siscowitt"
Y Hoisting Engines "Mesnard & Pontiac"
Z Hoisting Engines "Hancock" & "Pewabic"
AA Sinking Engines "Delaware" & "Iroquois"
BB Compressor Engine "Mackinac"
CC Compressor Engine "Baraga"
DD Lake Superior Water Works
EE Hoisting Engines "Marquette" & Chippewa"
FF Hoisting Engines "Minnesota" & "Escanaba" and "Illinois" & "Wisconsin"
GG Misc. City of Boston Improved Sewerage Pumping Engine
The Calumet & Hecla Company, which was formed in about 1866, was one of the largest mining operations in the Lake Superior region of upper Michigan. Over 3 billion pounds of copper were removed from its extensive mines by the time operations ceased in 1939. To facilitate the work in both the mines and smelting plants, the company installed some the largest steam engines ever built. The aggregate amounted to over 55,000 horsepower.
Noted 19th century steam engineer Erasmus Darwin Leavitt was hired to design the series of huge multi-cylinder engines. Each had sufficient power to support several operations at one time. While an engine drove one of the hoists, it might also power pumping, conveying, and air compressing machinery. At the peak of operations there were at least 50 steam engines of all sizes providing power to Calumet & Hecla. Falling copper prices during the 1920s and the economic depression of the 1930s ultimately forced the mines to close. The engines were of no further use and their countless tons of cast iron and steel ended up in the scrap drives of World War II.
The collection came to the Smithsonian in 1960 from Calumet & Hecla, Inc. In the course of a reorganization in 1952 mining had been dropped from the company name as the emphasis was on chemicals, foundry work, and forest products. Its remaining mining activites in other areas of Michigan were phased out during the 1960s and in 1968 C&H merged with Universal Oil Prodcuts, Inc. Late in 1970 UOP scrapped what was left of the C&H physical plant and its remaining assests were auctioned off.
Materials at Other Organizations
Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper COuntry Hihstorical Collections
Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Collection
Collection materials donated by Calumet and Hecla, Inc. in 1960 and by Thomas E. P. Rice, 1977.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
An anthropological report on Indian use and occupancy of northern Michigan [by] Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin. Ethnohistorical report on the Saginaw Chippewa [by] David B. Stout. Economic and historical report on northern Michigan [by] Robert M. Warner. Historical report on the Sault Ste. Marie area [by] Robert M. Warner [and] Lois J. Groesbeck. The Chippewa of eastern lower Michigan [by] Helen Hornbeck Tanner