The article highlights all of S. Dillon Ripley's accomplishments as Smithsonian Secretary from 1964 to 1982. The article also discusses Ripley's congressional hearings and his policies with antiwar demonstrators and with the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.'s Poor People's Campaign. The additions of the Cooper-Hewitt, Renwick, Sackler, and Hirshhorn Museums are discussed. The article also delves into Ripley's childhood and the period of his life before his term as Secretary of the Institution, including his field work in India with Salim Ali, research on birds, especially rails, and tenure with the Office of Strategic Services
Going down Jericho Road : the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign / Michael K. Honey
Honey, Michael K
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968
xviii, 619 p.,  p. of plates : ill ; 25 cm
Sanitation Workers Strike, Memphis, Tenn., 1968
Strikes and lockouts--Sanitation
Labor and civil rights -- A plantation in the city -- Dr. King, labor, and the civil rights movement -- Struggles of the working poor -- Standing at the crossroads -- On strike for respect -- Hambone's meditations : the failure of community -- Testing the social gospel -- Fighting for the working poor -- Minister to the valley : the poor people's campaign -- Baptism by fire -- Ministers and manhood -- Convergence -- Escalation : the youth movement -- "All labor has dignity" -- "Something dreadful" -- Jericho Road is a dangerous road -- Chaos in the bluff city -- "The movement lives or dies in Memphis" -- State of siege -- Shattered dreams and promised lands -- "A crucifixion event" -- Reckonings -- "We have got the victory" -- Epilogue : how we remember King
Calling it his "last, greatest dream," Martin Luther King declared his intention to launch a broad-based effort to secure economic justice for the nation’s poor. At a press conference held in Atlanta’s Ebenezer Baptist Church on December 4, 1967, King revealed initial plans for an extended campaign of mass civil disobedience in Washington, D.C., that would cross racial boundaries to bring together thousands of those living in poverty. "This will be no mere one-day march in Washington," he declared, "but a trek to the nation’s capital by suffering and outraged citizens who will stay until some definite and positive action is taken to provide jobs and income for the poor." Led by King and sponsored by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the "Poor People’s Campaign" was slated to begin on April 22, 1968, but was delayed after King traveled to Memphis to support a strike by that city’s sanitation workers.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Washington, D.C., 1963
The online images represent only a selection of this collection
Diana Davies is a well-known photographer of folk performers and festivals. Davies photographed the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in its earlier years. Born in 1938, Davies grew up in Maine, the Catskills, New York City, and Boston. Her grandparents were local union organizers and Debs socialists; one grandfather was a gandy dancer with the railroad, and her grandmother was a textile worker in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. Davies finds that her family background was later expressed in her own activist efforts
Davies left high school at 16, and worked sweeping out coffeehouses, which gave her the opportunity to listen to music while she worked. She became interested in theater and music. In Greenwich Village, she began doing some sound technician work, and then got interested in photography. She taught herself how to develop and print photographs in a darkroom, and began photographing in theaters, shooting from behind the scenes. Her theater photos are at Smith College in Northampton, where she presently lives. In the early 1960s, she began working with the editors of Broadside Magazine, Sis Cunningham and Gordon Friesen. She developed an interest in human rights work, which grew from her contact with Sis and Gordon, and also her own family background. She also worked as a photographer in a wide range of settings, including night clubs, weddings, and doing portrait photography. This led her to work for major national and international media including the New York Times, covering such events as the war in Biafra, and traveling to Mexico, Cuba, and Portugal on assignment
Davies' folk photographs represent about one-quarter of her body of work; her other major photographic work includes the Civil Rights Movement, the Peace Movement, and theater. Davies began photographing at the Newport Folk Festival in 1964, which she covered for a number of years. She knew Ralph Rinzler, and found him a vibrant, alive person excited by all aspects of culture. He introduced her to Bessie Jones from the Georgia Sea Islands, and in 1966 she made a photographic journey to the islands. Her work from this trip is included in the collection. Davies has also been a musician. She became involved with the punk rock movement of the 1970s, and felt that there was a connection between the hard-hitting songs from the punk world and the songs being published in Broadside Magazine. In 1975, she became part of a folk/punk women's band in Boston, and later moved to Western Massachusetts. In addition to being a photographer and musician, Davies is also a writer. She wrote a play entitled "The Witch Papers" in 1980, which was produced in Boston and other locations. The play was a vehicle for her human rights activism, comparing the technology of inquisition with labor sweatshops. In 1998, her play "The War Machine" was produced in Amherst, Mass. She lives in Northampton, and enjoys and participates in street performance, which she describes as the "most essentially communicative stuff you can come up with."
The Diana Davies photographs consist of images taken by Diana Davies at various stages of her career. Locations include the Festival of American Folklife, the Newport Folk Festival, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, the Poor People's Campaign, various peace marches and outdoor performances, New York City, and the Georgia Sea Islands. The collection includes contact sheets, negatives, photographic prints, and slides
Diana Davies photographs, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution
North American B-25J-20-NC (TB-25N) Mitchell "Carol Jean"
North American Aviation Inc.
All-aluminum and stressed aluminum skin airframe construction; fabric-covered ailerons, elevators, and rudders.
Overall: 16ft 4in. x 67ft 7in. x 53ft 6in., 19499.8lb. (4.979m x 20.599m x 16.307m, 8845.1kg)
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Donated by Dr. John F. Marshall.
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Twin-engine medium bomber; gull wing mounted at mid-fuselage; twin vertical fins and rudders; tricycle landing gear; powerplants: 2 Wright R-2600-13 radial engines turning three-blade, Hamilton Standard full-feathering propellers, 3.8 meters (12 foot 7 inches) in diameter.
On March 11, 1939, the U.S. Army Air Corps requested bids from aviation companies interested in competing for a large contract to design and build a new medium bomber. Lt. General James H. Doolittle's Tokyo Raiders flew sixteen B-25 Mitchell bombers from the aircraft carrier "Hornet" to attack the Japanese home islands on April 18, 1942. The U. S. Army Air Forces, U. S. Navy, and five Allied nations operated the Mitchell during World War II. North American Aviation Inc. built 9,817 until production ended in 1945.
On March 11, 1939, the U.S. Army Air Corps requested bids from aviation companies interested in competing for a large contract to design and build a new medium bomber. Six months later, the Air Corps selected two bidders. They chose the Glenn L. Martin Company of Baltimore to produce the B-26 Marauder, then one of the most advanced and ambitious airplane designs in the world. To reduce the risk that unforeseen technical problems could delay the Marauder, the Air Corps staff also selected a design that promised robust but not extraordinary performance: the North American B-25.
Early in the project, North American Vice President and chief engineer, John Leland "Lee" Atwood suggested 'Mitchell' as the official name for the B-25. This was a tribute to General William "Billy" Mitchell. The U.S. Army court martialed Mitchell in 1925 for his vehement, public advocacy of air power. The B-25 Mitchell drew heavily on the NA-40, an earlier North American design. The general layout and engine type remained unchanged but designers tweaked the B-25 by lowering the wing and revising the cockpit to side-by-side seating.
The origin of the distinctive twin vertical fin and rudder layout on the B-25 remains obscure but may simply have been a designer's whim. Whatever the original intent, it made the Mitchell rock solid and controllable if an engine quit. This occurred frequently in combat. Depending on weight, the airplane could maintain altitude or even climb on a single engine but asymmetrical drag caused the B-25 to yaw into the dead motor. Two fins and rudders increased the pilot's ability to maintain control. Duplicate fins and rudders also added redundancy to a critical flight control (particularly in multi-engine aircraft) should enemy fire disable or destroy either vertical tail unit.
By 1940, most of American society believed war was inevitable and a feeling of urgency enveloped Air Corps planners. They directed North American to produce the B-25 based solely on calculated performance without first testing a pre-production prototype. This risky step sped delivery of 130 Mitchells to front line squadrons before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
Both the B-25 and B-26 initially operated in the Pacific. In May 1943, Air Corps pilots and flight crew based in England flew their first combat missions in B-26 Marauders. Thereafter, this became the mainstay medium bomber in European operations. Deliveries of the B-25 Mitchell remained focused on the Pacific theater but the airplane also flew combat missions over Europe and the Mediterranean.
In the four months after Pearl Harbor, the Japanese scored one resounding victory after another. They appeared unstoppable. Then on April 18, 1942, Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle led sixteen B-25B Mitchell bombers on the famous raid against Japan and the offensive momentum began to shift in favor of America. The B-25 made this raid possible. It was the only bomber able to takeoff from an aircraft carrier with a useful bombload and fly the required distance.
Men and Mitchells for Doolittle's raid came from the first operational B-25 unit, the 17th Bombardment Group. Crews trained for several months and mechanics modified the B-25s to reduce weight and increase fuel capacity. A Japanese picket ship spotted Vice Admiral William F. Halsey's carrier task force bearing Doolittle's raiders before the ships could close to optimum range to launch the bombers. Doolittle chose to continue the mission and sixteen aircraft launched from the carrier Hornet and bombed Tokyo, Kobe, and Nagoya. Fifteen Mitchells ran out of fuel and crashed; one diverted to a safe landing at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union. Eleven crews bailed out and two crash-landed with their bombers. Three men died, seven were injured, and the Japanese captured eight. The attack inflicted minimal damage but it was a stunning psychological blow to the Japanese. At home, America went wild and morale soared for the first time since Pearl Harbor.
Throughout the war, the demands of combat flying proved that the B-25 was easy to fly and maintain. Crews liked it and by war's end, the Mitchell had served in the 5th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th U.S. Air Forces. The U.S. Navy flew more than 700 B-25s they designated the PBJ. Our wartime allies also flew the Mitchell. The Dutch operated more than 300 and under the great wartime aid program called Lend-Lease, the United States delivered various models of the B-25 to the following nations:
USSR - 870
Brazil - 29
Great Britain - 910
Mexico - 3
After the war, many countries received B-25s through various foreign-aid programs:
Argentina - 3
Brazil - 64+
Chile - 12
China - 100+
Colombia - 3
Cuba - 4
Dominican Republic - 1
Peru - 8
Uruguay - 16+
Venezuela - 14+
The North American plant at Kansas City, Kansas, built the National Air and Space Museum's B-25J-20-NC and delivered it to the United States Army Air Forces on November 14, 1944. The Army Air Forces assigned the Serial Number 44-29887 to this Mitchell. The bomber never saw combat but for the next seven years it flew at these bases and airfields:
November 1944 - To 586th AAF [Army Air Field] Base Unit (Ferrying Squadron, Air Transport Command), Lunken AP, Cincinnati, Ohio. [AP - aerial port for embarking and disembarking military aircraft]
December 1945 - To 1103rd AAF Base Unit (Caribbean Division, Air Transport Command), Morrison AAF, West Palm Beach, Florida.
July 1946 - To 4119th AAF Base Unit (Air Materiel Command, or AMC), Brookley AAF, Alabama.
November 1946 - Third Air Force Air Depot, AMC, Seattle MAP, Washington.
January 1951, the United States Air Force assigned the bomber to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
In July 1953, the shooting war in Korea ended but the Cold War continued. U.S. Air Force staff directed the Hayes Aircraft Company in Birmingham, Alabama, to modify 380 B-25J aircraft, including 44-29887, for "specialized, advanced pilot training." More specific information about the new mission is not known but Hayes made the following modifications to each airplane:
a. Removed all armament and armor plate.
b. Modernized the lighting setup for the instrument panel.
c. Improved the oxygen system, radio, and interphone system.
d. Improved fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment.
e. Replaced original three-piece windshield with one-piece, wrap-around panel of safety glass, installed windshield wiper and deicing system.
f. Installed more soundproofing insulation and added interior trim and upholstery.
g. Enlarged front entrance hatch inside nose wheel well, added escape hatches.
h. On some airplanes, replaced "s-type" exhaust stacks with partial collector ring exhaust on upper 7 cylinders of each engine.
i. Added two passenger seats ahead of the bomb bay and five seats behind.
j. Lengthened the flight deck aft to the bomb bay.
k. Installed emergency mechanical release for main landing gear.
The company worked on these Mitchells from November 1953 to December 1954 and the Air Force redesignated each modified airplane a TB-25N.
After Hayes finished working on 44-22897, the U.S. Air Force reassigned the airplane to Wright-Patterson AFB, then to Eglin AFB, Florida. In November 1957, the government declared the Mitchell obsolete and sold it to Les Bowman Engineering, Long Beach, California, for $2777.
The Long Beach company registered the bomber with the Civil Aviation Authority (now the Federal Aviation Administration or FAA) as N10564. Louis Parsons, owner of Parsons Airpark in Carpinteria, California, bought the airplane in December 1957 and contracted with AiResearch Aviation in Los Angeles to modify the airplane to conduct fire bombing missions. In August 1958, AiResearch installed tanks holding 1209 gallons of the fire-fighting chemical borate and Parsons flew this "borate bomber" for several fire seasons. Parsons painted "E91" on this Mitchell.
In late July 1960 four B-25 bombers crashed while dropping borate on forest fires near Magic Mountain in southern California. Two crewmen died in each crash. This string of tragedies led the United States Forest Service (USFS) to ban the B-25 from fire bombing operations. Companies fighting fires with the B-25 protested and the USFS decided to study the type more closely. They selected N10564 for a series of flight tests conducted at Edwards AFB, California, in February 1962. The results confirmed the initial decision and B-25 fire-fighting operations never resumed.
Parsons sold the B-25 to Hemet Valley Flying Service in Hemet Valley, California, in May 1965. The new owner removed both engines and installed them in a Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat. The Mitchell received new engines and Tallmantz Aviation of Santa Ana, California, bought it in October 1968. This bomber joined thirteen other rundown and nearly forgotten B-25s the Tallmantz company gathered from across the U.S. Tallmantz already owned three bombers that they flew as camera ships. They refurbished a total of eighteen Mitchells to airworthy condition and modified them to a "Hollywood" wartime configuration complete with functioning bomb bay doors, semi-original gun turrets, and squadron markings.
Early in 1969 eighteen B-25s flew to Guaymas, Mexico. This was the first squadron of Mitchell bombers to take to the air since World War II. The mission: to film Paramount Picture's movie adaptation of Joseph Heller's novel Catch-22. Studio effects artists painted the tail code "6Y" in white and a dancing girl on the left nose of the NASM B-25J. She wore a red bikini and blue skirt and her name, Luscious Lulu, appeared in red with white highlights. The camera pans briefly across this Mitchell as the movie opens. Paramount planned to film for six weeks but the production required three months to shoot and the bombers flew a total of about 1,500 hours. They appear on screen for twelve minutes.
Catch-22 opens with a mass takeoff of sixteen B-25s and all the stunt pilots involved considered this scene the most dangerous sequence to film. Four takes were required but no accidents occurred. The only fatality during the entire production happened when a cameraman fell from the tail of a Mitchell at altitude. Paramount released Catch-22 in June 1970 to sour reviews and the movie fared poorly at the box office.
This cinematic dud profoundly influenced the numbers of surviving B-25s. Sixteen of the eighteen bombers used in the film still fly and one of these airplanes remains in covered storage and protected from the elements in the NASM aeronautical collection.
Tallmantz sold most of the B-25 collection and DAVU Aviation in Santa Fe, New Mexico, bought the NASM Mitchell in January 1971. Title to the bomber transferred to Wings of Yesterday but the airplane remained in Santa Fe. Almost eight years later, Dr. John F. Marshall bought it and flew the B-25 to Williston Airport, near Ocala, Florida, in November 1979. Marshall painted "Carol Jean" beneath the left cockpit in honor of his wife.
Marshall continued to fly the bomber and it appeared regularly at airshows across the nation. Like many operators of World War II aircraft, Marshall campaigned the airshow circuit to educate as well as to entertain the public. "It's amazing to me that people don't know their history," he said. "Don't get me wrong. We have a heck of a lot of fun with the plane, but the main purpose of the Carol Jean is to teach people their heritage and instill patriotism."
Three rows of black bomb stencils painted beneath the left side of the cockpit document Carol Jean's career as an airshow queen. The location and date of each show appears inside each bomb symbol. During World War II, many bomber crews used the same symbology to record their combat missions.
In 1985 Marshall read of NASM's interest in acquiring a B-25 and decided that the bomber was ready for permanent retirement. Two days before he delivered the Mitchell to the Museum, Marshall determined to end his chapter in the history of this airplane with a sensational finale. In the afternoon of Saturday, November 16, 1985, with several friends as crew, Marshall buzzed low over the University of Florida football stadium during a home game against Kentucky. Seventy-two thousand fans witnessed "Carol Jean" pass the length of the field just above the light poles.
Al Alsobrook, vice president for university relations, compared Marshall's pass in the B-25 to a similar buzz job carried out years earlier by a military jet pilot. "All I remember [about the jet]," he said," is that I was scared quicker and it was over quicker." The flight stirred complaints to the Federal Aviation Administration. "My phone rang for 2 ½ hours," said Fred Williams, an FAA airworthiness inspector. "There were many, many people who were irate."
Marshall said there was "no malicious intent. . . It was a perfect day. We made several passes [away from the stadium] and the airplane felt good. We felt good, and it all fell together. . . It was a last hurrah - the airplane is going to the Smithsonian. She had a home in Florida, and we wanted to say goodbye."
On Monday, November 18, 1985, Marshall landed at Dulles Airport and taxied "Carol Jean" into Smithsonian custody.
Wingspan: 20.3 m (67 ft 7 in)
Length: 15.9 m (52 ft 11 in)
Height: 4.9 m (16 ft 4 in)
Weight: Empty, 8,766 kg (19,480 lb)
Gross, 15,750 kg (35,000 lb)
Engines: (2) Curtiss-Wright R-2600-13, 1,700 hp each
Reference and Further Reading:
Avery, Norm L. "B-25 Mitchell, The Magnificent Medium." St. Paul, Minn.: Phalanx Publishing, 1992.
Hickey, Lawrence J. "Warpath Across the Pacific: The Illustrated History of the 345th Bombardment Group During World War II." Boulder, Colo.: International Research and Publishing Corp., 1986.
Thompson, Scott A. "B-25 Mitchell in Civil Service." Elk Grove, Calif.: Aero Vintage Books, 1997.
"Catch-22." Paramount Pictures, 121 minutes, Mike Nichols, Director, screenplay by Buck Henry. Produced by John Calley and Martin Ransohoff, starring Alan Arkin, Art Garfunkel, Martin Balsam, and Martin Sheen. Videotape.
Today we'll celebrate the 100th birthday of the eighth Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, who, with endless exuberance and optimism, presided over the greatest period of expansion in the Smithsonian's history from 1964 to 1984. Ripley's tenure saw ten new museums and six research institutes, introduction of multiculturalism at the Smithsonian, and development of education programs for children, advanced students and adults. The change was so rapid and constant that one curator reminisced that he had gone from "young Turk" to conservative oldster within Ripley's first year. Energetic and exuberant, Ripley frequently told Smithsonian staff that they should be having fun at work at every day. So what brought this unique personality to the Smithsonian?
Born on September 20, 1913, in New York City, Ripley was the fourth child of Louis Arthur Ripley and Constance Baillie Rose Ripley. The great grandson of Sidney Dillon, founder of the Union Pacific Railroad, he grew up in New York society. Life was divided between New York City and the family estate, Kilvarock, in Litchfield, Connecticut, with summers often spent in Paris. Ripley's sense of adventure was well-honed by his extensive travels as a child, with frequent trips to Europe and, when he was 13, a family trip to India that included a six-week walking trek of Lahdak or western Tibet with his older sister. He developed a lifelong interest in natural history, especially birds, collecting and identifying all he could find and rearing waterfowl at his home. His offbeat sense of humor was often aimed at tradition, although he loved traditions himself. While attending St. Paul’s School in New Hampshire, he formed the "Offall Eating Club," a poke at exclusive eating clubs, with his dedication to "offal" or the remains of animals found on the side of the road.
Although his family would have preferred he pursue a career in law, Ripley did not envision himself in a pinstripe suit in an office. He was drawn to a life in the theater while at Yale University (1932-1936), where he was a member of the Yale Dramat. However, he settled on his first love, studying biology with G. Evelyn Hutchinson at Yale. After graduation he set out on the Denison-Crockett South Pacific Expedition in 1937, followed by trips to New Guinea and Sumatra. He was finishing a doctorate at Harvard when World War II was declared. He sought to enlist immediately, but the 6'5" lanky young adventurer was too thin and rejected by all the services. He worked briefly as a curator of birds at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History until he secured an appointment with the Office of Strategic Services, the World War II intelligence service. Stationed in Southeast Asia, he served as liaison to General Louis Mountbatten of Great Britain, but snuck out of camp to go bird watching whenever he could. His roommate, the future diplomat Paul Child, brought Ripley along for one R&R trip to see his fiancé, Julia McWillliams (yes that Julia Child, who, according to Ripley, did not know how to boil an egg in those days. There he met Julia's roommate and his future wife, Mary Moncrieffe Livingston, a young socialite who had also fled society life for adventure abroad. The Ripleys and Childs maintained their friendship throughout their lives.
After the war, Ripley settled into a professorial life at Yale, teaching biology and directing the Peabody Museum of Natural History. His irrepressible style soon garnered headlines as he hired belly-dancers for the opening of a King Tut exhibit and organized expeditions into remote corners of the globe to catch the elusive spiny babbler. In 1964, he returned to the Smithsonian as the eighth Secretary and an agent of change. He refocused the Institution outward, symbolized by his rotation of the statue of Secretary Joseph Henry to face the National Mall, rather than the Castle. He put owls in the Castle towers to lower the rodent population, and rescued some distraught farm hens who had escaped their exhibit during the Nixon inaugural ball at the Museum of American History. Ripley opened the doors of the museums for the Poor People's Campaign in 1968 and established a new museum in Anacostia, an African-American neighborhood in Washington, D.C., while turning back wealthy Marjorie Merriweather Post's decorative arts collection at Hillwood to her heirs. He created programs for interns and fellowships for students to bring new energy into the venerable Institution. He participated in the Endangered Species Act legislation, encouraged ecological research, and established an endangered species breeding park in rural Virginia.
But Ripley was as interested in art, culture and history, as the sciences, sometimes to the dismay of scientists who now had to compete for funds. He founded the annual Smithsonian Folklife Festival on the National Mall, opened a modern art museum – the Hirshhorn, and rode a horsedrawn carriage to celebrate the American Bicentennial. He loved a good party, cutting the rug with Mary Ripley at Smithsonian Associates balls and Folklife Festival dance parties. As he wrote in a column in the Smithsonian magazine that he founded: "There is little point in treading the hard road to knowledge unless one finds beauty and joy in enlarging perceptions.”
Let us march on! : selected civil rights photographs of Ernest C. Withers 1955-1968 / organized by the Massachusetts College of Art and the Department of African-American Studies, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts ; edited by Ronald W. Bailey and Michèle Furst ; preface by Margaret Walker
Withers, Ernest C
Bailey, Ronald W
Massachusetts College of Art
Northeastern University (Boston, Mass.) Dept. of African-American Studies
Withers, Ernest C Exhibitions
86 p. : ill. ; 22 x 28 cm
Civil rights movements--History--Exhibitions
TR647.W822 M4 1992
E185.53.B6 M37 1992
Catalog of an exhibition at the Massachusetts College of Art, Nov. 9-Dec. 19, 1992
Picturing the black experience and framing the civil rights photography of Ernest C. Withers / Ronald W. Bailey -- The Emmett Till murder trial, Sumner, Mississippi, 1955 -- School desegregation, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 -- Memphis, Tennessee in the 1950s and 60s -- Voter registration and the Tent City protest, Fayette County, Tennessee, 1960 -- James Meredith and the Mississippi Campaign, 1962 and 1966 -- Medgar Evers, 1925-1963 -- Montgomery Bus Boycott, Montgomery, Alabama, 1955 -- Sanitation Workers' Strike, Memphis, Tennessee, 1968 -- Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Memphis, Tennessee, April 4, 1968 -- Poor People's Campaign, Marks, Mississippi and Washington, DC, 1968 -- Afterword / Ronald W. Bailey
Earth summit : conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future / by Steve Lerner
Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future
Commonweal (Organization) Sustainable Futures Group
Philippine Institute of Alternative Futures
xvi, 263 p. ; 22 cm
Economic development--Environmental aspects
HC79.E5 L4 1991
"A joint publication of Commonweal and Philippine Institute of Alternative Futures."
The meshing of the world's economy and the earth's ecology / James MacNeill -- The case for reinventing technology to promote sustainable development / Jessica Tuchman Mathews -- Environmental economics dictate limits to growth / Herman Daly -- The promise of harnessing market forces to protect the environment / Fred Krupp -- Indigenous tree planting campaign takes root in Kenya / Gilbert Arum -- Building sustainable municipalities in Norway and Czechoslovakia / Gunnar Album -- Fuel efficient cook stoves for Zimbabwe / Sam Moyo -- A sustainable development project rises in a poor district in Montevideo / Alberto Villarreal -- Protecting the wilderness of western Canada / Mark Wareing -- Political organizing promotes sustainable development in the Philippines / Maximo T. Kalaw Jr -- Putting pressure on the World Bank to make its loans promote sustainable development / Bruce Rich -- The campaign to reform the multilateral development banks / Brent Blackwelder -- Tax pollution, not payrolls / Rafe Pomerance -- The art of lobbying international environmental negotiations / Frances Spivy-Weber
(cont.) Organizing an Asian regional coalition to promote sustainable development / Antonio B. Quizon -- Greenpeace pushes for a visionary response to global environmental problems / Roger Wilson -- Looking for an environmentally friendly model of development for Chile / Marisol Tovarias -- On global environmental issues, the people are leading and the leaders are following / Janet Brown -- The history of the Brundtland Commission and the origins of UNCED / Warren H. Lindner -- Creating the conditions for a sustainable future/ Michael Lerner
Courage to dissent : Atlanta and the long history of the civil rights movement / Tomiko Brown-Nagin
Brown-Nagin, Tomiko 1970-
xi, 578 p. ; 25 cm
Segregation--Law and legislation--History
Civil rights movements--History
Pt. 1. A.T. Walden and pragmatic civil rights lawyering in the postwar era -- "Aren't going to let a nigger practice in our courts" : the milieu of civil rights pragmatism -- The roots of pragmatism : voting rights activism inside and outside the courts, 1944-1957 -- Housing markets, Black and White : negotiating the postwar housing crisis, 1944-1959 -- "Segregation pure and simple" : school, community, and the NAACP's education litigation, 1942-1958 -- More than "polite segregation" : Brown in public spaces, 1954-1959 -- pt. 2. The movement, its lawyers, and the fight for racial justice during the 1960s -- Seeking redress in the streets : the student movement's challenge to racial pragmatism and legal liberalism, 1960-1961 -- A volatile alliance : the marriage of lawyers and demonstrators, 1961-1964 -- Local people as agents of constitutional change : legal dead ends, the movement against "private" discrimination, and the countermobilization, 1963-1964 -- "New politics" : law, organizing, and a "movement of movements" in the Southern ghetto, 1965-1967 -- pt. 3. Questioning Brown : lawyers, courts, and communities in struggle -- A curious silence : community activism and the legal campaign to implement Brown, 1958-1971 -- An end to an "annual agony" : the backlash against Brown and busing, 1971-1974 -- "Bus them to Philadelphia" : a feminist lawyer and poor mothers crusade to redeem Brown, 1972-1980
Martin Luther King, the inconvenient hero / Vincent Harding
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968 Influence
King, Martin Luther Jr. 1929-1968 Religion
x, 146 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
1. The Inconvenient Hero: The Last Years of Martin Luther King, Jr. -- 2. Getting Ready for the Hero -- 3. Martin King, Burning Bushes, and Us: Revisiting the March on Washington -- 4. Beyond Amnesia: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Future of America -- 5. The Land Beyond: Reflections on King's "Beyond Vietnam" Speech -- 6. We Must Keep Going -- 7. Blessed Astronaut of the Human Race -- 8. Tell the Children
In these eloquent essays, the noted scholar and activist Vincent Harding reflects on the forgotten legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the meaning of his life today. Many of these reflections are inspired by the ambiguous message surrounding the official celebration of King's birthday. Harding sees a tendency to freeze an image of King from the period of his early leadership of the Civil Rights movement, the period culminating with his famous "I Have a Dream Speech." Harding writes passionately of King's later years, when his message and witness became more radical and challenging to the status quo at every level. In those final years before his assassination King took up the struggle against racism in the urban ghettos of the North; he became an eloquent critic of the Vietnam war; he laid the foundations for the Poor People's Campaign. This widening of his message and his tactics entailed controversy even within his own movement. But they point to a consistent expansion of his critique of American injustice and his solidarity with the oppressed. It was this spirit that brought him to Memphis in 1968 to lend his support to striking sanitation workers. It was there that he paid the final price for his prophetic witness
Food industry and trade--Moral and ethical aspects
Food industry and trade--Environmental aspects
Introduction : taking root -- rethinking school food in New Orleans -- Defining food justice --
I. An unjust food system -- 1. Growing and producing food -- Slavery in the fields -- Farmworkers at the margins -- The canary's song: chemicals in the factories and on the land -- Turning farms into factories -- Cows: "a great place to live" -- Swine: stench and sludge -- Chickens: the Tyson way --
2. Accessing food -- Grocery gaps -- Supersizing supermarkets -- Cars to carts -- The Tesco invasion -- Convenient calorie culture -- Eating out, fast, cheap, and more --
3. Consuming food -- Dismantling Malbouffe -- Downsizing cooking -- Health not on the label -- Overfed but poorly nourished -- Manipulating food choices --
4. Food politics -- The People's Department -- Farm Bill debates -- School food policies -- Taming hunger -- Cultivating change --
5. The food system goes global -- Chinese garlic in the United States, potato chips in China -- Black rice and Banana Republic -- Going global -- Wal-Mex takes over -- Globesity -- Food sovereignty: global struggles --
II. Food justice action and strategies -- 6. Growing justice -- The little farm in Paper City -- The battles in the fields -- Immigrants breaking ground -- Reinventing farming -- Urban farmers --
7. Forging new food routes -- A Philadelphia story -- At face value -- Farmers' markets for all? -- A share in the harvest: the CSA Model -- Scaling up: the Farm to School Program --
8. Transforming the food experience -- A slow food epiphany -- Going local -- Connecting with food -- A place-based food culture --
9. A new food politics -- Sowing the seeds of CFP -- Filling a vacuum: Food Policy Councils - State campaigns -- School food revolution -- Empowering the hungry --
10. An emerging movement -- Eat the view -- The multiple layers of food justice -- The change agenda -- Finding a voice
In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of "globesity." To combat these inequities and excesses, a movement for food justice has emerged in recent years seeking to transform the food system from seed to table. In Food Justice, Robert Gottlieb and Anupama Joshi tell the story of this emerging movement
A food justice framework ensures that the benefits and risks of how food is grown and processed, transported, distributed, and consumed are shared equitably. Gottlieb and Joshi recount the history of food injustices and describe current efforts to change the system, including community gardens and farmer training in Holyoke, Massachusetts; youth empowerment through the Rethinkers in New Orleans; farm-to-school programs across the country; and the Los Angeles school system's elimination of sugary soft drinks from its cafeterias. And they tell how food activism has succeeded at the highest level: advocates waged a grassroots campaign that convinced the Obama White House to plant a vegetable garden. The first comprehensive inquiry into this-emerging movement, Food Justice addresses the increasing disconnect between food and culture that has resulted from our highly industrialized food system. --Book Jacket