Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
1485 documents - page 1 of 75

Pende [Minganji mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying caption reads, " Masque Minganji." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " Minganji mask."
De Sousberghe photographed a dancer performing the mask Gitenga. One of the many popular masks entirely covered with raffia, it represents the ancestors. Gitenga, sometimes called the mask "sun", is highly recognizable with a mask in the shape of a large disk made of raffia and basket-making and covered with red-paint (mukundu) and kaolin (pembe).
Local Numbers:
LS 113
General:
Title source: Léon de Sousberghe.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100072
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref578

Pende [Giphogo mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying Léon de Sousberghe caption reads, " Masque Giphogo." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " Giphogo mask."
For Eastern Pende, if the mask Pumbu depicts the courage that the chief must sometimes muster to address life-and-death issues, its pendant mask, the beloved Kipoko, represents everything warm and nurturing about the chief's role. Every chief of every degree has the right to Kipoko. Typically, sculptors exaggerate the mask's eyes, nose, and ears, but render the mouth diminutive or nonexistent. Thus they convey that the chief should benefit from a kind of sensory hyperactivity in order to know everything that is happening in his village.
Local Numbers:
LS 044
General:
Title source: Archives staff.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100066
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref572

Pende [Giphogo mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying Léon de Sousberghe caption reads, " Masque Giphogo." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " Giphogo mask."
For Eastern Pende, if the mask Pumbu depicts the courage that the chief must sometimes muster to address life-and-death issues, its pendant mask, the beloved Kipoko, represents everything warm and nurturing about the chief's role. Every chief of every degree has the right to Kipoko. Typically, sculptors exaggerate the mask's eyes, nose, and ears, but render the mouth diminutive or nonexistent. Thus they convey that the chief should benefit from a kind of sensory hyperactivity in order to know everything that is happening in his village.
Local Numbers:
LS 043
General:
Title source: Archives staff.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100064
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref570

Pende [Giphogo mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying Léon de Sousberghe caption reads, " Masque Giphogo." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " Giphogo mask."
For Eastern Pende, if the mask Pumbu depicts the courage that the chief must sometimes muster to address life-and-death issues, its pendant mask, the beloved Kipoko, represents everything warm and nurturing about the chief's role. Every chief of every degree has the right to Kipoko. Typically, sculptors exaggerate the mask's eyes, nose, and ears, but render the mouth diminutive or nonexistent. Thus they convey that the chief should benefit from a kind of sensory hyperactivity in order to know everything that is happening in his village.
Local Numbers:
LS 045
General:
Title source: Archives staff.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100065
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref571

Pende [Mayombo mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying Léon de Sousberghe caption reads, " Kisanji. Le masque Mayombo des Pende de Longele et Lufuku." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " The Mayombo mask of the Pende living in the Longele and Lufuku region."
For the Kwilu Pende, the most traditional mask is Mayombo, also called Kiniungu. Unfortunately, at the time Leon de Sousberghe was travelling across the Kwilu Pendeland, the mask Mayombo was not in use anymore. As a result, information was difficult to gather.
Local Numbers:
LS 155
General:
Title source: Archives staff.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100067
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref573

Pende [Mayombo mask]

Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Sousberghe, Léon de  Search this
Extent:
1 slide (col.)
Culture:
Pende (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
[ca. 1957]
Scope and Contents:
Original accompanying Léon de Sousberghe caption reads, " Kisanji. Le masque Mayombo." Translated original accompanying caption reads, " The Mayombo mask at Kisanji."
For the Kwilu Pende, the most traditional mask is Mayombo, also called Kiniungu. Unfortunately, at the time Leon de Sousberghe was travelling across the Kwilu Pendeland, the mask Mayombo was not in use anymore. As a result, information was difficult to gather.
Local Numbers:
LS 156
General:
Title source: Archives staff.
Note source: Archives staff.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.1999-010, Item EEPA 1999-100068
See more items in:
Leon de Sousberghe photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-1999-010-ref574

Player wearing the nne mgbo mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Nne Mgbe (mother of Mgbe), a name whose origin is forgotten, somewhat similar to the white-faced beke (white person) mask, and sometimes confused with it. Porcupine quills. He has come out to dance individually, though others may do so as well at the same time. Or he has come out to seek a 'dash' from me." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts akparakpa dancers preceded by opa nwa mask player. The akparakpa dancers sing as part of the chorus, and at set intervals in the play they come out and dance counterclockwise in a circle around the remainder of the chorus. The akparakpa are dressed to represent young, unmarried females. One of the player wears the opa nwa mask, the largest Afikpo mask. The mask is said to be worn by only one person in the okumkpa play, an older boy or young man who dresses up like a girl and, at the next to the last event of the play, comes forward to dance in imitation of a girl's style.
The photograph depicts ori dancer with nne mgbo mask. Although it is occasionally worn at the okumkpa play with the dark raffia ori costume to portray a woman in one of the skits, it is also one of the favorite masks worn by young adult males, who come out and dance individually between skits and serve as an important and clearly male group.
Local Numbers:
353/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070566
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0566
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1074

Player wearing the opa nwa mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okumkpa performance at Mgbom Village square. A member of the senior akparakpa group wearing the upa nwa (carry-child mask). The senior ones tend to wear this, the junior ones the acali mask, a smaller one, easier to carry." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
Publication caption reads, "Boy dressed as akparakpa player with opa nwa mask at the Mgbom okumkpa in 1960."
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts akparakpa dancers preceded by opa nwa mask player. The akparakpa dancers sing as part of the chorus, and at set intervals in the play they come out and dance counterclockwise in a circle around the remainder of the chorus. The akparakpa are dressed to represent young, unmarried females. One of the player wears the opa nwa mask, the largest Afikpo mask. The mask is said to be worn by only one person in the okumkpa play, an older boy or young man who dresses up like a girl and, at the next to the last event of the play, comes forward to dance in imitation of a girl's style.
Local Numbers:
393/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070593
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0593
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1101

Player wearing the opa nwa mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okumkpa performance at Mgbom Village square. The masker with a red plume on top is the 'Queen' masquerader, as the Afikpo call it in English, and wears the upa nwa (carry-child) mask. When he comes out to dance the performance is over." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
Publication caption reads, "Skit of the girl who refuses to marry in the 1952 Amuro okumkpa play. The player is wearing the opa nwa mask. His 'mother' is just in back of him, the two play leaders are to his right. The father of the man playing the girl is approaching him from his left to give him a 'dash'."
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts akparakpa dancers preceded by opa nwa mask player. The akparakpa dancers sing as part of the chorus, and at set intervals in the play they come out and dance counterclockwise in a circle around the remainder of the chorus. The akparakpa are dressed to represent young, unmarried females. One of the player wears the opa nwa mask, the largest Afikpo mask. The mask is said to be worn by only one person in the okumkpa play, an older boy or young man who dresses up like a girl and, at the next to the last event of the play, comes forward to dance in imitation of a girl's style.
Local Numbers:
352/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070565
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0565
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1073

Player wearing a female Ibibio mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "A female Ibibio style mask, as Afikpo call it. Female by its hair style. Porcupine quills. Style from the Ibibio people some distant south of Afikpo, but probably made at Afikpo." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
Publication caption reads, "An ibibio mask at the Mgbom okumkpa in 1960. The masquerader is wearing a pink plastic necklace made up of numerous disks strung together and a porcupine quill headdress."
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts dancer wearing female ibibio mask and using the dark raffia ori costume. Players in the skits wear this mask to represent an adult woman or at other time a man, and okumkpa musicians sometimes use it as well. The name refers to the fact that Afikpo consider it of Ibibio design and origin. The carving is both purchased by Afikpo in Ibibio and Anang country and regularly produced at home.
Local Numbers:
354/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070567
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0567
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1075

Player wearing the okpesu umuruma mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "An ugly masker, or Okpesu umuruma. This type of masquerader invariably wears dark brown, unattractive, often old cloths. Wives, as in the case of the Okposi slave trader masquerader in the njenje masquerade parade, do not like husbands to wear it. It's not fine looking. This masker has spotted me in the audience and is coming forward for a 'dash' (present)." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts okepesu umuruma mask, also called ihu ori. Common to the okumkpa play, the okpesu umuruma is a favorite mask of the older players who, wearing the dark ori costume, dance individually betwen the skits and may also be actors. Okumkpa musicians sometimes wear an ugly mask. The mask stands for greediness and the self-interest of elders; the facial distortions seem to be regarded not as symptoms of physical illness, but rather as social illness.
Local Numbers:
368/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070581
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0581
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1089

Player wearing the okpesu umuruma mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "An ugly masker, or Okpesu umuruma. This type of masquerader invariably wears dark brown, unattractive, often old cloths. Wives, as in the case of the Okposi slave trader masquerader in the njenje masquerade parade, do not like husbands to wear it. It's not fine looking. This masker has spotted me in the audience and is coming forward for a 'dash' (present)." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts okepesu umuruma mask, also called ihu ori. Common to the okumkpa play, the okpesu umuruma is a favorite mask of the older players who, wearing the dark ori costume, dance individually betwen the skits and may also be actors. Okumkpa musicians sometimes wear an ugly mask. The mask stands for greediness and the self-interest of elders; the facial distortions seem to be regarded not as symptoms of physical illness, but rather as social illness.
Local Numbers:
369/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070582
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0582
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1090

Player wearing the nne mgbo mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Nne Mgbe masker." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
Publication caption reads, "Ori dancer with nne Mgbo mask, Mgbom village okumkpa, 1960."
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts ori dancer with nne mgbo mask. Although it is occasionally worn at the okumkpa play with the dark raffia ori costume to portray a woman in one of the skits, it is also one of the favorite masks worn by young adult males, who come out and dance individually between skits and serve as an important and clearly male group.
Local Numbers:
367/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070580
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0580
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1088

Players with mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Oha Nwego Village, Okpoha Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg at the Okonkwo dance presented on the the market day, aho, 9 January 1960 in the Eastern Igbo community of Oha Nwego Village, in neighboring Okpoha Village-Group. Dr. Ottenberg was conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okpoha Ngodo performance at Okpoha Village-Group, an Igbo village-group northwest of Afikpo, related to it historically. Dancing counterclockwise as usual for Igbo and other Africans. The mask is similar to the Afikpo mma ji (knife-ham) or mma ubi (knife-farm) except at Afikpo the top knife part is straight, here it is curved back toward the dancer's head. Note the plastic waist beads, normally worn by girls before initiation and marriage at their waists." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
Publication title reads, "Dancers with the circular-style 'knife' on the mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Okpoha Village-Group."
"Okonkwo, also called okpoha ngodo, is a dance of young adult men wearing wooden masks and costumes something like those of the akparakpa dancers in the okumkpa, who perform to the music of a xylophone, basket rattles, and in some cases a wooden gong. The xylophone (igeri or akware) is in the center of the common. Composed of nine boards, without calabashes underneath, it is colored orange, black and white, with red, black, and white spots on it. There was a human figure at the end. The xylophone was played by two musicians wearing white-faced masks looking something like the nne mgbo mask. When the musicians commenced to play, the dancers formed a line and moved about counterclockwise." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
323/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070539
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0539
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1047

Player wearing a female Ibibio mask at the Okumkpa performance, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "An Ibibio masker dancing." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okumpka, the most elaborate masquerade found at Afikpo Village-Group, is the most popular and well attended Afikpo masked ritual. It consists of a series of skits, songs, and dances presented by masked players in the main common of a village during of an afternoon or evening. The play is closely associated with the village secret society; all players are society members, and all wear wooden masks and costumes." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
The photograph depicts dancer wearing female ibibio mask and using the dark raffia ori costume. Players in the skits wear this mask to represent an adult woman or at other time a man, and okumkpa musicians sometimes use it as well. The name refers to the fact that Afikpo consider it of Ibibio design and origin. The carving is both purchased by Afikpo in Ibibio and Anang country and regularly produced at home.
Local Numbers:
375/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070588
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0588
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1096

Masqueraders wearing the upa nwa mask in the njenji parade, Mgbom village, Afikpo Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg while conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Njenje masquerade parade, Mgbom village, players practicing at home then moving out to Amuro Village. Walking through Mgbom Village before leaving for other villages to parade. Those dressed up as adolescent girls or young women, with mirrors above their heads, hair arranged like females, wearing the Upa nwa (carry-girl) mask are the village age grade leading the parade. They organize it in each Afikpo village doing to parade, and it is considered a title for the grade." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"The most elaborate masquerade, njenji, presented as part of the four-day Dry Season Festival, Iko Okoci, is a parade of the young adult members through many of the communities of afikpo. The masked paraders walk in a line, arranged in an order of descending age. Many players are dressed in costumes that make them appear as females. Some walk side by side as couples, dressed as man and wife, frequently in European-style dress. Other paraders are costumed as scholars, priests, or as Muslims. The players are arranged by the type of wooden mask they wear. Accompanying the masked line are small groups of net-masked dancers in various raffia and costumes who dance and prance about." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
229/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070450
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0450
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref958

Players with mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Oha Nwego Village, Okpoha Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg at the Okonkwo dance presented on the the market day, aho, 9 January 1960 in the Eastern Igbo community of Oha Nwego Village, in neighboring Okpoha Village-Group. Dr. Ottenberg was conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okpoha Ngodo performance at Okpoha Village-Group, an Igbo village-group northwest of Afikpo, related to it historically. Dancing counterclockwise as usual for Igbo and other Africans. The mask is similar to the Afikpo mma ji (knife-ham) or mma ubi (knife-farm) except at Afikpo the top knife part is straight, here it is curved back toward the dancer's head. Note the plastic waist beads, normally worn by girls before initiation and marriage at their waists." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okonkwo, also called okpoha ngodo, is a dance of young adult men wearing wooden masks and costumes something like those of the akparakpa dancers in the okumkpa, who perform to the music of a xylophone, basket rattles, and in some cases a wooden gong. The xylophone (igeri or akware) is in the center of the common. Composed of nine boards, without calabashes underneath, it is colored orange, black and white, with red, black, and white spots on it. There was a human figure at the end. The xylophone was played by two musicians wearing white-faced masks looking something like the nne mgbo mask. When the musicians commenced to play, the dancers formed a line and moved about counterclockwise." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
325/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070541
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0541
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1049

Players with mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Oha Nwego Village, Okpoha Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg at the Okonkwo dance presented on the the market day, aho, 9 January 1960 in the Eastern Igbo community of Oha Nwego Village, in neighboring Okpoha Village-Group. Dr. Ottenberg was conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okpoha Ngodo performance at Okpoha Village-Group, an Igbo village-group northwest of Afikpo, related to it historically. Dancing counterclockwise as usual for Igbo and other Africans. The mask is similar to the Afikpo mma ji (knife-ham) or mma ubi (knife-farm) except at Afikpo the top knife part is straight, here it is curved back toward the dancer's head. Note the plastic waist beads, normally worn by girls before initiation and marriage at their waists." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okonkwo, also called okpoha ngodo, is a dance of young adult men wearing wooden masks and costumes something like those of the akparakpa dancers in the okumkpa, who perform to the music of a xylophone, basket rattles, and in some cases a wooden gong. The xylophone (igeri or akware) is in the center of the common. Composed of nine boards, without calabashes underneath, it is colored orange, black and white, with red, black, and white spots on it. There was a human figure at the end. The xylophone was played by two musicians wearing white-faced masks looking something like the nne mgbo mask. When the musicians commenced to play, the dancers formed a line and moved about counterclockwise." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
326/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070542
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0542
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1050

Players with mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Oha Nwego Village, Okpoha Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg at the Okonkwo dance presented on the the market day, aho, 9 January 1960 in the Eastern Igbo community of Oha Nwego Village, in neighboring Okpoha Village-Group. Dr. Ottenberg was conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okpoha Ngodo performance at Okpoha Village-Group, an Igbo village-group northwest of Afikpo, related to it historically. Dancing counterclockwise as usual for Igbo and other Africans. The mask is similar to the Afikpo mma ji (knife-ham) or mma ubi (knife-farm) except at Afikpo the top knife part is straight, here it is curved back toward the dancer's head. Note the plastic waist beads, normally worn by girls before initiation and marriage at their waists." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okonkwo, also called okpoha ngodo, is a dance of young adult men wearing wooden masks and costumes something like those of the akparakpa dancers in the okumkpa, who perform to the music of a xylophone, basket rattles, and in some cases a wooden gong. The xylophone (igeri or akware) is in the center of the common. Composed of nine boards, without calabashes underneath, it is colored orange, black and white, with red, black, and white spots on it. There was a human figure at the end. The xylophone was played by two musicians wearing white-faced masks looking something like the nne mgbo mask. When the musicians commenced to play, the dancers formed a line and moved about counterclockwise." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
327/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070543
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0543
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1051

Players with mma ji mask at the okonkwo dance, Oha Nwego Village, Okpoha Village-Group, Nigeria

Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Ottenberg, Simon  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Culture:
Igbo (African people)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Color slides
Place:
Africa
Nigeria
Date:
1959-1960
Scope and Contents:
This photograph was taken by Dr. Simon Ottenberg at the Okonkwo dance presented on the the market day, aho, 9 January 1960 in the Eastern Igbo community of Oha Nwego Village, in neighboring Okpoha Village-Group. Dr. Ottenberg was conducting field research at Afikpo village-group, southeastern Nigeria, from September 1959 to December 1960.
Original caption reads, "Okpoha Ngodo performance at Okpoha Village-Group, an Igbo village-group northwest of Afikpo, related to it historically. Dancing counterclockwise as usual for Igbo and other Africans. The mask is similar to the Afikpo mma ji (knife-ham) or mma ubi (knife-farm) except at Afikpo the top knife part is straight, here it is curved back toward the dancer's head. Note the plastic waist beads, normally worn by girls before initiation and marriage at their waists." [Ottenberg field research notes, September 1959-December 1960, Part I].
"Okonkwo, also called okpoha ngodo, is a dance of young adult men wearing wooden masks and costumes something like those of the akparakpa dancers in the okumkpa, who perform to the music of a xylophone, basket rattles, and in some cases a wooden gong. The xylophone (igeri or akware) is in the center of the common. Composed of nine boards, without calabashes underneath, it is colored orange, black and white, with red, black, and white spots on it. There was a human figure at the end. The xylophone was played by two musicians wearing white-faced masks looking something like the nne mgbo mask. When the musicians commenced to play, the dancers formed a line and moved about counterclockwise." [ Ottenberg, 1975: Masked rituals of Afikpo, the context of an African art; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975].
Local Numbers:
329/1959-1960

EEPA 2000-070545
General:
Title source: Dr. Simon Ottenberg, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Other Archival Materials:
Simon Ottenberg Papers are located at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original records requires an appointment. Contact Archives staff for more details.
Collection Rights:
Permission to reproduce images from the Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives must be obtained in advance. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies -- Africa  Search this
Cultural landscapes  Search this
Masquerades  Search this
Clothing and dress -- Africa  Search this
Masks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Color slides
Identifier:
EEPA.2000-007, Item EEPA 2000-007-0545
See more items in:
Simon Ottenberg photographs
Archival Repository:
Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-eepa-2000-007-ref1053

Modify Your Search






or


Narrow By
  • Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives, National Museum of African Art