Emile Alluard, professor of physics at the University of Clermont-Ferand and director of the meteorological observatory on the nearby Puy-de-Dôme, described this type of hygrometer in 1878. A modification of Regnault's instrument, it consists of a square vessel made of polished nickel-plated brass. At either side of the vessel, but not touching it, are strips of similar material. In use, the vessel would be filled with ether, and this ether would be cooled by evaporation by means of an aspirating bulb. When dew appears on the shiny surface of the vessel, a thermometer in the vessel indicates the temperature of the ether at that point. A second thermometer measures the ambient temperature.
Robert A. Millikan described the Alluard hygrometer as being one of the "most perfect forms of the dew-point hygrometer" in his Mechanics, Molecular Physics and Heat, a popular college text that was first published in 1903 and that aimed "to present Physics as a science of exact measurement." This example is marked "A Sign of Quality WELCH A Mark of Service / W. M. Welch Scientific Company / ESTABLISHED 1880 / 1515 SEDGWICK ST. CHICAGO, U.S.A." It was made between 1921 (when the W. M. Welch Scientific Company began as such) and 1960 (when it became Welch Scientific). It is missing the aspirating bulb and both thermometers.
Ref: M. Allouard, "Nouvel Hygromètre a Condensation," Journal de Physique et le Radium 7 (1878): 328-330.
W. M. Welch Scientific Co., Catalog G (Chicago, 1935), p. 157.
The administration of the United States National Museum required curators to submit regular reports on the activities of the departments, divisions, and sections. Prior to about 1900 these reports were often made monthly and semi-annually as well as annually. The reports were traditionally submitted to the Director of the National Museum to be used in preparing the published Annual Report of the United States National Museum. The individual reports, however, were not reproduced in their entirety in the published Annual Report and generally contain more information than is to be found in the published version.
Reports were stored by the Division of Correspondence and Documents, and later by the Office of the Registrar.
Includes reports submitted to the Director of the United States National Museum by curators and administrators.
The diary (2 of 2) documents Bohumil Shimek's work in Austria-Hungary and Germany, July 23 - September 6, 1914 (2 books). Some entries switch back and forth between English and Czech. Pages are numbered. Entries are dated and describe a wide range of topics. Entries cover weather; local sights visited; institutes, universities and gardens seen; terrain observed especially along river banks; notes on plants observed; photographs taken; maps of buildings of institutions visited; terrain of ridges surrounding Kaiserstuhl (layers, composition, color, appearance, presence of fossils, shells). They also discuss current events: increased military presence battle at site of church, issues with local police, stories are local inhabitants effected by the beginning of World War I, and challenges of travel home. Locations include the vicinity of Rhine River; Mainz, Kaiserstuhl, Germany; Prague.
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at email@example.com.
Joy McLean Bosfield papers, circa 1929-1995 bulk 1945-1985
Bosfield, Joy McLean
Bosfield, Joy McLean
4 boxes (3.41 linear feet)
Joy McLean Bosfield was born on January 27, 1924 to John and Florence Mearimore. Her mother, an immigrant from Demerara, Guiana, married McLean's father, a prominent New York businessman, in March of 1923 in New Jersey. She lived with her family in Paramus, New Jersey until 1940, when she graduated from Ridgewood High School. During that same year McLean was accepted to the prestigious Hunter College, in New York. Her mother moved with her to New York City where they lived with Mrs. Mearimore's older brother. During her time in New York, McLean developed important relationships that helped shape her professionalism and creativeness. On February 26, 1945, McLean performed in her first recital at St. Martin's Little Theatre. It was the beginning of a long and distinguished career as a soprano opera singer. Three years after graduating and making her debut, she went on to perform at Carnegie Hall. In June of 1948, McLean married Charles McLean and moved to England. Mr. McLean, originally from British Guiana, wished to study law at London University, while Ms. McLean continued to develop her career by working for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) as a solo soprano for several of their programs. In 1952 Ms. McLean toured with an American company of Porgy and Bess. Through the production she travelled all over the world including eastern and western Europe and the Middle East. When she returned to the United States, McLean joined several musicals and continued to give recitals and public appearances. At some point, McLean married Samuel Bosfield and began being known as McLean Bosfield. She claimed the name change reflected her many years as a public figure and the importance of the associated reputation it generated. Later in life, McLean moved to Washington D.C. with her husband where she continued to work on her career by giving recitals and performing as a piano accompanist. She also began working for the Frederick Wilkerson Studio of Voice as a vocal coach. After the death of Wilkerson, McLean took over the studio in the 1980s. She called it the McLean Bosfield Vocal Studio. Besides vocal training she also produced public recitals for her students. The final student concert of the studio was held on March 17, 1985. It was not only the final concert for the studio (Ms. McLean retired and closed the studio in 1985) but it would also be Ms. McLean's final public performance. With the death of her husband, Samuel Bosfield, and her mother in 1983 and 1984 McLean found no reason to stay in D.C. She moved to Chapala, Mexico in 1985 after reconnecting with an old family friend she knew when she lived in New York City while attending college. Upon moving to Mexico, McLean married her long time friend, Bill Jackson who was several years her senior and had moved to Chapala years earlier with his deceased first wife. Jackson and McLean spent several fruitful years together, participating in community theater productions and other community functions until his death in 1991 at the age of 91. On April 4, 1999, Joy McLean Bosfield died.
The collection, which dates from circa 1923 to 1995 and measures 3.41 linear feet, documents the personal life and career of opera singer and voice teacher Joy McLean Bosfield. The papers are comprised of personal and professional correspondence, concert programs, contracts, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, photgraphs, radio scripts, and record albums.
Joy McLean Bosfield papers, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Joy McLean Bosfield
Inscription on flyleaf: "I / Journal of / Dr. L.H. Baekeland / Yonkers, NY [sic] / March 27, 1913 / to June 30, 1913." The diary details Baekeland's daily activities. He writes often of his visits and discussions, and the subjects of correspondence he has written and received. It sheds light on the use and distance of travel by automobile in the early twentieth century. In the notes, Baekeland explains increasing time spent in the laboratory in 1913.
Leo H. Baekeland Papers, 1863-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice-President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the Cabinet; the Mayor of Washington; and the Commissioner of the Patent Office. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877; and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice-President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and nine citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of citizen-Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice-President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead; and the office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.
These records are the official, edited minutes of the Board, compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board. Manuscript minutes exist for the period from 1846 to 1856, and after 1891. Only printed versions exist for the years from 1857 to 1891.
Negative log book number 8, or "green book," documenting various Smithsonian museums and events. Information includes negative numbers, subjects of the photographs, persons and departments for whom the pictures were taken, dates the pictures were taken, photographers, and dates the information was entered into the log books.
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 10-001, Negative Log Book Number 8, 1976
In the late 19th century, the Russian chemist Dimitry Ivanovich Mendeleev developed several charts in which chemical elements were grouped according to common properties. The atomic theory of matter developed over the next century suggested that these groupings could be explained by similarities in atomic structure.
In 1924, Henry D. Hubbard of the U.S. National Bureau of Standards prepared the first edition of this "Periodic Chart of the Atoms." It included symbols for the elements, atomic numbers, atomic weights, and descriptions of atomic structure. In the course of the twentieth century, numerous new elements were discovered and added to the chart. Physical data on the properties of elements also was incorporated. Wall charts became a fixture of the chemistry classroom.
The Periodic Chart of the Atoms was revised regularly by the NBS and published by the W. M. Welch Science Company of Chicago. This is the 1963 version of the chart, as prepared by spectroscopist William F. Meggars. High schools could purchase the charts with aid from the U.S. government. Some chemists working on curriculum projects of the time also prepared new forms of the periodic table.
Philatelic index [manuscript] / compiled by John K. Tiffany, 1880-1881
Tiffany, John K (John Kerr) 1843-1897
Ricketts, William R (William Reynolds) 1869-1956 DSI
1 v. (206 p.) ; 25 cm
Mechanically reproduced (lithographed or mimeographed?) from a handwritten draft, with addenda and corrections (apparently by J.K. Tiffany) added in pencil.
"Part I. Citing all passages in the stamp journals refering to the stamps of the United States. St. Louis, January, 1880"--T.p.
"Explanation. Having undertaken to put such information as I possessed in relation to the stamps of the United States in shape for publication for M. Moens I began by examining every stamp publication in my possession to ascertain what had already appeared in print upon my proposed subject. The references to these passages arranged under the various issues in their chronological order and brought down to date comprise this index. A chronological index of the various stamp journals, with their publishers each followed by the abbreviation used & by which it is quoted, a table of the abbreviations and numbers of the journals they designate is followed the list of the stamps, postal envelopes, postcards, document proprietary, card, private medicine card and match stamps and their varieties with citation of the various journals mentioning each in order. ... St. Louis, Jan. 1881"--P. -.
overall: 48 in x 40 in x 17 1/4 in; 121.92 cm x 101.6 cm x 43.815 cm
United States: New York, New York
This beige metal cabinet is Phyllis Diller’s gag file, a categorized archive of the jokes Diller used in her stand-up comedy routines throughout her half-century long career. A small three drawer expansion of the gag file is also in NMAH’s collection (Catalog Number 2003.0289.01.02). The 48 drawers of the gag file, along with the 3 drawer expansion, contain a total of 52,569 3-by-5 inch index cards, each holding a typewritten joke or gag. These index cards are organized alphabetically by subject ranging from accessories to world affairs and covering almost everything in between.
Phyllis Diller (1917-2012) began her comedy career in the 1950s at the age of 37 and broke barriers in the comedy world to become the first solo female comic to be a household name. She developed a stage persona of an incompetent housewife and dressed in outlandish outfits with wild hair. Her material focused on self-deprecating jokes that tackled the idealized image of American mothers and homemakers. She also created many mythical personas for her stage act including her “husband” Fang, her “neighbor” Mrs. Clean, and her “mother-in-law” Moby Dick.
Random records of a lifetime, 1846-1931 [actually 1932] volume II, Explorations, Episodes and Adventures, Expositions and Congresses
Random records, vol. 2
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933
Peale, A. C (Albert Charles) 1849-1914
Hayden, F. V (Ferdinand Vandeveer) 1829-1887
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933
Smithsonian Institution History
Geological Survey (U.S.) History
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (U.S.)
1 volume illustrations, clippings, letters. 27 cm
Yellowstone National Park
Binder's title: Random records.
William Henry Holmes (1846-1933) was an anthropologist, archaeologist, artist, and geologist, who spent much of his career affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution. He studied art under Theodore Kauffman, and went on to work as a scientific illustrator with Smithsonian staff. In 1872, he was appointed artist-topographer to the United States survey of the territories under Ferdinand V. Hayden, and in 1874 was appointed assistant geologist. He went on to work with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE), until returning to the Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum (USNM). Holmes eventually became head curator of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology and Director of the National Gallery of Art.
This is the second of sixteen volumes compiled by William Henry Holmes in 1931 or 1932 to document his life and work. The volume contains original correspondences, documents, ephemera, watercolors, and photographs throughout. It is divided into four sections. The first contains a list of descriptions of his explorations from 1872 to 1920. Section two describes episodes and adventures from 1872-1920. This begins with a list of stories, which he describes using portions of letters, original field note books, news clippings, photographs (also with colleagues), and original drawings including a field drawing of a flower. This includes work completed with A. C. Peale and geological notes from Hayden expedition. Field work locations include Yellowstone, Colorado, and Mexico. Section three describes expositions between 1876-1916 across the United States in which U.S. Geological Survey and Smithsonian Institution took part. Section four documents the second Pan American Congress in Washington, D.C., during December 1915- January 1916; Fourteenth International Congress in Stutgart, August 1904; and the nineteenth International Congress during December 1915 - January 1916.
Scrapbook of early aeronautica / collected by William Upcott
Upcott, William 1779-1845
Hollond, Robert DSI
Carruthers, John Franklin Bruce 1889-1960 DSI
3 v. ( p.) : ill. (some col.), ports. ; 53 cm
Early works to 1900
Collection of prints, newspaper and journal clippings, mss., separately published tracts, and printed ephemera (in various sizes) connected with the early years of aeronautics, primarily ballooning.
Arranged in roughly chronological order, e.g., v. 1 has material mostly from ca. 1783-1802; v. 2 mostly from 1785-1837; and v. 3 mostly from 1837-1840. However, each v. also includes materials from dates outside of these ranges.
Page  is signed: "William Upcott of Islington, collector of engravings connected with aerostation."
Text mostly in English, with some French language materials.
Originally unbound. cf. Cat. of the Library of W. Upcott, London, 1846, p. 65.
Includes these published works bound in (each cataloged separately): Lunardi, V. An account of the first aërial voyage in England. London : Printed for the author ..., 1784 -- The Man in the moon. [S.l.? : s.n.?, ca. 1830] -- Sadler, J. Balloon, an authentic account of the ærial voyage of Messrs. Sadler and Clayfield. [Bristol] : Printed for the benefit of Mr. Sadler, by A. Brown,  -- High and low. London : Printed by L. Thompson, 1824 -- A full and correct description of this extraordinary machine ... the Eagle. London : Printed and published by J. Thompson, 1835.
A short ( p.) anonymous handwritten political allegory with an aeronautical theme, entitled: "The Dolphin carried off: a dream," is mounted on p. 7 of v. 1.
Some of the balloonists featured in this scrapbook include the Montgolfiers, Lunardi, Blanchard, Garnerin, Robert, Charles, Barrett, Hullin, Sowden, de Moret, MacGwire, Graham, Sadler, Green, Cocking, and Gypson, among others.
NASMRB copy has a leaf of viewers' signatures and their brief comments, dating from the mid-20th century, bound in at the front of v. 1.
overall: 2 1/4 in x 7 7/8 in x 7 1/4 in; 5.715 cm x 20.0025 cm x 18.415 cm
United States: Illinois, Chicago
Short discussions of the sextant began appearing in physics texts in the 1880s, and inexpensive sextants suitable for pedagogical purposes followed soon thereafter. This die-cast metal instrument is of that sort. Welch catalogs describe it as a "convenient demonstration model of an engineer’s or a mariner’s sextant." The scale is graduated every 30' from 0° to 120° and read by vernier to six minutes of arc. A small bubble level is mounted on the sighting tube. The inscription reads "W. M. WELCH SCIENTIFIC COMPANY (/) WELCH (/) ESTABLISHED 1880 (/) 1515 SEDGWICK ST. CHICAGO. U.S.A."
Ref: W. M. Welch Scientific Company, Catalog. Scientific Apparatus (Chicago, 1929-1963).
W. M. Welch Scientific Company, "Instructions for the Use of No. 3536 Sextant Model."