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Waco Aircraft Company Records, 1930-1950

Creator:
Waco Aircraft Company
Subject:
Junkin, Elwood J (Elwood James) 1897-1926
Weaver, George E. "Buck" 1895-1924
Brukner, Clayton J 1896-1977
Weaver Aircraft Company
Waco Aircraft Company
Physical description:
184.1 cubic feet (168 Legal document boxes) (35 drawers)
219.66 linear feet
Type:
Drawings
Collection descriptions
Financial records
Reports
Place:
United States
Date:
1930
1930-1960
1930-1950
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial
Waco Aircraft Family
Aeronautics, Military
Local number:
XXXX-0151
Notes:
In 1920 Clayton J. Bruckner, Elmwood "Sam" Junkin, and Buck Weaver formed an aircraft company known as the Weaver Aircraft Company in Troy, OH. By the 1930s the company, known as Waco Aircraft Co. since 1929, was a leader in the design of wood and fabric aircraft, with Waco aircraft being operated by public, private, and corporate owners in thirty-five countries. During World War II Waco devoted itself entirely to war production, manufacturing large numbers of troop- and cargo-carrying gliders. Following the war Waco attempted to market a wholly new design but the postwar slump in the private aviation market and the high development costs of the aircraft forced Waco to withdraw from aircraft manufacture in June 1947. During its twenty-eight year existence Waco produced sixty-two different aircraft models and led all its competitors in number of aircraft registered.
Summary:
This collection consists of the records of the Waco Aircraft Company. The material includes office files of the company, marketing and sales information, and design data. Also included are original engineering drawings and report files.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Waco Model W Aristo-Craft Drawings Collection, 1947

Creator:
Waco Aircraft Company
Subject:
Waco Aircraft Company
Physical description:
5.03 cubic feet (1 slim legal document box) (4 legal document boxes) (55 rolled drawings)
Type:
Drawings
Collection descriptions
Place:
United States
Date:
1947
Topic:
Waco W Aristocraft
Aircraft industry
Airplanes
Aeronautics, Commercial
Aeronautics
Local number:
1998-0015
Notes:
In 1947, twenty-five years after the construction of their first aircraft, the Waco Company of Troy, Ohio unveiled the unconventional Aristo-Craft or Model W. This four-place, high-wing cabin monoplane featured a 215 hp Franklin air-cooled engine, semi-retracting tricycle landing gear and a tail-mounted propeller in a pusher configuration. Only one was ever built and the aircraft did not receive an Aircraft Type Certification. The Aristo-Craft was the last aircraft produced by Waco.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

[Trade catalogs on airplanes]

Author:
Waco Aircraft Company
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI
Physical description:
<1> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1930
1930-
Topic:
Airplanes
Waco (Brand name)
Call number:
46852
46852
Notes:
Trade literature.
Includes story of Waco aircrafts in competition at the Fifth National Air Tour in Detroit.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

There goes a Waco! : an American classic aircraft / by Joe Balmer and Ken Davis

Author:
Balmer, Joe
Davis, Ken
Subject:
Waco Aircraft Company History
Physical description:
viii, 76 p. : ill. ; 22 x 29 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Waco airplanes--History
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Waco, symbol of courage & excellence / by Fred O. Kobernus

Author:
Kobernuss, Fred O
Waco Aircraft Company
Subject:
Waco Aircraft Company History
Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Airplane factories
Aeronautics, Commercial
Aircraft industry
Call number:
TL671.28 .K75 1992
Notes:
"Published as part of the 'Aviation heritage library series'."
Vol. 2 published by Mystic Bay Publishers, Destin, FL.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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"One-two"; the story of the fifth national air tour as related by the winner, John H. Livingston ..

Author:
Livingston, John H
Waco Aircraft Company
Physical description:
31, [1] p. illus. (incl. ports., map) 22 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1930
[c1930]
Topic:
Aeronautics--Flights
Call number:
TL540.L55 A3X
TL540.L55A3X
Notes:
Contains advertising matter.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Waco aircraft production, 1923-1942 / produced by Raymond H. Brandly ; edited by Bonnie Jean Borisch

Waco airplanes manufactured by Advance Aircraft Co., Troy, Ohio
Author:
Brandly, Raymond H
Borisch, Bonnie Jean
Brandly, Raymond H
Waco Aircraft Company
Subject:
Waco Aircraft Company
Advance Aircraft Company
Physical description:
120 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1986
C1986
Topic:
Waco airplanes--History
Call number:
TL686.W3 B727 1986
Notes:
Rev. ed. of: Waco airplanes. 1st ed. c1979.
Cover title: Waco airplanes manufactured by Advance Aircraft Co., Troy, Ohio.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Waco airplanes : "ask any pilot" : the authentic history of Waco airplanes and the biographies of the founders, Clayton J. Brukner and Elwood J. "Sam" Junkin

Author:
Brandly, Raymond H
Subject:
Brukner, Clayton John 1896-1977
Junkin, Elwood J (Elwood James) 1897-1926
Waco Aircraft Company
Advance Aircraft Company
Physical description:
213 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1988
C1988
Topic:
Waco airplanes
Aircraft industry
Call number:
TL686.W3 B727 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

The authentic history of Waco airplanes and the biographies of the founders, Clayton J. Brukner and Elwood J. "Sam" Junkin

Author:
Brandly, Raymond H
Subject:
Brukner, Clayton John 1896-1977
Junkin, Elwood J (Elwood James) 1897-1926
Waco Aircraft Company
Advance Aircraft Company
Physical description:
163 p. : ill., ports. ; 29 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1979
C1979
Topic:
Waco airplanes
Aircraft industry
Notes:
At head of title: Waco airplanes, "ask any pilot."
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Jordan (Richard D.) Aircraft Drawing Collection

Creator:
Jordan, Richard Dedrick
Physical description:
.75 cubic feet (1 mapcase folder)
Type:
Scale drawings
Collection descriptions
Date:
1958
1958-1960
Topic:
Beachey Monoplane (Eaton-Beachey Tractor) (1915)
Corben Super Ace
Curtiss F11C-2 (BFC-2) Goshawk
Curtiss Robin Family
Aeronautics
Curtiss P-40F Warhawk
Fokker D. VII
Ford 5-AT-C Tri-motor
Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat
Messerschmitt Me 109 J
Mooney M20 Mark 20
RAF S.E.5
Snow (TX) S-2B
Waco UDC
Waco UMF
Local number:
2002-0042
Notes:
Richard Jordan was an professional aeronautical engineer and as a hobby he produced a number of aircraft scale drawings.
Summary:
This collection consists of the following scale aircraft drawings executed by the donor, Richard Jordan: Beachey Monoplane (1915), Corben Super Ace (1934), Curtiss F11C-2 Goshawk (1933), Curtiss Robin OX-5 (1928), Curtiss P-40F Warhawk, Fokker D. VII (1918), Ford 5-AT-C Tri-motor, Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat, Henderson Longster (1933), Messerschmitt Me 109J, Mooney Mark 20 (1954), Royal Aircraft Factory S. E. 5 (1917), Snow S-2B (1958), Waco UDC (1931) and Waco UMF (1934).
Cite as:
Jordan (Richard D.) Aircraft Drawing Collection, Accession 2002-0042, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Waco 9

Manufacturer:
Waco
Materials:
Fuselage: steel tube, fabric-covered
Wings: wood, fabric-covered
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 9.54 m (31 ft. 4 in.)
Length: 7.19 m (23 ft. 6 in.)
Height: 2.82 m (9 ft. 3 in.)
Weight: Empty 600 kg (1,320 lbs.)
Weight: Gross 953 kg (2,100 lbs.)
Engine: Curtiss OX-5, 90 hp
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1925-1927
Credit Line:
Gift of Clayton J.. Brukner
Inventory Number:
A19721292000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Two-seat, general aviation biplane; red and black with OX-5 engine.
Summary:
The name "Waco" has long been synonymous with popular open-cockpit biplanes of the golden age of flight, the late 1920s and the 1930s. Clayton Brukner and Elwood Junkin, first of the Weaver Aircraft Company, known as Waco, and then the Advance Aircraft Company, designed the three-place Model 9 around the World War I-surplus Curtiss OX-5 engine in 1925. The rugged but graceful aircraft quickly found favor as a barnstorming, racing, and all-around utility aircraft.
The Museum's Waco 9, N452, serial number 389, had a succession of owners in the mid-west United States. In 1966, owner Marion McClure retired the antique aircraft when it did not meet the safety requirements of brakes and tail-wheel at his local airport. In 1972, original Waco partner and designer Clayton J. Brukner purchased the aircraft to donate it to the Museum.
Manufacturer: The Advance Aircraft Company, Troy, Ohio, 1927.
Long Description:
The name 'Waco" has long been synonymous with popular biplanes of the "golden age" of flying, the late 1920s and the 1930s. In 1920, George "Buck" Weaver, Charlie Meyers, Clayton Brukner, and Elwood Junkin formed the Weaver Aircraft Company in Lorain, Ohio. It was Brukner and Junkin who established the Waco name as an enduring line of versatile and classic aircraft.
The Weaver Aircraft Company, known as "Waco," built a few aircraft and moved to Troy, Ohio, in 1923, as the Advance Aircraft Company. After the death of Weaver in 1924, Brukner and Junkin took over the business and introduced the Model 9, or Nine, in 1925. It was an immediate success for several reasons. First, war surplus Curtiss Jennies and the like were becoming less available but more importantly, the Nine was a well-designed aircraft, built around the available Curtiss OX-5 or Wright Hispano engines, with better performance than the Jenny and a reasonable price tag. The bench seat in the front cockpit could snugly accommodate two passengers; the single cockpit for the pilot was in the rear. The company entered the Nine in the Ford Air Tour of 1925 in which performed admirably and the publicity resulted in good sales. At least 14 Waco 9s participated in the National Air Races in 1926, and several Waco pilots won their events. Aside from its use as an excellent barnstorming and racing plane, it also served in the aerial spray business and in early airline use; Clifford Ball's airlines and Embry-Riddle Company both used Wacos in 1927. Edo floats could also be attached for water operations.
New regulations of the emerging aircraft industry in the mid-twenties soon challenged all contemporary designs. Barnstormers had often cut corners by using aircraft of questionable airworthiness and many pilot qualifications were also questionable. A series of accidents and a mounting public demand resulted in the government licensing of pilots and aircraft. The new Air Commerce Department Regulations of December 31, 1926, required that all aircraft manufacturers secure an Airplane Type Certificate, or ATC, for their products. To be issued an ATC, the manufacturer had to submit strength calculations for the design and then demonstrate through static tests on a prototype that it met or exceeded minimum standards. Aircraft production today must still meet these requirements.
Because neither of the designers of the Waco 9 had more than a high school education, they feared that the airplane was doomed. However, a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology made stress calculations, and the U.S. Army bought one and static-tested it to destruction at McCook Field. The Air Commerce regulations required the structure to be able to withstand a load 6.5 times its own weight. The Waco 9 held up to a factor of 7.5 and was subsequently issued ATC number 11 in July 1927.
Construction of the Nine was typical of the time: welded steel tubing with all-wood wing structure, entirely fabric-covered. The engine radiator was mounted under the leading edge of the center portion of the upper wing and became a Waco trademark. Large cable-operated ailerons were attached to the upper wings too. The landing gear was a straight-axle type. The standard finish was silver-painted fabric with blue paint on the exposed metal parts. The attributes of good performance and reliability combined with attractive design resulted in a production of about 276 Waco 9s from 1925 to 1927. By then, its new and improved sister ship, the Waco 10, outsold the Nine.
The museum's Waco 9, N452, serial number 389, with a 1918 Curtiss OX-5 engine, was manufactured in May 1927. Knapp Flying Service of Ypsilanti, Michigan, purchased it and it then went through a succession of owners in the Midwest: James Foster of Lansing (1927); Otto Haskins of Battle Creek (1932); Lorne Dobbie of the same city the next year; Charles Smith, Tecumseh (1935); Albert Exline, Dayton, Ohio (1941); Paul Pfoutz, Dayton (1944); Walter Alpiger, Louisville, Kentucky (1959); Robert Gehrig, Fort Wayne, Indiana (1961); and Marion McClure, Bloomington, Illinois (1960).
McClure flew the Nine until 1966, when flight-safety requirements at his airport restricted the use of aircraft without a tail wheel or brakes. Rather than modify the aircraft, he took it out of service. The original co-designer and company partner, Clayton J. Brukner, wishing to contribute a Waco to the Smithsonian Institution, purchased the airplane in 1972 for donation to the National Air and Space Museum. The paint scheme is a non-factory scheme. The aircraft is currently at the Museum's Paul E. Garber Restoration and Storage Facility in Suitland, Maryland.
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Waco UIC

Manufacturer:
Waco
Materials:
Welded steel tubing with fabric cover
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 10.12 m (8 ft. 3 in.)
Height: 2.6 m (8 ft. 6 in.)
Length: 7.67 m (25 ft. 2 in.)
Weight, Empty: 785.5 kg (1,690 lbs.)
Weight, Gross: 1,268.4 kg (2,800 lbs.)
Top Speed: 224 km/h (140 mph)
Engine: Continental W-670-6N, 210 hp
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1931
Credit Line:
Gift of J. A. Masek
Inventory Number:
A19791420000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
1930's general aviation biplane; red and silver-gray.
Summary:
The 1933 Waco UIC is a classic cabin aircraft design from the golden age of aviation. Its stable construction provided forgiving flight characteristics and moderate performance. Throughout its entire development, the Waco cabin series remained almost identical in its basic configuration with yearly upgrades of engines, streamlining, equipment, and creature comforts, similar to the auto industry, which kept the price reasonable for prospective owners. As one of Waco's most successful styles, the UIC was popular as a corporate aircraft with famous names such as Jacqueline Cochran, Henry Dupont, and Gar Wood.
The aircraft in the NASM collection was the second UIC built, and went through a succession of owners on the West Coast. Its last owner restored the airplane in 1976 with new fabric and an engine overhaul, and used it in his oil pipeline business before donating it to the Museum in 1979.
Long Description:
By the late 1920s, Waco was already famous for its series of civilian open-cockpit biplanes, and so, in 1931, it decided to enter the highly competitive executive or commercial cabin class market. The competitors in this area were Bellanca, Stinson, Travel Air, and Fairchild, all of whom were already well established in this segment of the market. The 1933 UIC is one of Waco's successful cabin styles and is a classic cabin aircraft design of the golden age of flight era.
George "Buck" Weaver, Charlie Meyers, Clayton Bruckner, and Elwood Junkin formed the Weaver Aircraft Company in Lorain Ohio, in 1920. In 1923, they renamed it the Advance Aircraft Company and moved to Troy, Ohio. After Weaver's death in 1924, Bruckner and Junkin took over and produced the successful Waco 9, or Nine, soon followed by the Waco 10 and the Taperwing. In June 1929, they changed the name to the Waco Company.
The first of the Waco cabin airplanes was the 1931 four-place QDC cabin biplane. The UIC configuration was the same as the QDC but represented a major upgrade. The UIC cabin was a four-place cabin biplane powered by a 210 hp Continental seven-cylinder radial engine and a conventional fixed tail wheel landing gear. Automobile-type doors on each side provided entry into the luxuriously upholstered cabin, with two individual front seats and a spacious bench seat in the rear to accommodate two passengers. The airplane came equipped with a full set of flight and engine instruments and a wheel control yoke that could be swung from the pilot to the copilot position during flight. Improvements included more windows, more rounded lines and the addition of fillets and wheel pants. The original Model C ring cowl was also replaced with a full-length NACA bump cowl. These refinements, and the initial price of $6,000, made the UIC an immediate hit with a long list of prominent pilots of the era.
The Waco Company developed a model designation system that was worthy of a cryptographer. The first letter of the designation represented the engine, the second was the wing type, and the third, the fuselage type. The key to each letter hinged on whether the aircraft was a pre- or post-1930 aircraft, because the letter designations changed in 1930. There were about twenty-one engine designations and the wing designations were confusing. The UIC, built in 1933, was Continental-powered, Clark-Y wing, and custom, rather than standard or otherwise, equipped aircraft. There were also three-letter designations for open-cockpit aircraft and other models.
The UIC construction was typical for that era with welded steel tubing that was faired to a well-rounded shape by means of plywood formers and wood stringers. The wing was constructed of solid spruce spars with spruce and plywood ribs and aluminum leading and trailing edges. The tail assemblies were of welded steel tubing and the metal-framed ailerons were covered with aluminum. There were ailerons on both wings that were interconnected by push-pull struts that operated them in pairs. The main landing gear had oleo shock absorbers and the wheels were equipped with mechanical brakes. The entire airplane was covered with Grade A cotton fabric. The airplane was stable, with forgiving flight characteristics and moderate performance.
Waco produced 83 UIC models before it was replaced by the further improved UKC/YKC/CJC series in 1934. It was popular as a corporate aircraft with famous names such as Jacqueline Cochran, Henry Dupont, and Gar Wood. Throughout its entire development, the Waco cabin series remained almost identical in its basic configuration with yearly upgrades of engines, streamlining, equipment, and creature comforts, similar to the custom of the auto industry. Thus, because the initial quality and design were retained, the price remained reasonable. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Waco cabin plane faced stiff competition from the Beech Staggerwing, the Gullwing Stinson Reliant, and the newly developed Howard DGA, but Wacos held their market with style. Production of all Waco civilian aircraft was halted in 1942 because of due to wartime production.
UIC NC13062, serial number 3715, completed on March 20, 1933, was the second UIC built. It had a vermilion fuselage with the engine cowl, vertical tail, wings, and horizontal tail finished in silver. The registration numbers were finished in black. An Alameda, California, distributor first sold the airplane to Frank K. Jackson of Oakland, and it then had a series of west-coast owners. The last owner, John A. Masek of Casper, Wyoming, used it his oil pipeline business. Masek restored the aircraft in 1976 with new fabric and an engine overhaul before donating it to the Museum. Two of Masek's pilots, who were used to flying the aircraft at 500-foot altitudes over pipelines, flew the aircraft from Wyoming to Andrews Air Force Base in two days, arriving on December 5, 1979.
As delivered to the Museum, the airplane is not equipped as it was originally built. Besides a different paint scheme, it has had some modification of the cabin area, which includes a change in the rear cabin window arrangement, different upholstery, and an updating of the instrument panel. A smooth engine cowling from a Cessna Bobcat trainer encircles the engine instead of an original bump style cowling, and the modern strobe light installed on top of the vertical fin is not original.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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A. Francis Arcier Collection, 1890-1969

Creator:
Arcier, A. Francis 1890-1969
Subject:
Arcier, A. Francis 1890-1969
Wittemann Aircraft Corp
Fokker Aircraft Corp
GAC (General Airplanes Corp)
Waco Aircraft Company
Air Force Museum (U.S.)
Physical description:
2.18 cubic feet (2 records center boxes) (1 16x20x1 flatbox)
2.08 linear feet
Type:
Correspondence
Collection descriptions
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs
Publications
Financial records
Scrapbooks
Date:
1890
1890-1969
Topic:
Aeronautics
Aeronautical engineers
Periodicals
Local number:
XXXX-0072
Notes:
A. Francis Arcier (1890-1969) was an aircraft designer and engineer. Born in London, he immigrated to the United States and became a US citizen in 1929. He worked for a number of aircraft companies, including Wittemann Aircraft Corporation (1919-25), Fokker Aircraft Corporation (1925-28), General Airplanes Corporation (1928-30), and Waco Aircraft Company (1930-47). He was a scientific advisor at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, from 1948 until his retirement in 1963, and continued his association with the Air Force until 1968.
Summary:
Contents: Newspapers and magazine clippings, job applications, and other material offering biographical information, including published articles from 1943 and 1981. Photographs and negatives, personal and business correspondence, aircraft drawings, technical papers, dissertations, and related correspondence.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Additional Online Media:

Waco Primary Glider

Manufacturer:
Waco
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 11.0 m (36 ft)
Length: 6.4 m (21 ft)
Height: 3.0 m (10 ft)
Weights: Empty, 101 kg (225 lb)
Gross, 203 kg (450 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Robert Rindler, Sr.
Inventory Number:
D19690195000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Wood and fabric; 1922 glider; silver, simple construction; primary.
Summary:
The Waco Aircraft Company announced the Waco Primary Glider in 1930. The firm planned to sell these gliders and capitalize on America's newfound enthusiasm for the sport of gliding and soaring. A flight in excess of four hours by the German pilot, Peter Hesselbach, near the beach at Cape Cod in 1928 had ignited a feverish interest in motorless flight.
Waco designers created a glider of very conventional design and construction except for one notable feature-they made the open, truss-frame fuselage from welded steel tubes rather than wood. Spruce wood parts formed the wing and tail, and fabric covered both of these assemblies. Waco offered to ship the aircraft complete, but disassembled, to anyone willing to pay $385. A bungee cord, auto, winch, or aircraft could launch the glider, and once airborne, a pilot could expect the machine to take off and touch down at 32 kph (20 mph) and to glide 4.2 m (14 ft) horizontally for every 0.3 m (1 ft) of altitude lost. The airspeed could not exceed a maximum of 105 kph (65 mph).
American enthusiasts bought about 300 Waco Primaries before a high accident rate among novice glider pilots forced the Assistant Secretary of Commerce, Clarence D. Young, to make sweeping changes in the regulatory framework governing gliding operations and glider pilots, and pilots of powered aircraft used to tow gliders aloft. By 1931, the fad had passed and projected sales failed to occur.
Long Description:
The Waco Aircraft Company announced the Waco Primary Glider in 1930. The firm planned to sell these gliders and capitalize on America's newfound enthusiasm for the sport of gliding and soaring. A flight by the German pilot, Peter Hesselbach, near the beach at Cape Cod in 1928 had ignited a feverish interest in motorless flight. Manning the controls of a Darmstadt D-17 sailplane, Hesselbach had plied the salty air above the dunes for more than four hours and thrilled and amazed a crowd gathered below him.
Waco designers created a glider of very conventional design and construction except for one notable feature-they made the open, truss-frame fuselage from welded steel tubes rather than wood. Spruce wood parts formed the wing and tail, and fabric covered both of these assemblies. A combination of external flying wires and wires built inside the wings added strength to the airframe. The landing gear of most Waco Primary Gliders consisted of a curved main skid made from Hickory wood and fixed to the bottom of the fuselage, plus smaller skids made of welded steel tubes and fastened to each wingtip. A single small strut with a rubber tire and wheel sometimes complemented the main skid. The wheel allowed ground handlers to more easily maneuver the unwieldy glider. Waco offered to ship the aircraft complete, but disassembled, to anyone willing to pay $385, and the aircraft would arrive ready for assembly and rigging. A bungee cord, auto, winch, or aircraft could launch the glider, and once airborne, a pilot could expect the machine to take off and touch down at 32 km/h (20 mph) and to glide 4.2 m (14 ft) horizontally for every 0.3 m (1 ft) of altitude lost. The airspeed could not exceed a maximum of 105 km/h (65 mph).
Waco management promoted the airplane by publishing brochures that spoke glowingly of both the ease and excitement of flying gliders:
"For real thrills and keen fun, gliding has it all over ski-jumping or surf-riding or similar sports. That's why there is such keen interest in it-why Young America and his Dad both are getting all excited about it. Gliding has become quite the thing to do….Taking it gradually and by easy stages, you can soon be going aloft 500 feet or more to circle around and make precision landings with the best of them. You get everything [from the flying experience] … the thrill of flying… the "feel" of the controls… Get your group together, form a Glider club…divide the cost of the Glider…and you're all set! Get into the air! It's great!"
American enthusiasts bought about 300 Waco Primaries before a high accident rate among novice glider pilots forced the Assistant Secretary of Commerce, Clarence D. Young, to make sweeping changes in the regulatory framework governing gliding operations and glider pilots, and pilots of powered aircraft used to tow gliders aloft. By 1931, the fad had passed and projected sales failed to occur. Robert Rindler, Jr., of Greenville, Ohio, donated his Waco Primary Glider to the National Air and Space Museum in 1968.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
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National Air and Space Museum
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John Miller Collection, 1910-1973

Creator:
Miller, John Matthew 1896-
Subject:
Miller, John Matthew 1896-
Johnson, Robert Woods
Pitcairn (Pitcairn-Cierva)
Pitcairn Aviation
Pitcairn Autogiro Co, Inc
New Brunswick (NJ) Aero Club
Miller Corp (John Matthew Miller) (Aircraft manufacturer)
Kellet Autogiro Corp
Physical description:
0.90 cubic feet (2 legal document boxes)
Type:
Financial records
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Clippings
Pamphlets
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Logs (records)
Place:
United States
Date:
1910
1910-1973
Topic:
Burgess Aircraft Family
Autogiros
Aircraft industry
Airplanes
Aeronautics, Commercial
Aeronautics--Societies, etc
Aeronautics
Pitcairn PCA-2 Autogiro
Miller Corp MCA-1 Amphibian Biplane
Kellett Autogiro Family
Pitcairn PA-3 Orowing
Waco 10 Family (Aircraft)
Local number:
2001-0036
Notes:
John Matthew Miller, born in 1896, was the President of the Miller Corporation, New Brunswick, NJ, at the New Brunswick Airport (also known as "Miller's Field" ). Miller Corporation provided a flying school, flew passenger flights along the mid-Atlantic seaboard and offered sightseeing tours. Miller received his commission as an ensign in the Naval Aviation Corps in 1918 and afterwards worked as an air mail pilot. His company's first attempt at building and flying an amphibious aircraft was halted when it crashed during its first landing. After his company failed, Miller continued to be active in the aviation community and held a number of different positions, including being the president of the New Brunswick (NJ) Aero Club, an autogiro pilot for Pitcairn, and serving as a helicopter test pilot at the Patuxent River test station during World War II. He later worked for the Department of Agriculture until 1956.
Summary:
This collection consists of: one photocopy of Miller's 1926-1943 Flight Log Book; one photocopy of Miller's 1943-1954 Flight Log Book; one photocopy of a scrapbook containing newspaper articles, contest rules for the New Brunswick, NJ, Aero Club Flying Trophy, Miller's 1917 acceptance letter to the Massachusetts School for Naval Air Service, a letter recognizing one year of service to the US Aerial Mail Service in 1919, articles pertaining to Miller's 1918 commission as an ensign in the Naval Aviation Corps, and a promotional pamphlet for the Kellett Autogiro; 33 copied photographs and photocopies of Grand Central Airport, Glendale, California, autogiros, and early Burgess flying boats; the Saga of the US Air Mail Service book; "Flying Officers of the U.S.N. (US Navy): 1917-1919"; Miller's certificate for promotion to Lieutenant in the US Navy; an article written by Miller, "Dual Spray Equipment for Airplane Spraying Tests" from March, 1951; one share of common stock, owned by Miller, of the Aero Club of New Brunswick, New Jersey, Inc.; several newspapers dated from 1924 to 1969, several covering James G. Ray's autogiro flight over Washington, DC in 1934; map (no date) showing the flight route and distance from Bellefonte, PA to Cleveland, OH; a 1922 log book for the Curtiss Seagull owned by the Chicago Tribune; an "Autogiro News" newsletter from 1933; a short biographical blurb on Miller from the "Story of Flight A: 1917-1919" (note from donor); several loose sheets of Miller's figures on the operating costs of a Pitcairn cabin autogiro, and a breakdown of the marketing needs and possibilities; correspondence between John Miller and Robert Woods Johnson (of Johnson & Johnson) concerning autogiros; photocopies of Miller's 1930 Pilot's License and his 1945 Certificate of Satisfactory Service from the US Navy; a program for the Hadley Field (South Plainfield, NJ) Commemoration in 1973; 27 scrapbook pages from The Miller Corporation, New Brunswick Airport, containing photographs of the hangar and facilities, the Pitcairn Orowing, Waco 10, and the flying boat built by the Corporation in 1929; and 22 loose original photographs, including two of the Flight A Naval Aviation detachment at M.I.T. in 1917, photographs of the model and actual flying boat (Miller Corp MCA-1 Amphibian Biplane) the Miller Corporation built, and Miller with a Pitcairn PCA-2.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers, 1906-1982 (bulk 1920-1933)

Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers 1896-1985
Subject:
Brukner, Clayton J 1896-1977
Weaver, George E. "Buck" 1895-1924
Junkin, Elwood J (Elwood James) 1897-1926
Barnaby, Ralph S (Ralph Stanton) 1893-1986
Weaver Aircraft Company
Advance Aircraft Company
Waco Aircraft Company
Physical description:
3.27 cubic feet (3 records center boxes) (1 20x24x3 flatbox)
3.12 linear feet
Type:
Publications
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Diaries
Photographs
Place:
United States
Date:
1906
1906-1982
bulk 1920-1933
Topic:
Aeronautics
Women in aeronautics
Aeronautics, Commercial
Gliding and soaring
Periodicals
Local number:
XXXX-0171
Notes:
Other type of material: printing block.
Hattie Meyers Junkin (1896-1985) was an aviator and observer of a number of historical events. Always interested in aviation, in 1917 she married George "Buck" Weaver ( -1924), a civilian flying instructor at the military training center at Waco, TX. Weaver, along with Clayton Bruckner and Elwood "Sam" Junkin, founded the Advance Aircraft Company in 1921 (Weaver Aircraft Company, 1922-29; Waco Aircraft Co., 1929-1946). Following Weaver's death she married Junkin ( -1926), but he died shortly afterwards and control of Weaver Aircraft slipped away. In 1929 she married Ralph Stanton Barnaby (1893-1986), a glider pilot and aviation pioneer. In 1931 she became one of the first women to earn a glider class C license and attended the University of Washington (DC) studying law, although she was unable to take the bar exam. In 1940 she moved to Garden City, NJ, where she remained until moving to Alabama in the late 1970s. She spent much of her life writing, including articles on Weaver Aircraft.
Summary:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Hattie Meyers Junkin. The material consists of correspondence, scrapbooks, and manuscripts, as well as material on Junkin's husbands and Weaver Aircraft Co.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Curtiss OX-5 V-8 Engine

Title: Curtiss OX-5 V-8 Engine
Manufacturer:
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Willys-Morrow Company (Curtiss)
Designer:
Glenn H. Curtiss
Materials:
Metal
Dimensions:
Length 144.1 cm (56.75 in.), Width 75.6 cm (29.75 in.,) Height 93.3 cm (36.75 in.)
Type:
PROPULSION-Reciprocating & Rotary
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1919
Credit Line:
On Loan from the War Department, Air Service, Washington, D.C.
Inventory Number:
A19200008000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Type: Reciprocating, water-cooled, V-8
Power rating: 67 kW (90 hp) at 1,200 rpm
Displacement: 8.3 L (502.8 cu in)
Bore and Stroke: 102 mm (4 in.) x 127 mm (5 in.)
Weight (dry): 145 kg (320 lb)
Summary:
More than 10,000 of these V-8 engines were manufactured, most of them for use in Curtiss JN-4 Jenny trainers. After World War I, thousands of OX-5s and Jennies were sold to the public at a fraction of their original cost to the government. In addition, during the 1920s, the OX-5 engine powered airplanes developed for civil aircraft by Waco, Laird, Curtiss, Fairchild, Alexander, Travel Air, and many other firms.
The availability of a well-proven, inexpensive engine in such quantity was a mixed blessing -- it allowed many people to fly who could not afford a more expensive engine, but manufacturers of more modern power plants suffered.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Golden Age of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

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Jean Warren (J. W.) Seele Aircraft Photography Collection, [ca. 1950s-1970s]

Creator:
Seele, Jean W (Jean Warren) 1924-1993
Subject:
Seele, Jean W (Jean Warren) 1924-1993
Hughes Aircraft Co
National Antique Airplane Association
Experimental Aircraft Association
Aero Commander (Aircraft manufacturer)
Arrow Aircraft & Motors Corp
Callair (Call Aircraft Co)
Cessna
Aeronca (Aeronautical Corp of America)
Beech Aircraft Corp
Bell Aircraft Corp
Bellanca
Boeing Company
Bucker (Bucker Flugzeugbau GmbH)
Consolidated Aircraft Corp
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)
Dassault (Aircraft manufacturer)
Goodyear Aircraft Corp
Great Lakes Aircraft Corp
Grumman Aerospace Corporation
de Havilland Aircraft Company, Ltd
Douglas Aircraft Corp
Erco (Engineering and Research Corporation)
Fairchild Aircraft Corp
Fleet Aircraft Ltd
Ford Motor Company Airplane Division
Hawker Siddeley (Aircraft manufacturer)
Heinkel (Aircraft manufacturer)
Jodel (Societe des Avions Jodel)
Junkers (Junkers Flugzeug Werke AG)
Lockheed Aircraft Corp
Vought (Aircraft manufacturer)
Lawson Airplane Co
Lawson Aircraft Corp
Pitts Aviation Enterprises, Inc
Pitcairn (Pitcairn-Cierva)
Piper Aircraft Corp
Pazmany Aircraft Corp (Ladislao Pazmany)
Piaggio (Industrie Aeronautiche e Meccaniche Rinaldo Piaggio SpA)
Porterfield Aircraft Corp
Republic
Saab (Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget AB)
Sikorsky (Aircraft manufacturer)
Stearman Aircraft Co
Stinson (Aircraft manufacturer)
Swearingen Aircraft
Vickers (Aircraft manufacturer)
Waco Aircraft Company
Physical description:
12.11 cubic feet (1 shoebox) (7 slide and card cabinets)
Type:
Color slides
Collection descriptions
Color negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Place:
United States
Date:
1950
1950-1979
ca 1950s-1970s
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial
Airplanes
Aeronautics
Balloons
Photography
Local number:
2000-0057
Notes:
Additional materials: photographs taken by Seele of the Kansas countryside, including many of threshing demonstrations, were transferred to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History.
Jean Warren (J. W.) Seele (1924-1993) was born in Topeka, Kansas, and spent almost his entire life there. After his graduation from Topeka High School he was enrolled for about one and a half years at the Spartan School of Aeronautics, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Although he worked for a few years at Bendix Aviation Corp, Kansas City Division during the 1950s, most of his professional career was spent as an engineering technician for the Kansas Department of Transportation. While he was not directly employed in the aviation field, Seele's hobby was photographing aircraft. Over a twenty year period, Seele photographed aircraft and at various times he was the official photographer for the National Antique Airplane Association, and for the annual fly-in sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association at Rockford, Illinois. Seele's photographs often appeared in the publications of both organizations, and several of this photographs also appeared in Jane's All the World's Aircraft during the 1970s.
Summary:
This collection consists of approximately 6000 color slides and over 2000 negatives/prints (a mixture of color and black and white) of civil and military aircraft taken by Seele, circa 1950s-1970s. The shots were taken in the United States, specifically in the Midwest. Aircraft from the following manufacturers are represented: Aero Commander, Arrow, Aeronca, Beechcraft, Bell, Bellanca, Boeing, Bristol, Bucker, Callair, Cessna, Consolidated, Convair, Curtiss, Dassault, de Havilland, Davis, Dart, Douglas, ERCO, Fairchild, Fleet, Ford, Goodyear, Great Lakes, Grumman, Howard, Hawker Siddeley, Hughes, Heinkel, Jodel, Junkers, Lockheed, Ling-Temco-Vought, Lawson, Parsons, Pitts, Pitcarin, Piper, Pazmany, Piaggo, Porterfield, Republic, SAAB, Sikorsky, Stampe, Stearman, Stinson, Swearingen, Taylor, Vickers, and Waco. In June of 2001 the Smitihsonian's Museum of American History transferred an additional shoebox of Seele photography that had been sent directly to them from the widow. This color images included balloon events as well as aircraft shots. The ballooning images are color prints taken mostly around Topeka, Kansas, while the aircraft images are color transparencies of aircraft taken, again, mostly around Topeka.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Roosevelt Field Photograph Collection, [ca. 1930s]

Creator:
Czajkowski, John
Subject:
Czajkowski, John
Wedell-Williams Air Service Corp
Granville Brothers Aircraft Inc (Gee Bee)
Heath Aircraft Corp (Heath Airplane Co)
Miller, Howell W. (Aircraft manufacturer)
Keith Rider (Aircraft manufacturer)
Kellet Autogiro Corp
Keystone Aircraft Corp
Kinner Airplane and Motor Co
Laird (E. M. Laird Airplane Co)(Emil Matthew "Matty" Laird)
Light Aero, Inc
Lockheed Aircraft Corp
Luscombe Manufacturing Corp
Pearson-Williams (Aircraft manufacturer)
Ryan Aeronautical Company
Seversky (Aircraft manufacturer)
SPAD
Stinson (Aircraft manufacturer)
Babcock, Verne Clifton "Bab" (Aircraft manufacturer)
Taubman Aircraft Co
Taylor (Aircraft manufacturer)
Taylor Brothers (Aircraft manufacturer)
Taylor-Young (Aircraft manufacturer)
Taylorcraft (Aircraft manufacturer)
Travel Air Manufacturing Co
Vought (Aircraft manufacturer)
Waco Aircraft Company
Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp
Glenn L. Martin Company
Miles Aircraft Limited
Northrop Corp
North American Aviation, Inc
de Havilland Aircraft Company, Ltd
Delgado (Isaac) Central Trades School
Douglas Aircraft Corp
Fairchild Aircraft Corp
Fleet Aircraft Ltd
Fleetwings
Folkerts, Clayton (Aircraft manufacturer)
Ford Motor Company Airplane Division
Great Lakes Aircraft Corp
Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Bleriot
Boeing Company
Bucker (Bucker Flugzeugbau GmbH)
Buhl (Buhl-Verville Aircraft Co, Buhl Aircraft Co)
Bushey-McGrew
Cairns Aircraft
Crosby, Harry (Aircraft manufacturer)
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Roosevelt Field (N.Y.)
Abrams Aircraft Corp
Aeronca (Aeronautical Corp of America)
Alco (Allison Airplane Co)
American Eagle Aircraft Corp
Avro (A. V. Roe & Co Ltd)
Barkley-Grow Aircraft
Bellanca
Physical description:
0.30 cubic feet (1 flatbox)
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Place:
United States
Date:
1930
1930-1939
ca 1930s
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial
Aeronautics
Airplanes
Local number:
1999-0048
Summary:
This collection consists of 202 black and white snapshots of aircraft at Roosevelt Field, Long Island, New York, during the 1930s. These images were taken by John Czajkowski and include aircraft from the following manufacturers: Abrams; Aeronca, Alco, American Eagle, Avro, Barkley-Grow, Bellanca, Berliner, Bleriot, Boeing, Bucker, Buhl, Bushey McGrew, Cairns, Chambers, Chester, Continental, Crosby, Curtiss, de Havilland, Delgado, Douglas, Fairchild, Fleet, Fleetwing, Folkerts, Ford, Fox, Franklin, Great Lakes, Grumman, Gee Bee, Hall, Heath, Hawks, Howard, Keith Rider, Kellet, Keystone, Kinner, Laird, Light, Lockheed, Luscombe, Marcoux-Bromberg, Martin, McKeen, Miles, Miller, Northrop, North American, Pearson Williams, Ryan, Seversky, Sikorsky, SPAD, Stinson, Swallow, Taubman, Taylor, Taylorcraft, Thomas-Morse, Travel Air, Turner, Viking, Vought, Waco, and Wedell-Williams.
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Frankfort TG-1A (Cinema)

Manufacturer:
Frankfort Sailplane Company
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 14.1 m (46 ft 3 in)
Length: 7.1 m (23 ft 2 in)
Height: 1.5 m (5 ft 1 in)
Weights: Empty, 227 kg (500 lb)
Gross, 417 kg (920 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of Lewis University, Romeoville, Illinois.
Inventory Number:
A19830113000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Summary:
Stan Corcoran's TG-1A (Training Glider Model 1A) was the first aircraft selected to train U.S. Army glider pilot cadets to fly the Waco CG-4A combat assualt glider. The Waco could be difficult to handle with heavy loads, and a skilled pilot was required to fly it. Until late in the war, Wacos were only produced in limited numbers, and none were available for training. Before bidding on producing the TG-1A, Stan Corcoran had produced gliders for the civilian market at his Frankfort Sailplane Company factory. In May 1942, the firm won a contract to build 40 TG-1As. Production began immediately, and the order was completed by November 1942. Each glider cost $2,775 to build but Corcoran's factory lacked the resources to quickly produce large numbers of gliders. The Schweizer Aircraft Corporation easily built many more TG-2 gliders, a design similar to the TG-1A. By war's end, nearly 1,100 dedicated military training gliders were completed.
Long Description:
Military gliders came into use during World War II as a means to leapfrog natural and man-made barriers and deliver combat troops and equipment deep into enemy territory. Troops that deployed in gliders tended to reach the ground in a more concentrated group than airborne troops that jumped from cargo airplanes wearing parachutes. Soldiers scattered across a wide area could not concentrate their firepower and were difficult or impossible to communicate with, and these limitations greatly reduced their combat effectiveness. Gliders could also carry light artillery or small vehicles directly into a landing zone to support paratroops (soldiers deployed by parachute) or glider-borne infantry. The primary U. S. Army combat glider was the Waco CG-4A. This glider could be difficult to handle with heavy loads and a skilled pilot was required to fly it. Until late in the war, it was only produced in limited numbers and none were available for training. To train army cadets to handle the big Waco, the army urgently needed a training glider that was easy to build and handled well in the air. The first aircraft selected for this role was a glider designed by Stan Corcoran, the TG-1A (Training Glider model 1A).
U.S. Army planners realized the potential of a glider-borne assault force after German commandos, aboard DFS 230 gliders, landed atop and captured the Belgian fort of Eben Emael in May 1940. The American army began to develop programs to design and build assault gliders, and train crews to fly them. But American industry was under tremendous pressure to expand production, and create and field new weapons. The national military leadership was forced to assign priorities and they ranked gliders well behind fighters and bombers. Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, commanding general of the Army Air Forces (AAF), declared that glider contracts could be awarded only to civilian manufacturing firms not already committed to military aircraft production. The AAF contacted eleven companies and invited them to submit glider designs for 2-, 8-, and 15-man gliders in March 1941, but only four returned bids: Bowlus Sailplanes, Inc, St. Louis Aircraft Corporation, Waco Aircraft Company, and the Frankfort Sailplane Company.
Before submitting his bid, Stan Corcoran had produced gliders for the civilian market at his Frankfort Sailplane Company factory. He was well known among competition glider pilots, and in the late 1930s, he had started small-scale construction of his Cinema I single-place glider in Frankfort, Michigan. Civilian interest in gliding was growing at a steady pace and Corcoran's company soon relocated to larger facilities in Joilet, Illinois. When the request for military gliders came out, Corcoran responded with a two-place training glider design, essentially a Cinema I with provision for another pilot. Corcoran also attempted to win contracts for production of the 8- and 15-man cargo gliders. However, during tests, Corcoran's prototype, 8-seat cargo glider, the XCG-1, suffered structural failure at only 63% of its design load strength, and Corcoran was advised to stick to designing light training gliders.
On May 26, 1941, the Frankfort Sailplane Company received a $5,784 contract from the AAF for three prototypes of a two-place glider designated XTG-1. This was the first contract issued for a U. S. training glider. The new design, soon to be called the Cinema II or Corcoran Model B, consisted of an additional tandem seat in a stretched cockpit. Other changes included a fixed horizontal stabilizer and elevator in place of the all-moving stabilator on the Cinema I. Stall speed was only 59 km/h (36 mph) and the never- exceed speed was calculated at 130 km/h (80 mph).
Corcoran welded together pieces of steel tubing to form the TG-1A fuselage and wings and covered them with cotton fabric. He constructed the horizontal and vertical stabilizers from wood, and he installed plywood spoilers on the upper wing surface. The pilot could increase the glider's rate-of-descent by approximately .8 m/s, or 150 fpm, using the spoilers. The tandem cockpit consisted of two canvas seats equipped with dual flight controls and instrumentation, and covered by a multi-pane, plexiglass canopy. A hinged section of the canopy gave access to the front seat, a small, quick-release door on the right side of the fuselage allowed access to the rear seat. Instrumentation consisted of an airspeed indicator, altimeter, rate-of-climb indicator, turn and bank indicator, and compass, duplicated for both front and rear seats. A single radio was included in the front-seat position.
Landing gear consisted of a single wheel and tire (fitted with a brake) installed on the bottom of the fuselage, behind the leading edge of the wing, and a wooden skid with rubber shock absorbers placed in front of the wheel. A small tailskid protected the fragile rudder and vertical stabilizer during ground handling.
In May 1942, the Frankfort Sailplane Company received a contract to build 40 TG-1As. Production began immediately and the order was completed by November 1942. Each glider cost $2,775 to build but Corcoran's factory lacked the resources to quickly produce large numbers of gliders. The Schweizer Aircraft Corporation easily built many more TG-2 gliders, a design similar to the TG-1A. By war's end, nearly 1,100 dedicated military training gliders were completed.
The expense and casualties involved in the U. S. combat glider program during World War II raise questions about its ultimate value. Operations in Europe achieved mixed results and heavy casualties. However, in Burma, combat gliders proved very useful in placing troops and equipment behind Japanese lines. After the war, the glider force was abandoned and eventually replaced by the more versatile and cost-effective helicopter. All training gliders, such as the TG-1A, were declared surplus and offered for sale to the public. Sport gliding resurged when these cheap gliders flooded the market but this also forced most glider manufacturers, including Corcoran, into serious financial difficulty.
More than thirty years after combat glider pilots trained in it, Stan Corcoran donated a TG-1A to Lewis University in Illinois. An aircraft structures class at the University fully restored the aircraft and test flew it as a class project. Lewis University donated it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1983. The glider is painted in the blue and yellow colors specified for training aircraft during World War II.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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