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"Heroes Come with Empty Sleeves"

view "Heroes Come with Empty Sleeves" digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of American History
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 23 Jun 2015 20:17:27 +0000
Description:

Curator Dr. Katherine Ott invited students in Dr. Samuel J. Redman's Museum/Historic Site Interpretation Seminar to explore the museum's disability history collections and write blog posts sharing their research. Read more posts by the students in our Disability History section.

Andrew Roy was 26 years old when Lieutenant Henry S. Farley lobbed the infamous first shot of the Civil War over Charleston Harbor on April 17, 1861. He answered President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers by travelling north from his native Maryland and enlisting in a Pennsylvania regiment. The young man paid dearly for his zeal when he was gravely wounded at the Battle of Gaines Mill.

A private in Company F, Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves, Andrew Roy and his unit rushed forward to bolster the Union line against tenacious Confederate assaults. During the charge, he was felled by a shot that destroyed the left side of his pelvis. Roy was then captured when the field hospital he was kept in was overrun by Rebel forces a few days later. Upon returning home from a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Richmond, Virginia, his transition to civilian life was plagued by the wound's perpetual pain and numbness. Back home, despite holding a managerial position at a mine, Roy took weeks off from his job because of his health, relying on a disability pension for survival. Before his death in 1914, he lamented, "My lameness grows worse and the pain is more severe each year. ... My [left] foot seems dead." Doctors commented that he was, "wholly unfit to care for himself and demands constant attention."

Drawing on olive-colored paper. Dead and injured horses lay on ground. Some stand. Gun, carriage, a few men visible. White smears may indicate clouds, smoke, explosions.

Andrew Roy was one of over 275,000 northern soldiers wounded in the American Civil War—although he avoided amputation, unlike more than 20,000 fellow comrades who wore the Union blue. Following the death and destruction of the war, survivors faced the difficult task of finding significance in their suffering and sacrifice. Northern civilians and wounded veterans of the Federal Army offered an array of responses to the nation's anguish through ritualized commemorations in the ensuing decades. Two dominant portrayals of disabled veterans emerged: pitiful cripples and a more popular version depicting the wounded as the epitome of masculine patriotism. Scars, limps, and amputations were honorifics that symbolized the Union man's character as an individual who had sacrificed dearly to preserve the Union.

Religion helped to define public perceptions of wounded veterans, suggesting that a soldier's torment was ordained by a higher power for the national good. As Henry Palmer wrote in a handwriting competition for Federal soldiers who had lost a dominant hand:

"My right arm, as if conscious of approaching dissolution, seemingly bequeathed unto the left arm, all the properties of which it died, seized and possessed.  The seal of this Last Will and Testament was the bloodseal of amputation—Patriotism, Love and Country, and Equal Rights were the subscribing witnesses to the instrument—The body from which the arm was severed, was the Executor—In Heaven's Court, the will was proved, allowed and recorded."

Black and white portrait of man in military uniform with two sleeves pinned up.

A carte-de-visite featuring a wounded veteran of the Union army taken some time during the 1860s. Many veterans with a visible, permanent wound would pin their shirt and/or pant sleeves together instead of opting for free artificial limbs that were considered very uncomfortable.

Despite the misery, Union veterans attempted to demonstrate self-reliance. Perhaps the greatest example of independence was Major General Oliver Otis Howard, who rose to become the head of the Freedmen's Bureau after the war. Veterans argued that their injuries encouraged increased social and economic independence, and some used their wounds for political leverage. Lucius Fairchild, who received an amputation after being seriously wounded during the Battle of Gettysburg, won the Wisconsin gubernatorial election of 1866 and became a prominent veteran-affairs spokesperson for former members of the Federal Army. As such, scarred veterans as virtuous harbingers appeared in the popular culture for a public concerned about the profound effects of the war on wounded soldiers. "The Empty Sleeve: A Song with Chorus" by P.A. Hanaford and Reverend J.W. Dadmun of Boston, Massachusetts, was a popular sheet music written in 1866. Its chorus venerated Civil War veterans:

"Three hearty cheers for those who lost

An arm in Freedom's Fray

And bear about an empty sleeve

But a patriot's heart today."

The lyrics correlate physical sacrifice and triumphant patriotism. This righteous empty sleeve iconography was not equally bestowed, however. African American veterans went unacknowledged, and were barred from most veterans' organizations. Veteran Will Thomas, who participated in the same contest as Henry Palmer stated, "I don't expect to win a position as a clerk, that being ascribed on count of my color." Thus, at least within the confines of northern society, the physical changes that black veterans like Thomas suffered were largely ignored by the community. Listen to the song here. This post's headline also comes from the song's lyrics.

Sheet music cover with fancy geometric border and text saying "The Empty Sleeve" in ornate typeface.

While many men spoke of their injuries in a variety of ways, many more remained silent about the nature of their wounds. While some wounded veterans celebrated personal success later in life, others endured a lifetime of hardship. Roy did not say how his wound affected his patriotism despite professing great esteem for the late Abraham Lincoln in a speech given several decades after General Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant in Wilmer McLean's parlor. The stories circulated by thousands of northern veterans and civilians illustrated the complex post-war psyche that attempted to explain the presence of the permanently wounded soldiers who had served in "Mr. Lincoln's army."

Note: The phrase has been borrowed from the first book in Bruce Catton's trilogy chronicling the history of the Army of the Potomac.

Matt Coletti is a graduate student in the Public History Program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His academic interests include the public memory and contemporary collective interpretations of the American Civil War, as well as the psychological repercussions of war on individual and community life in a historical context.

Author(s): 
Matt Coletti, graduate student in the public history program in the Department of History, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Topic:
American History
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History

#782-#1118, A. S. Hitchcock: Asia, 1921, Georgia and Florida, Panama and Ecuador, 1923, includes photographs of Floyd A. McClure

view #782-#1118, A. S. Hitchcock: Asia, 1921, Georgia and Florida, Panama and Ecuador, 1923, includes photographs of Floyd A. McClure digital asset number 1
Alternate Title:
A. S. Hitchcock: Asia, 1921; Georgia and Florida; Panama and Ecuador, 1923. Includes photographs of Floyd A. McClure. Vol. 2, 782-1118
Collection name:
United States National Museum, Division of Grasses, Records, 1884, 1888, 1899-1965
Physical Description:
1 photograph album
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 19
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Photograph albums
Place:
Ecuador
Panama
West Indies
Florida
Georgia
Macau
China
Canton
Yangtze
Guam
Japan
Phillippines
United States
Date Range:
1921-1923
Start Date:
1921
End Date:
1923
Abstract:
The photograph album contains images compiled by A. S. Hitchcock from collecting trips. Images are numbered consecutively and have captions detailing subject matter, common or scientific name, location, and sometimes date. Locations visited included: Ecuador; Panama (Barro Colorado); Caribbean (St. Thomas, Haiti); Florida (Lake Okeechobee, Caxambos, Brooksville); Georgia (Savannah); Macao [Macau] ; China (Hoi How, Shiu Chow, Ying Tak, vicinity of Canton Christian College, Shanghai, Yangtze Valley, Hakone Valley); Japan (Nikko); Philippines; and Guam. Subject matter included: vegetation (multiple examples of bamboo), bird preserves, botanical gardens, sailing vessels and ports, lime processing in Macao, colleagues, landscapes, city scenes of Shanghai, and agricultural fields.
Topic:
Botany
Botanists
Grasses
Accession #:
SIA RU000229
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
United States National Museum, Division of Grasses, Records, 1884, 1888, 1899-1965
See more records associated with this person:
Hitchcock, A. S. (Albert Spear), 1865-1935
McClure, Floyd Alonzo, 1897-1970
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project

100 Native Americans who shaped American history / Bonnie Juettner

One hundred Native Americans who shaped American history
Author:
Juettner, Bonnie
Physical description:
112 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
Notes:
Includes index.
Contents:
Dekanawida (C.1550-C.1600) -- Squanto (C.1580-1622) -- Massasoit (C.1580-1661) -- Pocahontas (C.1595-1617) -- Metacomet (C.1639-1676) -- Pope (C. Mid1600s-1690) -- Kateri Tekakwitha (C.1656-1680) -- Pontiac (C.1720-1769) -- Handsome Lake (C.1735-1815) -- Molly Brant (C.1736-1796) -- Nanye'hi (C.1738-1822) -- Joseph Brant (C.1742-1807) -- Sequoyah (C.1765-1843) -- Black Hawk (C.1767-1838) -- Tecumseh (C.1768-1813) -- Kennekuk (C.1785-1852) -- Sacajawea (C.1786-1812) -- Seathl (C.1788-1866) -- Mangas Colorado (C.1795-1863) -- Osceola (C.1804-1838) -- Black Kettle (C.1804-1868) -- Washakie (C.1804-1900) -- Stand Watie (C.1806-1871) -- Billy Bowlegs (C.1810-1864) -- Dull Knife (C.1810-1883) -- Cochise (C.1812-1874) -- Manuelito (C.1818-1894) -- Little Wolf (C.1820-1904) -- Red Cloud (C.1822-1909) -- Spotted Tail (C.1823-1881) -- Victorio (C.1825-1880) -- Big Foot (C.1825-1890) -- Ely Samuel Parker (C.1828-1895) -- Standing Bear (C.1829-1908) -- Geronimo (C.1829-1909) -- Sitting Bull (C.1831-1890) -- Kicking Bird (C.1835-1875) -- Datsolalee (C.1835-1925) -- Lozen (C.1840-1890) -- Chief Joseph (C.1840-1904) -- Crazy Horse (C.1842-1877) -- Sarah Winnemucca (C.1844-1891) -- Quanah Parker (C.1845-1911) -- Plenty Coups (C.1848-1932) -- Susette La Flesche (C.1854-1903) -- Francis La Flesche (C.1857-1932) -- Henry Chee Dodge (C.1857-1947) -- Charles Alexander Eastman (C.1858-1939) -- Nampeyo (C.1859-1942) -- Charles Curtis (C.1860-1936) Susan La Flesche (C.1865-1915) -- Amos Bad Heart Bull (C.1869-1913) -- Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (C.1876-1938) -- Will Rogers (C.1879-1935) -- Maria Martinez (C.1880-1980) -- Clinton Rickard (C.1882-1971) -- Charles Albert Bender (C.1883-1954) -- Clarence Tinker (C.1887-1942) -- Jim Thorpe (C.1888-1953) -- Ella Cara Deloria (C.1889-1971) -- Lucy Lewis (C.1895-1992) -- Ben Reifel (C.1906-1990) -- Annie Dodge Wauneka (C.1910-1997) -- Elizabeth Peratrovich (C.1911-1958) -- Howard Rock (C.1911-1976) -- Jay Silverheels (C.1912-1980) -- Oscar Howe (C.1915-1983) -- Pablita Velarde (C.1918-) -- Ira Hayes (C.1923-1955) -- Betty Mae Tiger Jumper (1923-) -- David Sohappy (C.1925-1991) -- Maria Tallchief (C.1925-) -- Ladonna Harris (C.1931-) -- Louis Ballard (C.1931-) -- Dennis Banks (C.1932-) -- Fred Begay (C.1932-) -- Ben Nighthorse Campbell (C.1933-) -- Vine Deloria, Jr (C.1933-) -- Janet McCloud (C.1934-) -- N. Scott Momaday (C.1934-) -- Ada E. Deer (C.1935-) -- Peterson Zah (C.1937-) -- Billy Mills (C.1938-) -- Ramona Bennett (C.1938-) -- Clyde Bellecourt (C.1939-) -- Paula Gunn Allen (C.1939-) -- William Hensley (C.1941-) -- Simon Ortiz (C.1941-) -- Buffy Sainte-Marie (C.1941-) -- Frank Dukepoo (C.1943-1999) -- Leonard Peltier (C.1944-) -- Michael Dorris (C.1945-1997) -- John Echohawk (C.1945-) -- Wilma Mankiller (C.1945-) -- Robert Eugene Megginson (C.1948-) -- Leslie Marmon Silko (C.1948-) -- Joy Harjo (C.1951-) -- Louise Erdrich (C.1954-) -- Winona Laduke (C.1959-) -- Sherman Alexie (C.1966-) -- Trivia quiz & projects
Summary:
Read about 100 diverse Native-Americans, including: Dekanawida, founder of the Iroquois Confederacy; Sacagawea, Lewis and Clarks's guide; the warrior Cochise; Medal of Freedom winner Annie Dodge Wauneka; author Sherman Alexie, Will Rogers, Jay Silverheels and many more.
Topic:
History
Call number:
E89 .J84 2003
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

5 intriguing electric guitars from our collections

view 5 intriguing electric guitars from our collections digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of American History
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 05 Jun 2015 16:36:17 +0000
Description:

Happy 100th Birthday, Les Paul!

June 9, 2015, is an important day for the guitar and music world: It is the centennial of the birth of electric guitar icon and innovator, Les Paul, who was born in 1915 in Waukesha, Wisconsin. An American jazz, blues, and country guitarist and songwriter, Les Paul is remembered for his experiments with innovative recording techniques and with solid-body amplified guitars.

Les Paul playing guitar, black and white photo

In a salute to one of the grandfathers of the unforgettable sound of the electric guitar, we are taking a moment today to look through the array of electric guitars in the museum’s collection. Did you know that we have over 90 acoustic and electric guitars and bass guitars in our musical instruments collection? Join us as we share five electric guitars from the collection, highlighting exciting moments in history that led to the electric guitar as we know it today.

Guitar on red background

The concept of an electric guitar, or a guitar amplified "by means of electricity," started in the era of big band jazz, early recordings, and radio broadcasting, around the 1920s and into the 1930s, all around the singular challenge of making the guitar louder.

There were many early inventions and experiments that explored this challenge but, as we know today, what truly won out was the solid body electric guitar. Les Paul is widely known for his first attempts at a solid body guitar, nicknamed "the Log," developed in the early 1940s.

The Slingerland Company based in Chicago introduced a solid-body electric guitar for commercial sale in 1939 in their company catalog. Seen above, the guitar echoes the traditional "Spanish-style" acoustic guitar shape adapted to a solid wooden body with a combination of magnets in its pickup to capture string vibrations. While Slingerland stopped producing electric instruments in the 1940s to focus on percussion instruments, this guitar is possibly the earliest solid-body electric guitar on record.

Electric bass guitar on red background

By the 1950s, the solid-body electric guitar had risen significantly in popularity, largely thanks to the jazz, blues, and country musicians who explored new sounds and ways to play with this electrified instrument. But what about the other stringed instruments in a band? In 1951, Leo Fender—whose company created the iconic Fender Telecaster and Stratocaster solid-body electric guitars—introduced the first electric bass that could be worn and played like a Spanish-style guitar.

The Precision Bass (or "P Bass" as it is usually known today) revolutionized the music world as it took the stand-up bass, an instrument that was difficult to transport, tune, and amplify, and simplified it down to the essentials. While there were already electrified versions of the upright bass, the ability to play the bass like a guitar was groundbreaking and its amplified voice became a musical sensation.

Black and white guitar on red background

With the arrival of the 1960s, the cultural revolution of rock and roll was in full swing. Guitarists were less and less interested in the clean sounds that earlier musicians had sought to achieve and instead began experimenting with ways to create a more unique electric guitar voice that suited their own particular music and sound.

This Danelectro Silvertone acoustic-electric guitar belonged to Jesse Fuller (1896-1976) who purchased it from a Sears store in Detroit when his original guitar was stolen and he needed an instrument for a gig later that evening. A blues and folk music one-man-band, Fuller would play his guitar along with a harmonica, percussion and a foot-operated double-bass, which he built himself and dubbed "fotdella." Talk about unique sounds and innovations!

Red, white, and black guitar and black case

The search for even more volume with the rise of heavy metal music and the power chords, flashy solos, and raunchy sounds that defined rock and roll in the 1970s and 1980s led to changes in both the technology of the electric guitar and the aesthetic design.

In the 1970s, Eddie Van Halen began to experiment and push the limitations of his instruments, and ended up building his own electric guitar using the body of a Stratocaster and pieces and parts from other guitars. The end result was an instrument lovingly nicknamed by his fans as "Frankenstein," which he decorated with strips of colored tape.

Yellow cloud guitar

As guitarists sought to establish increasingly personalized musical styles, the visual design of guitars began to blossom. Because solid-body electric guitars don't depend on the physical shape to produce sound (as compared to hollow-body acoustic guitars), musicians and manufacturers alike could experiment more with the design and shape of the instrument itself. For music genres from heavy metal, to psychedelic rock—the guitars themselves became identifiable "signatures" of those styles.

Musicians were equally focused not only on the sounds they could tease out and create with this instrument, but also with the look. One of the best examples of this is none other than Prince's Yellow Cloud—which he designed himself and adorned with his distinctive symbol along the fingerboard.

So, are you ready to become a guitar expert and to learn more about the electric guitar's invention, commercial success, and design? Now that we've sampled a little bit of each decade, take a moment and journey through The Invention of the Electric Guitar online exhibit by the museum's own Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. It's a fascinating story about the creative people, groundbreaking technology, and inventive American spirit that coalesced to create this iconic instrument.

Megan Salocks is a project assistant in the Office of Programs and Strategic Initiatives, where she focuses on jazz and food history. She recommends that you sign up for the museum's jazz newsletter to learn more.

Author(s): 
Megan Salocks
Topic:
American History
See more posts:
Blog Feed
Data Source:
National Museum of American History

Maasai Steppe Ascending - Convective Displacement

view <I>Maasai Steppe Ascending - Convective Displacement</I> digital asset number 1
Maker:
Georgia Papageorge, born 1941, South Africa
Medium:
Oil stick and graphite on canvas with volcanic rock and cloth
Dimensions:
H x W: 239 x 117 cm (94 1/8 x 46 1/16 in.)
Type:
Painting
Geography:
South Africa
Date:
1997
Label Text:
This painting is one of a series of works by the artist of Tanzania's Mount Kilimanjaro, the world's tallest single free-standing peak. It incorporates actual volcanic rock from the crater and other areas of the mountain. The ladder reaches toward the heavens, a metaphor for a difficult ascent, though it is literally grounded in the earth.
Description:
Rectangular vertical canvas with oil stick and graphite depiction of a ladder and suggestions of the continents of South America and Africa under layers of clouds and rock. A white capped peak at the top is connected by a red thread to pieces of volcanic rock at the bottom.
Exhibition History:
Conversations: African and African American Artworks in Dialogue - From the Collections of the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art and Camille O. and William H. Cosby, Jr., National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, November 7, 2014-January 24, 2016
Insights, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., February 27 to November 28, 2004
Georgia Papageorge: Kilimanjaro-Through the Barrier, Art First, London, October 6-29, 1998
Claiming Art / Reclaiming Space: Post Apartheid Art from South Africa, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., June 21-September 26, 1999
Published References:
Kreamer, Christine Mullen and Adrienne L. Childs (eds). 2014. Conversations: African and African American Artworks in Dialogue from the Collections of the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art and Camille O. and William H. Cosby, Jr. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 201-202, 214, no. 97, pl. 113.
Credit Line:
Museum purchase
Object number:
98-19-1
Rights:
© 1997 Georgie Papageorge
See more items in:
National Museum of African Art Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art

A Book Is Nothing But a Person Talking Publicly

view A Book Is Nothing But a Person Talking Publicly digital asset number 1
Designer:
Sergei I. Ivanov, 1885–1942
Medium:
Two color lithograph on newsprint
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Russia
Date:
1920
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Poster depicting a town view with buildings and scaffolding in the background under large clouds. Large arms coming from above hold a book open to an audience of men (workers) holding signs. All look to a man, standing on a tall platform, pointing to the book.
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of Mrs. John Innes Kane
Accession Number:
1992-123-2
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Additional Online Media:

A Court Scene

view A Court Scene digital asset number 1
Designer:
Francesco Galli Bibiena, 1659 – 1739
Medium:
Pen and brown ink; brush and gray, blue and pale rose wash on white paper, laid down
Type:
architecture
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Made in:
Italy
Date:
1700–1739
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Vertical rectangle showing a palace court scene with clouds hang above an elaborate architectural space. Many figures bring tribute to a king standing at left, beneath a lofty baldacchino. Columns with caryatids support arches.
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of various donors and from Eleanor G. Hewitt Fund
Accession Number:
1938-88-51
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

A General View of the Falls of Niagara

view A General View of the Falls of Niagara digital asset number 1
Artist:
Alvan Fisher, born Needham, MA 1792-died Dedham, MA 1863
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
34 3/8 x 48 1/8 in. (87.2 x 122.3 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1820
Description:
This scene by Alvan Fisher conveys the magnificent beauty of Niagara Falls, which quickly became an icon for the new nation. Tiny figures stand at the rim of the cataract, their gestures expressing awe and delight in the grandeur of the scene before them. Lacking a lengthy, cultured past, Americans looked to the grandeur of the landscape to reflect the scale of the new country’s ambitions. Just as the Seven Wonders of the World had given Europeans a sense of pride in their past, Niagara Falls and other natural wonders became symbols of America’s identity.
Topic:
Figure(s) in exterior\rural
Ethnic\Indian
Landscape\weather\cloud
Landscape\waterfall\Niagara Falls
Landscape\Canada\Niagara Falls
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase
Object number:
1967.85
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
On View:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, 2nd Floor, South Wing
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum

A Votive Image of a Boy Presented by his Parents to St. Nicholas of Bari

view A Votive Image of a Boy Presented by his Parents to St. Nicholas of Bari digital asset number 1
Artist:
Francesco Saverio Mergolo, Italian, 1746–1786
Medium:
Brush and brown and gray wash, pen and brown ink on paper
Culture:
Italian
Type:
figures
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Made in:
Southern Italy
Date:
late 18th century
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
The Saint is sitting on clouds, with book and three balls, blessing. Surrounded by angels, two of them with mitre and crozier. Below, at left: The father standing, mother and son kneeling. At right a tub surrounded by three children.
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of various donors and from Eleanor G. Hewitt Fund
Accession Number:
1938-88-4374
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

A pretty group at an Indian Tent. Jack Redcloud brings the news of surrender and end of war to his lady friends.

view A pretty group at an Indian Tent. Jack Redcloud brings the news of surrender and end of war to his lady friends. digital asset number 1
Donor:
Major Sherman Miles, Non-Indian, 1882-1966
Cecelia Miles Reber (Mrs. Samuel K. Reber/Cecelia Sherman Miles), Non-Indian, 1869-1952
Subject:
Chief Jack Red Cloud (Jack Redcloud/Makhpiya-Luta), Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux), 1862-1928
Format:
Albumen print
Image Type:
Print
Dimensions:
9.5 x 12.5 in.
Culture/People:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)
Place:
South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date Created:
Copyright 1890
Collection History:
Formerly in the collection of General Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925, U.S. Army); inherited by his children, Cecelia Miles Reber (Mrs. Samuel K. Reber, 1869-1952) and Major Sherman Miles (1882-1966); donated to MAI in 1925.
Description:
Jack Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta), the son of Chief Red Cloud, on horseback next to four women standing in front of a tipi. Women wear patterned blankets, including one Navajo chief blanket, and two hold babies in cradleboards. A third child sits on the shoulders of his/her mother.
Catalog Number:
P07004
See more items in:
Photographic Collections
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian

(Abraham Lincoln), (sculpture)

view (Abraham Lincoln), (sculpture) digital asset number 1
Sculptor:
Pelzer, Alfonso d. 1904 (copy after)
Founder:
W. H. Mullins Company
Subject:
Lincoln, Abraham
Medium:
Sculpture: sheet copper; Pedestal: granite
Type:
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by City of St. Cloud Parks Department 400 2nd Streeet South St. Cloud Minnesota 56301
Located Fourth Avenue North, near Veterans Memorial Bridge St. Cloud Minnesota
Date:
Original cast 1898. 1918. Dedicated May 30, 1918
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, Minnesota survey, 1995.
Summary:
Full-length figure of Abraham Lincoln stands on a tall pedestal, flanked by urns, on a low base. Lincoln wears a suit with bow tie, vest and long coat. His proper right hand is extended palm up and he holds an unfurled scroll, the Emancipation Proclamation, in his proper left hand. There is an unfurled American flag incised on the front of the pedestal, between inscriptions.
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length
Occupation--Political--President
Object--Written Matter--Scroll
Control number:
IAS MN000607
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Additional Online Media:

Adelia Boisseau Warfield and Daughter Huldah Belle, (painting)

Painter:
Newman, Robert Loftin 1827-1912
Subject:
Warfield, William Wallace, Mrs. (Adelia Boisseau)
Warfield, Huldah Belle
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Cheek, Leslie, Jr
Date:
Ca. 1857
Notes:
Kelly, James C., "Portrait Painting in Tennessee," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, pg. 236.
Landgren, Marchal E., "Robert Loftin Newman, 1827-1912," Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, National Collection of Fine Arts, 1974, no. 126.
Summary:
Portrait of Mrs. William Wallace Warfield standon on a balcony, her body facing forward, her gaze directed toward the viewer, and her right hand resting on the shoulder of her young daughter Huldah standing in front of her. The mother wears a dark off-the-shoulder dress with short sleeves trimmed in lace, a long gold chain, a gold cuff bracelet, and a gold pin at the neck, and loosely darped over her left arm is a fringed shawl. The daugher wears a bright blue off-the-shoulder dress with white pantaloons, and a beaded necklace. She stands with her right arm reston on the arm of a chair beside her, and in he right hand she holds a sprig of blooming pink roses. In the background is a river landscape with puffy white clouds floating across a blue sky.
Topic:
Architecture interior--Detail--Balcony
Portrait group--Family--Mother & Child
Portrait female--Full length
Portrait female--Child
Control number:
IAP 89860029
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

Adoration of the Christ Child, (painting)

Holy Family, (painting)
Painter:
Von Marr, Carl 1858-1936
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Museum of Wisconsin Art 300 South Sixth Avenue West Bend Wisconsin 53095 Accession Number: 340
Date:
Ca. 1898
Notes:
West Bend Art Museum, 1997.
Summary:
In the center there is a semi-circle of angel children gazing to the far right where Mary, in a light colored gown and veil, holds Jesus on her lap, with Joseph standing behind, covering his eyes with his right hand. In the background there is a blue sky with clouds.
Topic:
Religion--New Testament--Holy Family
Control number:
IAP 64620100
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

After Rain, (painting)

Sky Opening, (painting)
Painter:
Burchfield, Charles 1893-1967
Medium:
Watercolor on paper
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Art Complex Museum 189 Alden Street Duxbury Massachusetts 02331
Date:
1916
Notes:
"Interpretations of Nature," New York: Bernard Danenberg Galleries, 1970, no. 11.
"Charles Burchfield: Catalogue of Paintings in Public and Private Collections," Utica, NY: Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, 1970, no. 103.
"American Paintings from the Collection of the Art Complex Museum, Duxbury, Massachusetts," Duxbury, MA: Art Complex Museum, 1985, pg. 48.
Summary:
View looking toward a stand of trees growing by a split rail fence, with the sun overhead radiating from behind gray rain clouds.
Topic:
Landscape--Weather--Rain
Landscape--Tree--Apple Tree
Architecture exterior--Detail--Fence
Landscape--Ohio--Salem
Control number:
IAP 62260060
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

Alabama Landscape

view Alabama Landscape digital asset number 1
Artist:
Theodore Hancock
Medium:
Painting, Watercolor on Paper
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 17.8 x 54.6cm (7 in. x 21 1/2 in.)
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 22.9 x 59.7cm (9 x 23 1/2 in.)
Type:
ART-Paintings
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1964
Physical Description:
Alabama Landscape, 1964. A rolling landscape spreads out to the horizon. In the center is an industrial plant with several large structures and other smaller ones. Roadways and fences cut across the valley and seem to converge at the plant. The sky is light blue with large white clouds.
Long Description:
The spring of 1962 was a busy time for the men and women of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On February 20, John H. Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth. For the first time since the launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, the U.S. was positioned to match and exceed Soviet achievements in space. NASA was an agency with a mission -- to meet President John F. Kennedy's challenge of sending human beings to the moon and returning them safely to earth by the end of the decade. Within a year, three more Mercury astronauts would fly into orbit. Plans were falling into place for a follow-on series of two-man Gemini missions that would set the stage for the Apollo voyages to the moon.
In early March 1962, artist Bruce Stevenson brought his large portrait of Alan Shepard, the first American to fly in space, to NASA headquarters.(1) James E. Webb, the administrator of NASA, assumed that the artist was interested in painting a similar portrait of all seven of the Mercury astronauts. Instead, Webb voiced his preference for a group portrait that would emphasize "…the team effort and the togetherness that has characterized the first group of astronauts to be trained by this nation." More important, the episode convinced the administrator that "…we should consider in a deliberate way just what NASA should do in the field of fine arts to commemorate the …historic events" of the American space program.(2)
In addition to portraits, Webb wanted to encourage artists to capture the excitement and deeper meaning of space flight. He imagined "a nighttime scene showing the great amount of activity involved in the preparation of and countdown for launching," as well as paintings that portrayed activities in space. "The important thing," he concluded, "is to develop a policy on how we intend to treat this matter now and in the next several years and then to get down to the specifics of how we intend to implement this policy…." The first step, he suggested, was to consult with experts in the field, including the director of the National Gallery of Art, and the members of the Fine Arts Commission, the arbiters of architectural and artistic taste who passed judgment on the appearance of official buildings and monuments in the nation's capital.
Webb's memo of March 16, 1962 was the birth certificate of the NASA art program. Shelby Thompson, the director of the agency's Office of Educational Programs and Services, assigned James Dean, a young artist working as a special assistant in his office, to the project. On June 19, 1962 Thompson met with the Fine Arts Commission, requesting advice as to how "…NASA should develop a basis for use of paintings and sculptures to depict significant historical events and other activities in our program."(3)
David E. Finley, the chairman and former director of the National Gallery of Art, applauded the idea, and suggested that the agency should study the experience of the U.S. Air Force, which had amassed some 800 paintings since establishing an art program in 1954. He also introduced Thompson to Hereward Lester Cooke, curator of paintings at the National Gallery of Art.
An imposing bear of a man standing over six feet tall, Lester Cooke was a graduate of Yale and Oxford, with a Princeton PhD. The son of a physics professor and a veteran of the U.S. Army Air Forces, he was both fascinated by science and felt a personal connection to flight. On a professional level, Cooke had directed American participation in international art competitions and produced articles and illustrations for the National Geographic Magazine. He jumped at the chance to advise NASA on its art program.
While initially cautious with regard to the time the project might require of one of his chief curators, John Walker, director of the National Gallery, quickly became one of the most vocal supporters of the NASA art initiative. Certain that "the present space exploration effort by the United States will probably rank among the more important events in the history of mankind," Walker believed that "every possible method of documentation …be used." Artists should be expected "…not only to record the physical appearance of the strange new world which space technology is creating, but to edit, select and probe for the inner meaning and emotional impact of events which may change the destiny of our race." He urged quick action so that "the full flavor of the achievement …not be lost," and hoped that "the past held captive" in any paintings resulting from the effort "will prove to future generations that America produced not only scientists and engineers capable of shaping the destiny of our age, but also artists worthy to keep them company."(4)
Gordon Cooper, the last Mercury astronaut to fly, was scheduled to ride an Atlas rocket into orbit on May 15, 1963. That event would provide the ideal occasion for a test run of the plan Cooke and Dean evolved to launch the art program. In mid-February, Cooke provided Thompson with a list of the artists who should be invited to travel to Cape Canaveral to record their impressions of the event. Andrew Wyeth, whom the curator identified as "the top artist in the U.S. today," headed the list. When the time came, however, Andrew Wyeth did not go to the Cape for the Cooper launch, but his son Jamie would participate in the program during the Gemini and Apollo years.
The list of invited artists also included Peter Hurd, Andrew Wyeth's brother-in-law, who had served as a wartime artist with the Army Air Force; George Weymouth, whom Wyeth regarded as "the best of his pupils"; and John McCoy, another Wyeth associate. Cooke regarded the next man on the list, Robert McCall, who had been running the Air Force art program, as "America's top aero-space illustrator. Paul Calle and Robert Shore had both painted for the Air Force program. Mitchell Jamieson, who had run a unit of the Navy art program during WW II, rounded out the program. Alfred Blaustein was the only artist to turn down the invitation.
The procedures that would remain in place for more than a decade were given a trial run in the spring of 1963. The artists received an $800 commission, which had to cover any expenses incurred while visiting a NASA facility where they could paint whatever interested them. In return, they would present their finished pieces, and all of their sketches, to the space agency. The experiment was a success, and what might have been a one-time effort to dispatch artists to witness and record the Gordon Cooper flight provided the basis for an on-going, if small-scale, program. By the end of 1970, Jim Dean and Lester Cooke had dispatched 38 artists to Mercury, Gemini and Apollo launches and to other NASA facilities.
The art program became everything that Jim Webb had hoped it would be. NASA artists produced stunning works of art that documented the agency's step-by-step progress on the way to the moon. The early fruits of the program were presented in a lavishly illustrated book, Eyewitness to Space (New York: Abrams, 1971). Works from the collection illustrated NASA publications and were the basis for educational film strips aimed at school children. In 1965 and again in 1969 the National Gallery of Art mounted two major exhibitions of work from the NASA collection. The USIA sent a selection of NASA paintings overseas, while the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service created two exhibitions of NASA art that toured the nation.
"Since we …began," Dean noted in a reflection on the tenth anniversary of the program, the art initiative had resulted in a long string of positive "press interviews and reports, congressional inquiries, columns in the Congressional Record, [and] White House reports." The NASA effort, he continued, had directly inspired other government art programs. "The Department of the Interior (at least two programs), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Army and even the Veterans Administration have, or are starting, art programs." While he could not take all of the credit, Dean insisted that "our success has encouraged other agencies to get involved and they have succeeded, too."(5)
For all of that, he noted, it was still necessary to "defend" the role of art in the space agency. Dean, with the assistance of Lester Cooke, had been a one-man show, handling the complex logistics of the program, receiving and cataloguing works of art, hanging them himself in museums or on office walls, and struggling to find adequate storage space. In January 1976, a NASA supervisor went so far as to comment that: "Mr. Dean is far too valuable in other areas to spend his time on the relatively menial …jobs he is often burdened with in connection with the art program."(6) Dean placed a much higher value on the art collection, and immediately recommended that NASA officials either devote additional resources to the program, or get out of the art business and turn the existing collection over the National Air and Space Museum, "where it can be properly cared for."(7)
In January 1974 a new building for the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) was taking shape right across the street from NASA headquarters. Discussions regarding areas of cooperation were already underway between NASA officials and museum director Michael Collins, who had flown to the moon as a member of the Apollo 11 crew. Before the end of the year, the space agency had transferred its art collection to the NASM. Mike Collins succeeded in luring Jim Dean to the museum, as well.
The museum already maintained a small art collection, including portraits of aerospace heroes, an assortment of 18th and 19th century prints illustrating the early history of the balloon, an eclectic assortment of works portraying aspects of the history of aviation and a few recent prizes, including several Norman Rockwell paintings of NASA activity. With the acquisition of the NASA art, the museum was in possession of one of the world's great collections of art exploring aerospace themes. Jim Dean would continue to build the NASM collection as the museum's first curator of art. Following his retirement in 1980, other curators would follow in his footsteps, continuing to strengthen the role of art at the NASM. Over three decades after its arrival, however, the NASA art accession of 2,091 works still constitutes almost half of the NASM art collection.
(1) Stevenson's portrait is now in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum (1981-627)
(2) James E. Webb to Hiden Cox, March 16, 1962, memorandum in the NASA art historical collection, Aeronautics Division, National air and Space Museum. Webb's preference for a group portrait of the astronauts was apparently not heeded. In the end, Stevenson painted an individual portrait of John Glenn, which is also in the NASM collection (1963-398).
(3) Shelby Thompson, memorandum for the record, July 6, 1962, NASA art historical collection, NASA, Aeronautics Division.
(4) John Walker draft of a talk, March 5, 1965, copy in NASA Art historical collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(5) James Dean, memorandum for the record, August 6, 1973, NASA art history collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(6) Director of Planning and Media Development to Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs, January 24, 1974, NASA art history collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(7) James Dean to the Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs, January 24, 1974, copy in NASA Art history Collection, Aeronautics Division, NASM.
Tom D. Crouch
Senior Curator, Aeronautics
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
July 26, 2007
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Inventory Number:
A19770085000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum

Alba Rosa, (sculpture)

view Alba Rosa, (sculpture) digital asset number 1
Sculptor:
McDonnell, Joseph Anthony 1936-
Medium:
Sculpture and base: polished pink granite; Basin: concrete
Type:
Sculptures-Fountain
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by Montgomery County Department Facilities/Services 110 North Washington Street, 3rd Floor Rockville Maryland 20850
Located Silver Spring Garage 7 8530 Cameron Street Silver Spring Maryland
Date:
Commissioned June 1987. Aug. 1988
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, Maryland survey, 1992.
Summary:
A large abstract granite sculpture consisting of a huge disc standing on its side on top of a truncated pyramid. Water comes out of the top of the disc and flows down the sides into a oval-shaped fountain basin. The sides of the disc are cut with striations which enhance the flow of water down the surface of the disc. The disc represents the sun and the striations cut into the sides represent clouds crossing the sun. The sculpture is made of a red granite from Pietra Santa, Italy. Sun strikes the disc in the morning, hence the title "Alba Rosa," which is Italian for red morning.
Topic:
Abstract--Geometric
Allegory--Place--Extraterrestrial
Allegory--Time--Morning
Control number:
IAS MD000023
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Additional Online Media:

Album 1 Panama, 1949 : includes photographs of Wetmore, Watson M. Perrygo, Richard H. Stewart, Matthew Williams Stirling, Marion Illg Stirling, and James Zetek

view Album 1 Panama, 1949 : includes photographs of Wetmore, Watson M. Perrygo, Richard H. Stewart, Matthew Williams Stirling, Marion Illg Stirling, and James Zetek digital asset number 1
Alternate Title:
Panama, 1949
Collection name:
Alexander Wetmore Papers, circa 1848-1979 and undated
Physical Description:
1 Photograph album
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 179
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama
Bayano, Lago
Chimán
Date Range:
1949
Start Date:
1949
End Date:
1949
Abstract:
The photograph album documents Alexander Wetmore's work in Panama in 1949. He was assisted by Watson M. Perrygo. Photographs include numbers, date, and caption with description and location. Subject matter includes images documenting their travel across Panama, Panamanians encountered and employed by Wetmore; examples of the vegetation seen in region; terrain (savannas, rivers, wetlands, forests); portraits and candid images of colleagues and military; pole traps; cayucos; observed birds (individual and group), nests, and environs; structures and residences of villages; Choco indians in daily life and clearing forests; Wetmore and others collecting specimens; ruins; photographs taken from plane ride over Rio Bayano and Chiman; and images of Albrook Air Force Base. Locations include vicinity of Cerro Azul, Cheppo and Bayano Reservoir in Panama. Includes photographs of Wetmore, Watson M. Perrygo, Richard H. Stewart, Matthew Williams Stirling, Marion Illg Stirling, and James Zetek.
Topic:
Ornithology
Choco Indians
Accession #:
SIA RU007006
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Alexander Wetmore Papers, circa 1848-1979 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Wetmore, Alexander, 1886-1978
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project

(Aluminum Relief), (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Zorach, William 1889-1966
Founder:
Bedi-Rassy Art Foundry
Medium:
Cast aluminum
Culture:
Indian
Type:
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures-Relief
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck/Hackensack Campus Art Department 1000 River Road Teaneck New Jersey 07666
Located Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck/Hackensack Campus Weiner Library Teaneck New Jersey
Date:
1955. Copyrighted 1955. Dedicated 1962
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, New Jersey survey, 1994.
Summary:
High-relief cast aluminum sculpture mounted to the side of a library building. In the center is the full-length figure of a reclining nude woman. She leans on her proper right arm; her head is turned and she gazes to the proper right. To the left of the female is a full-length standing figure of an Indian. He wears a loin cloth and a beaded sun medallion necklace. His arms are raised and he looks skyward. To the right of the female is a figure group of a man and young boy. The boy stands in front of the man; his arms reach up to the man. Above the head of the female is a grouping of several vertically hung flags with an American flag in the foreground. Above the flag grouping is a sun with a layer of cloud passing in front of it.
Topic:
Allegory--Place--America
Allegory--Life
Figure group
Ethnic
Object--Other--Flag
Landscape--Celestial--Sun
Control number:
IAS NJ000568
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

The Amberley Boy, (painting)

Painter:
Brockhurst, Gerald 1890-1978
Subject:
Unidentified
Medium:
Oil on wood panel
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Boston Public Library 700 Boylston Street Boston Massachusetts 02116
Notes:
Brumbaugh, Thomas B., "The Art of Gerald Brockhurst," Athens, GA: Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, 1993, no. 46.
Summary:
Portrait of a young boy standing in a landscape with his body facing forward and his gaze directed toward the viewer. He wears a white shirt with a white tie at the neck and a navy vest. His straight blond hair is cut short with bangs falling across his forehead. In the badckground there are rolling hills and a small river, and overhead wispy white clouds float across the sky.
Topic:
Portrait male--Child
Landscape--River
Control number:
IAP 89940002
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

America, (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Weber, Jurgen 1928-
Founder:
Unknown (Berlin, Germany)
Medium:
Sculpture: bronze; Base: concrete
Type:
Sculptures-Relief
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Washington District of Columbia
Located John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Entrance Washington District of Columbia 20566
Date:
1965-1971
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, District of Columbia survey, 1994.
Goode, James M., "The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C., A Comprehensive Historical Guide," Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974, pg. 481-482.
Summary:
Relief on the west side of the plaza at the entrance to the Kennedy Center is a tableau of people, buildings, and objects which represent the German artist's image of America. From left to right the images depicted are: a group of nude figures all reaching up toward sacks of wheat which are being unloaded from a U.S. ship docked at a nearby wharf (represents American foreign aid and the idea of survival); flanked by classical columns, five nude males stand around debating each other (represents free speech); large car bumpers with teeth for grills (represents technology); skyscrapers adorned with the phrases, "DONT WALK," "SOFT SELL," "PEACE ON EARTH," "BLESSED ARE THE MEEK," and large heads, lips, and eyes (represents the consumer apt to be persuaded by advertisers); Statue of Liberty standing in the midst of billowing clouds of smoke and flames, to her proper left, there are a group of flags, cannons pointing out from the bow of a ship, and a rocket taking off (represents threats to liberty).
Topic:
Allegory--Place--America
Allegory--Quality--Poverty
Allegory--Other--Survival
Allegory--Quality--Charity
Allegory--Civic--Liberty
Disaster--Fire
Figure group--Nude
Figure--Fragment--Face
Architecture--Commercial--Skyscraper
Architecture--Detail--Column
Architecture--Boat
Architecture--Vehicle--Automobile
Architecture--Vehicle--Spacecraft
Object--Foodstuff
Object--Other--Flag
Object--Weapon--Cannon
Control number:
IAS DC000053
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums

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