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"Heroes Come with Empty Sleeves"

Creator:
National Museum of American History
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 23 Jun 2015 20:17:27 +0000
Topic:
American History
Description:

Curator Dr. Katherine Ott invited students in Dr. Samuel J. Redman's Museum/Historic Site Interpretation Seminar to explore the museum's disability history collections and write blog posts sharing their research. Read more posts by the students in our Disability History section.

Andrew Roy was 26 years old when Lieutenant Henry S. Farley lobbed the infamous first shot of the Civil War over Charleston Harbor on April 17, 1861. He answered President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers by travelling north from his native Maryland and enlisting in a Pennsylvania regiment. The young man paid dearly for his zeal when he was gravely wounded at the Battle of Gaines Mill.

A private in Company F, Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves, Andrew Roy and his unit rushed forward to bolster the Union line against tenacious Confederate assaults. During the charge, he was felled by a shot that destroyed the left side of his pelvis. Roy was then captured when the field hospital he was kept in was overrun by Rebel forces a few days later. Upon returning home from a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Richmond, Virginia, his transition to civilian life was plagued by the wound's perpetual pain and numbness. Back home, despite holding a managerial position at a mine, Roy took weeks off from his job because of his health, relying on a disability pension for survival. Before his death in 1914, he lamented, "My lameness grows worse and the pain is more severe each year. ... My [left] foot seems dead." Doctors commented that he was, "wholly unfit to care for himself and demands constant attention."

Drawing on olive-colored paper. Dead and injured horses lay on ground. Some stand. Gun, carriage, a few men visible. White smears may indicate clouds, smoke, explosions.

Andrew Roy was one of over 275,000 northern soldiers wounded in the American Civil War—although he avoided amputation, unlike more than 20,000 fellow comrades who wore the Union blue. Following the death and destruction of the war, survivors faced the difficult task of finding significance in their suffering and sacrifice. Northern civilians and wounded veterans of the Federal Army offered an array of responses to the nation's anguish through ritualized commemorations in the ensuing decades. Two dominant portrayals of disabled veterans emerged: pitiful cripples and a more popular version depicting the wounded as the epitome of masculine patriotism. Scars, limps, and amputations were honorifics that symbolized the Union man's character as an individual who had sacrificed dearly to preserve the Union.

Religion helped to define public perceptions of wounded veterans, suggesting that a soldier's torment was ordained by a higher power for the national good. As Henry Palmer wrote in a handwriting competition for Federal soldiers who had lost a dominant hand:

"My right arm, as if conscious of approaching dissolution, seemingly bequeathed unto the left arm, all the properties of which it died, seized and possessed.  The seal of this Last Will and Testament was the bloodseal of amputation—Patriotism, Love and Country, and Equal Rights were the subscribing witnesses to the instrument—The body from which the arm was severed, was the Executor—In Heaven's Court, the will was proved, allowed and recorded."

Black and white portrait of man in military uniform with two sleeves pinned up.

A carte-de-visite featuring a wounded veteran of the Union army taken some time during the 1860s. Many veterans with a visible, permanent wound would pin their shirt and/or pant sleeves together instead of opting for free artificial limbs that were considered very uncomfortable.

Despite the misery, Union veterans attempted to demonstrate self-reliance. Perhaps the greatest example of independence was Major General Oliver Otis Howard, who rose to become the head of the Freedmen's Bureau after the war. Veterans argued that their injuries encouraged increased social and economic independence, and some used their wounds for political leverage. Lucius Fairchild, who received an amputation after being seriously wounded during the Battle of Gettysburg, won the Wisconsin gubernatorial election of 1866 and became a prominent veteran-affairs spokesperson for former members of the Federal Army. As such, scarred veterans as virtuous harbingers appeared in the popular culture for a public concerned about the profound effects of the war on wounded soldiers. "The Empty Sleeve: A Song with Chorus" by P.A. Hanaford and Reverend J.W. Dadmun of Boston, Massachusetts, was a popular sheet music written in 1866. Its chorus venerated Civil War veterans:

"Three hearty cheers for those who lost

An arm in Freedom's Fray

And bear about an empty sleeve

But a patriot's heart today."

The lyrics correlate physical sacrifice and triumphant patriotism. This righteous empty sleeve iconography was not equally bestowed, however. African American veterans went unacknowledged, and were barred from most veterans' organizations. Veteran Will Thomas, who participated in the same contest as Henry Palmer stated, "I don't expect to win a position as a clerk, that being ascribed on count of my color." Thus, at least within the confines of northern society, the physical changes that black veterans like Thomas suffered were largely ignored by the community. Listen to the song here. This post's headline also comes from the song's lyrics.

Sheet music cover with fancy geometric border and text saying "The Empty Sleeve" in ornate typeface.

While many men spoke of their injuries in a variety of ways, many more remained silent about the nature of their wounds. While some wounded veterans celebrated personal success later in life, others endured a lifetime of hardship. Roy did not say how his wound affected his patriotism despite professing great esteem for the late Abraham Lincoln in a speech given several decades after General Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant in Wilmer McLean's parlor. The stories circulated by thousands of northern veterans and civilians illustrated the complex post-war psyche that attempted to explain the presence of the permanently wounded soldiers who had served in "Mr. Lincoln's army."

Note: The phrase has been borrowed from the first book in Bruce Catton's trilogy chronicling the history of the Army of the Potomac.

Matt Coletti is a graduate student in the Public History Program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His academic interests include the public memory and contemporary collective interpretations of the American Civil War, as well as the psychological repercussions of war on individual and community life in a historical context.

Author(s): 
Matt Coletti, graduate student in the public history program in the Department of History, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
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Data Source:
National Museum of American History
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#782-#1118, A. S. Hitchcock: Asia, 1921, Georgia and Florida, Panama and Ecuador, 1923, includes photographs of Floyd A. McClure

Alternate Title:
A. S. Hitchcock: Asia, 1921; Georgia and Florida; Panama and Ecuador, 1923. Includes photographs of Floyd A. McClure. Vol. 2, 782-1118
Collection name:
United States National Museum, Division of Grasses, Records, 1884, 1888, 1899-1965
Physical Description:
1 photograph album
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 19
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Photograph albums
Place:
Ecuador
Panama
West Indies
Florida
Georgia
Macau
China
Canton
Yangtze
Guam
Japan
Phillippines
United States
Date Range:
1921-1923
Start Date:
1921
End Date:
1923
Topic:
Botany
Botanists
Grasses
Accession #:
SIA RU000229
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
Abstract:
The photograph album contains images compiled by A. S. Hitchcock from collecting trips. Images are numbered consecutively and have captions detailing subject matter, common or scientific name, location, and sometimes date. Locations visited included: Ecuador; Panama (Barro Colorado); Caribbean (St. Thomas, Haiti); Florida (Lake Okeechobee, Caxambos, Brooksville); Georgia (Savannah); Macao [Macau] ; China (Hoi How, Shiu Chow, Ying Tak, vicinity of Canton Christian College, Shanghai, Yangtze Valley, Hakone Valley); Japan (Nikko); Philippines; and Guam. Subject matter included: vegetation (multiple examples of bamboo), bird preserves, botanical gardens, sailing vessels and ports, lime processing in Macao, colleagues, landscapes, city scenes of Shanghai, and agricultural fields.
See more records from this collection:
United States National Museum, Division of Grasses, Records, 1884, 1888, 1899-1965
See more records associated with this person:
Hitchcock, A. S. (Albert Spear), 1865-1935
McClure, Floyd Alonzo, 1897-1970
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
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100 Native Americans who shaped American history / Bonnie Juettner

One hundred Native Americans who shaped American history
Author:
Juettner, Bonnie
Physical description:
112 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
Topic:
History
Call number:
E89 .J84 2003
Notes:
Includes index.
Contents:
Dekanawida (C.1550-C.1600) -- Squanto (C.1580-1622) -- Massasoit (C.1580-1661) -- Pocahontas (C.1595-1617) -- Metacomet (C.1639-1676) -- Pope (C. Mid1600s-1690) -- Kateri Tekakwitha (C.1656-1680) -- Pontiac (C.1720-1769) -- Handsome Lake (C.1735-1815) -- Molly Brant (C.1736-1796) -- Nanye'hi (C.1738-1822) -- Joseph Brant (C.1742-1807) -- Sequoyah (C.1765-1843) -- Black Hawk (C.1767-1838) -- Tecumseh (C.1768-1813) -- Kennekuk (C.1785-1852) -- Sacajawea (C.1786-1812) -- Seathl (C.1788-1866) -- Mangas Colorado (C.1795-1863) -- Osceola (C.1804-1838) -- Black Kettle (C.1804-1868) -- Washakie (C.1804-1900) -- Stand Watie (C.1806-1871) -- Billy Bowlegs (C.1810-1864) -- Dull Knife (C.1810-1883) -- Cochise (C.1812-1874) -- Manuelito (C.1818-1894) -- Little Wolf (C.1820-1904) -- Red Cloud (C.1822-1909) -- Spotted Tail (C.1823-1881) -- Victorio (C.1825-1880) -- Big Foot (C.1825-1890) -- Ely Samuel Parker (C.1828-1895) -- Standing Bear (C.1829-1908) -- Geronimo (C.1829-1909) -- Sitting Bull (C.1831-1890) -- Kicking Bird (C.1835-1875) -- Datsolalee (C.1835-1925) -- Lozen (C.1840-1890) -- Chief Joseph (C.1840-1904) -- Crazy Horse (C.1842-1877) -- Sarah Winnemucca (C.1844-1891) -- Quanah Parker (C.1845-1911) -- Plenty Coups (C.1848-1932) -- Susette La Flesche (C.1854-1903) -- Francis La Flesche (C.1857-1932) -- Henry Chee Dodge (C.1857-1947) -- Charles Alexander Eastman (C.1858-1939) -- Nampeyo (C.1859-1942) -- Charles Curtis (C.1860-1936) Susan La Flesche (C.1865-1915) -- Amos Bad Heart Bull (C.1869-1913) -- Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (C.1876-1938) -- Will Rogers (C.1879-1935) -- Maria Martinez (C.1880-1980) -- Clinton Rickard (C.1882-1971) -- Charles Albert Bender (C.1883-1954) -- Clarence Tinker (C.1887-1942) -- Jim Thorpe (C.1888-1953) -- Ella Cara Deloria (C.1889-1971) -- Lucy Lewis (C.1895-1992) -- Ben Reifel (C.1906-1990) -- Annie Dodge Wauneka (C.1910-1997) -- Elizabeth Peratrovich (C.1911-1958) -- Howard Rock (C.1911-1976) -- Jay Silverheels (C.1912-1980) -- Oscar Howe (C.1915-1983) -- Pablita Velarde (C.1918-) -- Ira Hayes (C.1923-1955) -- Betty Mae Tiger Jumper (1923-) -- David Sohappy (C.1925-1991) -- Maria Tallchief (C.1925-) -- Ladonna Harris (C.1931-) -- Louis Ballard (C.1931-) -- Dennis Banks (C.1932-) -- Fred Begay (C.1932-) -- Ben Nighthorse Campbell (C.1933-) -- Vine Deloria, Jr (C.1933-) -- Janet McCloud (C.1934-) -- N. Scott Momaday (C.1934-) -- Ada E. Deer (C.1935-) -- Peterson Zah (C.1937-) -- Billy Mills (C.1938-) -- Ramona Bennett (C.1938-) -- Clyde Bellecourt (C.1939-) -- Paula Gunn Allen (C.1939-) -- William Hensley (C.1941-) -- Simon Ortiz (C.1941-) -- Buffy Sainte-Marie (C.1941-) -- Frank Dukepoo (C.1943-1999) -- Leonard Peltier (C.1944-) -- Michael Dorris (C.1945-1997) -- John Echohawk (C.1945-) -- Wilma Mankiller (C.1945-) -- Robert Eugene Megginson (C.1948-) -- Leslie Marmon Silko (C.1948-) -- Joy Harjo (C.1951-) -- Louise Erdrich (C.1954-) -- Winona Laduke (C.1959-) -- Sherman Alexie (C.1966-) -- Trivia quiz & projects
Summary:
Read about 100 diverse Native-Americans, including: Dekanawida, founder of the Iroquois Confederacy; Sacagawea, Lewis and Clarks's guide; the warrior Cochise; Medal of Freedom winner Annie Dodge Wauneka; author Sherman Alexie, Will Rogers, Jay Silverheels and many more.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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A Book Is Nothing But a Person Talking Publicly

Designer:
Sergei I. Ivanov, 1885–1942
Medium:
Two color lithograph on newsprint
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Made in:
Russia
Date:
1920
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of Mrs. John Innes Kane
Accession Number:
1992-123-2
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Poster depicting a town view with buildings and scaffolding in the background under large clouds. Large arms coming from above hold a book open to an audience of men (workers) holding signs. All look to a man, standing on a tall platform, pointing to the book.
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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A Votive Image of a Boy Presented by his Parents to St. Nicholas of Bari

Artist:
Francesco Saverio Mergolo, Italian, 1746–1786
Medium:
Brush and brown and gray wash, pen and brown ink on paper
Culture:
Italian
Type:
figures
Drawing
Object Name:
Drawing
Made in:
Southern Italy
Date:
late 18th century
Credit Line:
Museum purchase through gift of various donors and from Eleanor G. Hewitt Fund
Accession Number:
1938-88-4374
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
The Saint is sitting on clouds, with book and three balls, blessing. Surrounded by angels, two of them with mitre and crozier. Below, at left: The father standing, mother and son kneeling. At right a tub surrounded by three children.
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
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A pretty group at an Indian Tent. Jack Redcloud brings the news of surrender and end of war to his lady friends.

Donor:
Major Sherman Miles, Non-Indian, 1882-1966
Cecelia Miles Reber (Mrs. Samuel K. Reber/Cecelia Sherman Miles), Non-Indian, 1869-1952
Subject:
Chief Jack Red Cloud (Jack Redcloud/Makhpiya-Luta), Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux), 1862-1928
Format:
Albumen print
Image Type:
Print
Dimensions:
9.5 x 12.5 in.
Culture/People:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)
Place:
South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date Created:
Copyright 1890
Catalog Number:
P07004
Collection History:
Formerly in the collection of General Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925, U.S. Army); inherited by his children, Cecelia Miles Reber (Mrs. Samuel K. Reber, 1869-1952) and Major Sherman Miles (1882-1966); donated to MAI in 1925.
Description:
Jack Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta), the son of Chief Red Cloud, on horseback next to four women standing in front of a tipi. Women wear patterned blankets, including one Navajo chief blanket, and two hold babies in cradleboards. A third child sits on the shoulders of his/her mother.
See more items in:
Photographic Collections
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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(Abraham Lincoln), (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Pelzer, Alfonso d. 1904 (copy after)
Founder:
W. H. Mullins Company
Subject:
Lincoln, Abraham
Medium:
Sculpture: sheet copper; Pedestal: granite
Type:
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by City of St. Cloud Parks Department 400 2nd Streeet South St. Cloud Minnesota 56301
Located Fourth Avenue North, near Veterans Memorial Bridge St. Cloud Minnesota
Date:
Original cast 1898. 1918. Dedicated May 30, 1918
Topic:
Portrait male--Full length
Occupation--Political--President
Object--Written Matter--Scroll
Control number:
IAS MN000607
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, Minnesota survey, 1995.
Summary:
Full-length figure of Abraham Lincoln stands on a tall pedestal, flanked by urns, on a low base. Lincoln wears a suit with bow tie, vest and long coat. His proper right hand is extended palm up and he holds an unfurled scroll, the Emancipation Proclamation, in his proper left hand. There is an unfurled American flag incised on the front of the pedestal, between inscriptions.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
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Additional Online Media:

Adelia Boisseau Warfield and Daughter Huldah Belle, (painting)

Painter:
Newman, Robert Loftin 1827-1912
Subject:
Warfield, William Wallace, Mrs. (Adelia Boisseau)
Warfield, Huldah Belle
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Cheek, Leslie, Jr
Date:
Ca. 1857
Topic:
Architecture interior--Detail--Balcony
Portrait group--Family--Mother & Child
Portrait female--Full length
Portrait female--Child
Control number:
IAP 89860029
Notes:
Kelly, James C., "Portrait Painting in Tennessee," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, pg. 236.
Landgren, Marchal E., "Robert Loftin Newman, 1827-1912," Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, National Collection of Fine Arts, 1974, no. 126.
Summary:
Portrait of Mrs. William Wallace Warfield standon on a balcony, her body facing forward, her gaze directed toward the viewer, and her right hand resting on the shoulder of her young daughter Huldah standing in front of her. The mother wears a dark off-the-shoulder dress with short sleeves trimmed in lace, a long gold chain, a gold cuff bracelet, and a gold pin at the neck, and loosely darped over her left arm is a fringed shawl. The daugher wears a bright blue off-the-shoulder dress with white pantaloons, and a beaded necklace. She stands with her right arm reston on the arm of a chair beside her, and in he right hand she holds a sprig of blooming pink roses. In the background is a river landscape with puffy white clouds floating across a blue sky.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
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Adoration of the Christ Child, (painting)

Holy Family, (painting)
Painter:
Von Marr, Carl 1858-1936
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Museum of Wisconsin Art 300 South Sixth Avenue West Bend Wisconsin 53095 Accession Number: 340
Date:
Ca. 1898
Topic:
Religion--New Testament--Holy Family
Control number:
IAP 64620100
Notes:
West Bend Art Museum, 1997.
Summary:
In the center there is a semi-circle of angel children gazing to the far right where Mary, in a light colored gown and veil, holds Jesus on her lap, with Joseph standing behind, covering his eyes with his right hand. In the background there is a blue sky with clouds.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
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After Rain, (painting)

Sky Opening, (painting)
Painter:
Burchfield, Charles 1893-1967
Medium:
Watercolor on paper
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Art Complex Museum 189 Alden Street Duxbury Massachusetts 02331
Date:
1916
Topic:
Landscape--Weather--Rain
Landscape--Tree--Apple Tree
Architecture exterior--Detail--Fence
Landscape--Ohio--Salem
Control number:
IAP 62260060
Notes:
"Interpretations of Nature," New York: Bernard Danenberg Galleries, 1970, no. 11.
"Charles Burchfield: Catalogue of Paintings in Public and Private Collections," Utica, NY: Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, 1970, no. 103.
"American Paintings from the Collection of the Art Complex Museum, Duxbury, Massachusetts," Duxbury, MA: Art Complex Museum, 1985, pg. 48.
Summary:
View looking toward a stand of trees growing by a split rail fence, with the sun overhead radiating from behind gray rain clouds.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Visitor Tag(s):

Alabama Landscape

Artist:
Theodore Hancock
Medium:
Painting, Watercolor on Paper
Dimensions:
2-D - Unframed (H x W): 17.8 x 54.6cm (7 in. x 21 1/2 in.)
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 22.9 x 59.7cm (9 x 23 1/2 in.)
Type:
ART-Paintings
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1964
Credit Line:
Transferred from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Inventory Number:
A19770085000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Alabama Landscape, 1964. A rolling landscape spreads out to the horizon. In the center is an industrial plant with several large structures and other smaller ones. Roadways and fences cut across the valley and seem to converge at the plant. The sky is light blue with large white clouds.
Long Description:
The spring of 1962 was a busy time for the men and women of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On February 20, John H. Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth. For the first time since the launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, the U.S. was positioned to match and exceed Soviet achievements in space. NASA was an agency with a mission -- to meet President John F. Kennedy's challenge of sending human beings to the moon and returning them safely to earth by the end of the decade. Within a year, three more Mercury astronauts would fly into orbit. Plans were falling into place for a follow-on series of two-man Gemini missions that would set the stage for the Apollo voyages to the moon.
In early March 1962, artist Bruce Stevenson brought his large portrait of Alan Shepard, the first American to fly in space, to NASA headquarters.(1) James E. Webb, the administrator of NASA, assumed that the artist was interested in painting a similar portrait of all seven of the Mercury astronauts. Instead, Webb voiced his preference for a group portrait that would emphasize "…the team effort and the togetherness that has characterized the first group of astronauts to be trained by this nation." More important, the episode convinced the administrator that "…we should consider in a deliberate way just what NASA should do in the field of fine arts to commemorate the …historic events" of the American space program.(2)
In addition to portraits, Webb wanted to encourage artists to capture the excitement and deeper meaning of space flight. He imagined "a nighttime scene showing the great amount of activity involved in the preparation of and countdown for launching," as well as paintings that portrayed activities in space. "The important thing," he concluded, "is to develop a policy on how we intend to treat this matter now and in the next several years and then to get down to the specifics of how we intend to implement this policy…." The first step, he suggested, was to consult with experts in the field, including the director of the National Gallery of Art, and the members of the Fine Arts Commission, the arbiters of architectural and artistic taste who passed judgment on the appearance of official buildings and monuments in the nation's capital.
Webb's memo of March 16, 1962 was the birth certificate of the NASA art program. Shelby Thompson, the director of the agency's Office of Educational Programs and Services, assigned James Dean, a young artist working as a special assistant in his office, to the project. On June 19, 1962 Thompson met with the Fine Arts Commission, requesting advice as to how "…NASA should develop a basis for use of paintings and sculptures to depict significant historical events and other activities in our program."(3)
David E. Finley, the chairman and former director of the National Gallery of Art, applauded the idea, and suggested that the agency should study the experience of the U.S. Air Force, which had amassed some 800 paintings since establishing an art program in 1954. He also introduced Thompson to Hereward Lester Cooke, curator of paintings at the National Gallery of Art.
An imposing bear of a man standing over six feet tall, Lester Cooke was a graduate of Yale and Oxford, with a Princeton PhD. The son of a physics professor and a veteran of the U.S. Army Air Forces, he was both fascinated by science and felt a personal connection to flight. On a professional level, Cooke had directed American participation in international art competitions and produced articles and illustrations for the National Geographic Magazine. He jumped at the chance to advise NASA on its art program.
While initially cautious with regard to the time the project might require of one of his chief curators, John Walker, director of the National Gallery, quickly became one of the most vocal supporters of the NASA art initiative. Certain that "the present space exploration effort by the United States will probably rank among the more important events in the history of mankind," Walker believed that "every possible method of documentation …be used." Artists should be expected "…not only to record the physical appearance of the strange new world which space technology is creating, but to edit, select and probe for the inner meaning and emotional impact of events which may change the destiny of our race." He urged quick action so that "the full flavor of the achievement …not be lost," and hoped that "the past held captive" in any paintings resulting from the effort "will prove to future generations that America produced not only scientists and engineers capable of shaping the destiny of our age, but also artists worthy to keep them company."(4)
Gordon Cooper, the last Mercury astronaut to fly, was scheduled to ride an Atlas rocket into orbit on May 15, 1963. That event would provide the ideal occasion for a test run of the plan Cooke and Dean evolved to launch the art program. In mid-February, Cooke provided Thompson with a list of the artists who should be invited to travel to Cape Canaveral to record their impressions of the event. Andrew Wyeth, whom the curator identified as "the top artist in the U.S. today," headed the list. When the time came, however, Andrew Wyeth did not go to the Cape for the Cooper launch, but his son Jamie would participate in the program during the Gemini and Apollo years.
The list of invited artists also included Peter Hurd, Andrew Wyeth's brother-in-law, who had served as a wartime artist with the Army Air Force; George Weymouth, whom Wyeth regarded as "the best of his pupils"; and John McCoy, another Wyeth associate. Cooke regarded the next man on the list, Robert McCall, who had been running the Air Force art program, as "America's top aero-space illustrator. Paul Calle and Robert Shore had both painted for the Air Force program. Mitchell Jamieson, who had run a unit of the Navy art program during WW II, rounded out the program. Alfred Blaustein was the only artist to turn down the invitation.
The procedures that would remain in place for more than a decade were given a trial run in the spring of 1963. The artists received an $800 commission, which had to cover any expenses incurred while visiting a NASA facility where they could paint whatever interested them. In return, they would present their finished pieces, and all of their sketches, to the space agency. The experiment was a success, and what might have been a one-time effort to dispatch artists to witness and record the Gordon Cooper flight provided the basis for an on-going, if small-scale, program. By the end of 1970, Jim Dean and Lester Cooke had dispatched 38 artists to Mercury, Gemini and Apollo launches and to other NASA facilities.
The art program became everything that Jim Webb had hoped it would be. NASA artists produced stunning works of art that documented the agency's step-by-step progress on the way to the moon. The early fruits of the program were presented in a lavishly illustrated book, Eyewitness to Space (New York: Abrams, 1971). Works from the collection illustrated NASA publications and were the basis for educational film strips aimed at school children. In 1965 and again in 1969 the National Gallery of Art mounted two major exhibitions of work from the NASA collection. The USIA sent a selection of NASA paintings overseas, while the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service created two exhibitions of NASA art that toured the nation.
"Since we …began," Dean noted in a reflection on the tenth anniversary of the program, the art initiative had resulted in a long string of positive "press interviews and reports, congressional inquiries, columns in the Congressional Record, [and] White House reports." The NASA effort, he continued, had directly inspired other government art programs. "The Department of the Interior (at least two programs), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Army and even the Veterans Administration have, or are starting, art programs." While he could not take all of the credit, Dean insisted that "our success has encouraged other agencies to get involved and they have succeeded, too."(5)
For all of that, he noted, it was still necessary to "defend" the role of art in the space agency. Dean, with the assistance of Lester Cooke, had been a one-man show, handling the complex logistics of the program, receiving and cataloguing works of art, hanging them himself in museums or on office walls, and struggling to find adequate storage space. In January 1976, a NASA supervisor went so far as to comment that: "Mr. Dean is far too valuable in other areas to spend his time on the relatively menial …jobs he is often burdened with in connection with the art program."(6) Dean placed a much higher value on the art collection, and immediately recommended that NASA officials either devote additional resources to the program, or get out of the art business and turn the existing collection over the National Air and Space Museum, "where it can be properly cared for."(7)
In January 1974 a new building for the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) was taking shape right across the street from NASA headquarters. Discussions regarding areas of cooperation were already underway between NASA officials and museum director Michael Collins, who had flown to the moon as a member of the Apollo 11 crew. Before the end of the year, the space agency had transferred its art collection to the NASM. Mike Collins succeeded in luring Jim Dean to the museum, as well.
The museum already maintained a small art collection, including portraits of aerospace heroes, an assortment of 18th and 19th century prints illustrating the early history of the balloon, an eclectic assortment of works portraying aspects of the history of aviation and a few recent prizes, including several Norman Rockwell paintings of NASA activity. With the acquisition of the NASA art, the museum was in possession of one of the world's great collections of art exploring aerospace themes. Jim Dean would continue to build the NASM collection as the museum's first curator of art. Following his retirement in 1980, other curators would follow in his footsteps, continuing to strengthen the role of art at the NASM. Over three decades after its arrival, however, the NASA art accession of 2,091 works still constitutes almost half of the NASM art collection.
(1) Stevenson's portrait is now in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum (1981-627)
(2) James E. Webb to Hiden Cox, March 16, 1962, memorandum in the NASA art historical collection, Aeronautics Division, National air and Space Museum. Webb's preference for a group portrait of the astronauts was apparently not heeded. In the end, Stevenson painted an individual portrait of John Glenn, which is also in the NASM collection (1963-398).
(3) Shelby Thompson, memorandum for the record, July 6, 1962, NASA art historical collection, NASA, Aeronautics Division.
(4) John Walker draft of a talk, March 5, 1965, copy in NASA Art historical collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(5) James Dean, memorandum for the record, August 6, 1973, NASA art history collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(6) Director of Planning and Media Development to Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs, January 24, 1974, NASA art history collection, NASM Aeronautics Division.
(7) James Dean to the Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs, January 24, 1974, copy in NASA Art history Collection, Aeronautics Division, NASM.
Tom D. Crouch
Senior Curator, Aeronautics
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
July 26, 2007
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Alba Rosa, (sculpture)

Sculptor:
McDonnell, Joseph Anthony 1936-
Medium:
Sculpture and base: polished pink granite; Basin: concrete
Type:
Sculptures-Fountain
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by Montgomery County Department Facilities/Services 110 North Washington Street, 3rd Floor Rockville Maryland 20850
Located Silver Spring Garage 7 8530 Cameron Street Silver Spring Maryland
Date:
Commissioned June 1987. Aug. 1988
Topic:
Abstract--Geometric
Allegory--Place--Extraterrestrial
Allegory--Time--Morning
Control number:
IAS MD000023
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, Maryland survey, 1992.
Summary:
A large abstract granite sculpture consisting of a huge disc standing on its side on top of a truncated pyramid. Water comes out of the top of the disc and flows down the sides into a oval-shaped fountain basin. The sides of the disc are cut with striations which enhance the flow of water down the surface of the disc. The disc represents the sun and the striations cut into the sides represent clouds crossing the sun. The sculpture is made of a red granite from Pietra Santa, Italy. Sun strikes the disc in the morning, hence the title "Alba Rosa," which is Italian for red morning.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

(Aluminum Relief), (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Zorach, William 1889-1966
Founder:
Bedi-Rassy Art Foundry
Medium:
Cast aluminum
Culture:
Indian
Type:
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures-Relief
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck/Hackensack Campus Art Department 1000 River Road Teaneck New Jersey 07666
Located Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck/Hackensack Campus Weiner Library Teaneck New Jersey
Date:
1955. Copyrighted 1955. Dedicated 1962
Topic:
Allegory--Place--America
Allegory--Life
Figure group
Ethnic
Object--Other--Flag
Landscape--Celestial--Sun
Control number:
IAS NJ000568
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, New Jersey survey, 1994.
Summary:
High-relief cast aluminum sculpture mounted to the side of a library building. In the center is the full-length figure of a reclining nude woman. She leans on her proper right arm; her head is turned and she gazes to the proper right. To the left of the female is a full-length standing figure of an Indian. He wears a loin cloth and a beaded sun medallion necklace. His arms are raised and he looks skyward. To the right of the female is a figure group of a man and young boy. The boy stands in front of the man; his arms reach up to the man. Above the head of the female is a grouping of several vertically hung flags with an American flag in the foreground. Above the flag grouping is a sun with a layer of cloud passing in front of it.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Visitor Tag(s):

The Amberley Boy, (painting)

Painter:
Brockhurst, Gerald 1890-1978
Subject:
Unidentified
Medium:
Oil on wood panel
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Boston Public Library 700 Boylston Street Boston Massachusetts 02116
Topic:
Portrait male--Child
Landscape--River
Control number:
IAP 89940002
Notes:
Brumbaugh, Thomas B., "The Art of Gerald Brockhurst," Athens, GA: Georgia Museum of Art, University of Georgia, 1993, no. 46.
Summary:
Portrait of a young boy standing in a landscape with his body facing forward and his gaze directed toward the viewer. He wears a white shirt with a white tie at the neck and a navy vest. His straight blond hair is cut short with bangs falling across his forehead. In the badckground there are rolling hills and a small river, and overhead wispy white clouds float across the sky.
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Visitor Tag(s):

America, (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Weber, Jurgen 1928-
Founder:
Unknown (Berlin, Germany)
Medium:
Sculpture: bronze; Base: concrete
Type:
Sculptures-Relief
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Administered by United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Washington District of Columbia
Located John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Entrance Washington District of Columbia 20566
Date:
1965-1971
Topic:
Allegory--Place--America
Allegory--Quality--Poverty
Allegory--Other--Survival
Allegory--Quality--Charity
Allegory--Civic--Liberty
Disaster--Fire
Figure group--Nude
Figure--Fragment--Face
Architecture--Commercial--Skyscraper
Architecture--Detail--Column
Architecture--Boat
Architecture--Vehicle--Automobile
Architecture--Vehicle--Spacecraft
Object--Foodstuff
Object--Other--Flag
Object--Weapon--Cannon
Control number:
IAS DC000053
Notes:
Save Outdoor Sculpture, District of Columbia survey, 1994.
Goode, James M., "The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C., A Comprehensive Historical Guide," Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974, pg. 481-482.
Summary:
Relief on the west side of the plaza at the entrance to the Kennedy Center is a tableau of people, buildings, and objects which represent the German artist's image of America. From left to right the images depicted are: a group of nude figures all reaching up toward sacks of wheat which are being unloaded from a U.S. ship docked at a nearby wharf (represents American foreign aid and the idea of survival); flanked by classical columns, five nude males stand around debating each other (represents free speech); large car bumpers with teeth for grills (represents technology); skyscrapers adorned with the phrases, "DONT WALK," "SOFT SELL," "PEACE ON EARTH," "BLESSED ARE THE MEEK," and large heads, lips, and eyes (represents the consumer apt to be persuaded by advertisers); Statue of Liberty standing in the midst of billowing clouds of smoke and flames, to her proper left, there are a group of flags, cannons pointing out from the bow of a ship, and a rocket taking off (represents threats to liberty).
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
Visitor Tag(s):

American Indian nonfiction : an anthology of writings, 1760s-1930s / edited by Bernd C. Peyer

Author:
Peyer, Bernd
Physical description:
ix, 401 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Date:
2007
C2007
Topic:
American prose literature--Indian authors--History and criticism
Intellectual life
Historiography
Indians in literature
American prose literature--Indian authors
Contents:
Northeast : the new England Indians. Short narrative of my life ; Beloved Brethren / Samson Occom -- Samson Occom biography -- Speeches to the Oneidas / Joseph Johnson -- Joseph Johnson biography -- History of the Muh-he-con-nuk Indians / Hendrick Aupaumut -- Hendrick Aupaumut biography -- Indian's looking glass for the white man / William Apess -- William Apess biography --
Northeast : the New York Indians. Address on the present condition and prospects of the original inhabitants of North America / Maris B. Pierce -- Maris B. Pierce biography -- Appeal to the Christian community / Nathaniel T. Strong -- Nathaniel T. Strong biography --
Southeast and Indian territory : the five tribes. Extract of a letter from Catherine Brown, to her brother David / Catherine Brown -- Catherine Brown biography -- Indian address / John Ridge -- John Ridge biography -- Letter to the editor of the Cherokee Phoenix / Elias Boudinot -- Resolutions of the treaty party / Elias Boudinot, John Ridge -- Elias Boudinot biography -- To the senate and house of representatives / John Ross ...[et al.] -- John Ross biography -- Cherokees, their history : present condition and future prospects / John Rollin Ridge -- John R. Ridge biography -- Remarks of Elias C. Boudinot, of the Cherokee nation, in behalf of the bill to organize the territory of Oklahoma / Elias C. Boudinot -- Elias C. Boudinot biography -- Indian's hard lot / DeWitt Duncan Clinton -- DeWitt Duncan Clinton biography -- Passing of Creek lands / Charles Gibson -- Charles Gibson biography -- Fus Fixico letter (1905) ; Fus Fixico letter (1906) / Alexander Lawrence Posey -- Alexander L. Posey biography -- Writes on feeding Democrats raw oratory at Jackson dinner ; Story of a misspent boyhood / Will Rogers -- Will Rogers biography --
Great lakes : the three fires. Account of the Chippewa Indians, who have been travelling among the whites, in the United States, England, Ireland, Scotland, France and Belgium / George Henry -- George Henry biography -- American Indians / George Copway -- George Copway biography -- Death of Chief I. H. Turtle / John Johnson -- John Johnson biography -- Red man's rebuke / Simon Pokagon -- Simon Pokagon biography -- Indian problem, from the Indian's standpoint / Andrew J. Blackbird -- Andrew J. Blackbird biography --
Transregional voices : the society of American Indians. Report of Colonel Parker on Indian affairs ; Letter to Harriet Maxwell converse / Ely S. Parker -- Ely S. Parker biography -- Letter to Major Henry Douglas ; Letter to Commissioner Ely S. Parker ; Petition to Congress / Sarah Winnemucca biography -- Indian question / Susette La Flesche -- Susette La Flesche biography -- Indian allotment / Francis La Flesche -- Francis La Flesche biography -- Why I am a Pagan ; America, home of the red man / Gertrude Bonnin -- Gertrude S. Bonnin biography -- Industrial organization for the Indian / Laura Cornelius Kellogg -- Laura C. Kellogg biography -- Native Indian Art / Angel De Cora Dietz -- Angel De Cora Dietz biography -- Teaching of ethnology in Indian schools / J.N.B. Hewitt -- J. N. B. Hewitt biography -- Indian reservation system ; Let my people go ; Truth is coming to light / Carlos Montezuma -- Carlos Montezuma biography -- Function of the society of American Indians / Sherman Coolidge -- Sherman Coolidge biography -- Legal status of the American Indian ; Civilizing power of language / Arthur C. Parker -- Arthur C. Parker biography -- Justice for the Sioux ; Indian's plea for freedom / Charles A. Eastman -- Charles A. Eastman biography -- New Indian leadership / John M. Oskison -- John M. Oskison biography -- Future of the red man in America / Henry Roe Cloud -- Henry Roe Cloud biography -- Tragedy of the Sioux / Luther Standing Bear -- Luther Standing Bear biography
Summary:
Product Description: American Indian literature has deep roots. This collection of political writings covers nearly two centuries and represents a historical survey of the development of Indian nonfiction prose, from the missionary-trained writers of the late eighteenth century to the members of the first Indian intellectual network in the early twentieth century. Included are personal letters, sermons, printed speeches, autobiographical sketches, editorials, pamphlets, and humorous pieces. From early writers such as Samson Occom to twentieth-century writers such as Will Rogers and Luther Standing Bear, these authors were deeply committed to the welfare of their Native communities. Many of the pieces were quite popular in their day but have been lost to time.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

American Indian Photographs, color reproductions, and other items by various commercial photographers and publishing companies ca. 1899-1913

Creator:
Burbank, Elbridge Ayer
Detroit Photographic Company
Photographer:
Hillers, John K. 1843-1925
Barry, David Francis
Walton, W. R
Scheuerle, Joe
Heyn Photo
Williamson-Haffner Co
H. H. Tammen Company
A. Hoen & Co
Schlesinger Brothers
Campbell Art Company
Denver Lith. Co
Collier, R. F. & Son
Artist:
Burbank, Elbridge Ayer
Rindisboreher, P
Rindisbacher, P
De Maris, Walter
King, George A
Remington, Frederic 1861-1909
Russell, C. M
Latox, G. ?
Latoy, G. ?
Aguatinter:
Yeager, J
Subject:
Garfield, James A Apache
Pouche Te Foya Chief
Left Hand Bear Chief
Sanches Chief
Black-Coyote Chief
Straight Crazy
Red Woman
She-Comes-Out-First
Stinking Bear Chief
Grass, John Chief
Bear Foot Chief
Hollow Horn Bear Chief
Sitting Bull Hunkpapa Dakota
Red Cloud Dakota Oglala
Big Bear Winnebago
Big Black Bear
Big Chief
Gahige
Noon Day
Bull Head Dakota
Black Hawk
Joseph Chief
Arkikita
Arkeketah
Pedro, Juan
Hush-Low
Cody, William F
Buffalo Bill
Dust Fly
Thunderbird Chief
Blackbird Chief
Eagle Feather Chief
Romero, Jose
Buckskin Charlie Sub Chief
Tsa wel la tsi tsa
In ih ti
Ho ta
Physical description:
63 prints
Culture:
Cheyenne Southern
Dakota Indians
Dakota Blackfoot
Eskimos
Hopi
Chippewa
Navajo Indians
Flathead
American Indian Plains
Zuni Indians
Apache Indians
Dakota Oglala
Dakota Brule
Paloos Indians
Pueblo Indians
Nez Percé Indians
Arapaho Indians
Ute Indians
Dakota Hunkpapa
Pawnee Indians
Ponca Indians
Oto Indians
Missouri Indians
Arctic peoples
Indians of North America Subarctic
Indians of North America Great Basin
Indians of North America Northeast
Ojibwa Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Cheyenne Indians
Brulé Indians
Hunkpapa Indians
Indians of North America Plateau
Salish Indians
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Oglala Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Arizona
Date:
ca 1899-1913
Topic:
Photographs
Archeology
Dakota Indians
Habitations and other structures--lodge interior
Eskimos
Habitations and other structures--tent
Zuni Indians
Transportation
Local number:
NAA MS 4559
Summary:
Catalog Number 4559: (1) Tribe: Apache Description: "Apache Chiefs Garfield, Pouche Te Foya and Sanches." (Color reproduction of photograph; Original Number 53413) (Studio) Photographer: Detroit Photographic Co. Date: 1899 (copyright) (2) Apache "Apaches. Chief James A. Garfield." (Color reproduction of photograph; Original Number 53412). Detroit Photographic Co. 1899 (copyright) (3) Arapaho "Chief Black-Coyote. Arapaho." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Darlington, Oklahoma Territory. (Artist) 1899. (4) "Straight-Crazy. Arapaho." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Darlington, Oklahoma Territory. (Artist) 1898. (5) Archeology: Arizona "Ruins of Cliff Dwellings in De Chelly Canon." Hillers See BAE Negative Number Ariz. 37. (6) Cheyenne "Red Woman. Southern Cheyenne." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Darlington, Oklahoma Territory. (Artist) 1899. (7) Dakota "She-Comes-Out-First. Sioux." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Pine Ridge, South Dakota. (Artist) 1899. (8) Dakota "Chief Stinking-Bear. Sioux." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Pine Ridge, South Dakota. (Artist) 1899. (9) Dakota "Interior of a Sioux Lodge. Drawn---[Illeg.]--- expressly for the casket. S. C. Atkinson Publisher Philada." (Engraving). P. Rindisboreher [Rindisbacher] (Artist). "Aguatinted by J. Yeager."
Catalog Number 4559: (10) Tribe: Dakota (Blackfoot) Description: "Chief John Grass." Written on back: "John Grass- Chief Justice of the Indian court, held at Standing Rock, every two weeks." (Studio). Photographer: D. F. Barry, Wast Superior, Wisconsin Similar to 3115-c-1, but better. (11) Dakota (Brule) "Bear Foot, Chief Brule. In pencil: "Bothfeet." (Color reproduction of photo.) Heyn, Photo, Omaha. (Copy) Published by Burkley Printing Co., Omaha 1899 (copyright) See BAE Negative Number B-118 (Catalog Number 3696-e-4-b). (12) Dakota (Brule) "Chief Hollow Horn Bear." (Color reproduction of painting) Williamson-Haffner Co. (Copyright) (13) Dakota (Hunkpapa) "Chief Sitting Bull." (Color reproduction of painting). H. H. Tammen Co. (Copyright) (14) Dakota (Oglala) "Chief Red Cloud. Sioux." (Color reproduction of painting.) E. A. Burbank, Pine Ridge, South Dakota (Artist) 1899. (15) Dakota (Oglala) "Chief Red Cloud." (Color reproduction of painting). H. H. Tammen Co. Copyright. (16) Dakota (Oglala) "Left Hand Bear, Ogallala Sioux Chief." (Color reproduction) Heyn, Photo, Omaha. (Copyright) Published by Burkley Printing Co., Omaha 1899 (Copyright) See BAE Negative Number 45,247-M. (17) Eskimo "Esquimaux Toupek kyak and dog sledge. Tent a toupek made of seal skin." A summer house. (18) Eskimo "Group Esquimaux with their huts." Sod-covered winter house.
Catalog Number 4559: (19) Tribe: Eskimo Description: Group of Esquimaux with their hut." Sod-covered winter house. (20) "Esquimaux woomen with a child on he[r] back." (Two adults in photo). (21) Eskimo "Esquimaux man & wooman." (22) Hopi "Wolpi, one of Moqui Towns." Photographer: Hillers See BAE Negative Number Cf. 1828 (stereo; covers less area). (23) Four color reproductions on one page: Missouri "Big Bear," [Big BLack Bear--BAE] See BAE Negative Number 3821. Ponca "Big Chief. [Gahige or the chief--BAE 4188] See BAE Negative Number 4188. Chippewa "Noon Day." See BAE Negative Number 432. Pawnee "Bull Head." (24) Four color reproductions on one page: Dakota, Sioux "Black Hawk." Nez Perce "Chief Joseph." See BAE Negative Number 2906. Oto "Arkikita." [Arkeketah-- BAE] See BAE Negative Number 3826-a. Dakota Sioux [Hunkpapa] "Sitting Bull." (25) Navaho "Juan Pedro, A Navaho." (Color reproduction of painting). W. R. Walton (Copyright) (Artist ?) (26) Nez Perce "Chief Joseph. Nez-Perces." (Color reproduction of painting). E. A. Burbank, Nez-Pilem, Washington, (Artist) 1899. (27) Paloos "Hush-Low. Palouse." E. A. Burbank, Nez-Pilem, Washington, (Artist) 1899. (28) "Sincerely yours, Wm. F. Cody, Buffalo Bill." "This print was sold during the visit of Cody to England in the 1890's. A. Hoen & Co. Baltimore, Maryland [189-].
Catalog Number 4559: (29) Tribe: Flathead Description: "Dust Fly. Flathead." 2/3 profile portrait, half-length, seated. On back: "Dust Fly, Flathead-Salish. Painted at Polson, Montana, Jocko Reservation, Montana, 1913. A middle aged good type. He, on his charging horse make the dust fly, the meaning of his name. (sgd.) Joe Scheuerle." Also on painting: "To the Landis Bros. with my very best wishes J. Scheuerle. 7/1939" (Original painting) Photographer: Joe Scheuerle, 163 College Place, South Orange, New Jersey Date: 1913. (30) White (?) girl in Indian costume. (Fanciful.) Schlesinger Brothers, New York. (Copyright) 1911. (31) "The Call." Indian standing in canoe. (Color reproduction of painting; original Number 15100). Walter De Maris (Artist) (Copyright by) (National Art Co., New York, publishers). (32) "The New Neighbor." Indian looking down from rock ledge at covered wagon camp. Color reproduction of painting. George A. King (Artist) 1908. (33) Pueblo or Navaho "Chief Thunderbird." (Color reproduction of painting). H. H. Tammen Co. (Copyright). (34) Unidentified (Plains) "Chief Blackbird." Color reproduction of painting. (2 copies) H. H. Tammen Co. (Copyright) (35) Unidentified (Plains) "Chief Eagle Feather." (Color reproduction of painting). Artist: LBP ?, LBP ? H. H. Tammen Co. (Copyright). (36) Unidentified (Plains) Man in war bonnet. May be same man as 4559: (37). (Color post card, made in United Kingdom.)
Catalog 4559: (37) Tribe: Unidentified (Plains) Description: Man in war bonnet. May be same man as 4559: (36). Color post card, made in United Kingdom.) Photographer: H. H. Tammen Co. (Copyright). (38) Unidentified (Plains) Man in war bonnet. Color post card, made in United Kingdom. (39) Unidentified "A Forest Princess." (Tinted photograph; Original Number 7252.) Campbell Art Company, New York (publishers) (39a) Unidentified Embossed copy of same subject as 4559: (39); different coloring; no caption or source. (40) Unidentified "A Real American." Man in war bonnet, etc. (Tinted photograph; Original Number 7202.) Campbell Art Company, New York. (publishers) (41) Unidentified "Sachem." (Tinted photograph; Original Number 3002). Campbell Art Company, New York (publishers) (42) Unidentified "The Dead Man." (Color reproduction of painting). Frederick Remington (Artist) 1908 ?, Copyright 1909 by P. F. Collier & Son. (43) "Indians Simulating Buffalo." (Color reproduction of painting). Frederick Remington, (Artist) 1908 ?, Copyright 1909 by P. F. Collier & Son. (44) Unidentified (Plains) "When Sioux and Blackfeet Met." Battle scene. (Color reproduction of painting). Original Number MY7281). C. M. Russell 1908 (Artist) Copyright 1909, Brown & Bigelow, St Paul, USA. (45) Unidentified (Plains) "A Disputed Trail." Bear attacking white man on horse. (Color reproduction of painting). (Original Number MY8115). C. M. Russell (Artist) Copyright 1910, Brown & Bigelow, St Paul, USA 1908.
Catalog Number 4559: (46) Unidentified (Plains) "Caught With The Goods." Canadian Mounted Police capturing two Indians with captured ammunition, etc. (Color reproduction of painting). (Original Number 9670). C. M. Russell (Artist) Copyright 1913, Brown & Bigelow, St Paul, USA. (47) Unidentified (Plains) "Sun Worshippers." Three Indians on horseback. (Color reproduction of painting). (Original Number MY9282). C. M. Russell (Artist) Copyright 1911, Brown & Bigelow, St Paul, USA. (48) Unidentified (Plains) "Single Handed." Canadian Mounted policeman in a Plains camp. (Color reproduction of painting). (Original Number PMY9439). C. M. Russell (Artist) Copyright 1912, Brown & Bigelow, St Paul, USA 1912. (49) Ute "Group of Children." (four) (Color reproduction of studio photograph). (Original Number 53410). Detroit Photographic Co (Copyright) 1899 (Copyright). (50) Ute "Jose Romero and Family." (Color reproduction of studio photograph). (Original Number 53409). Detroit Photographic Co (Copyright) 1899 (Copyright). (51) Ute "Buckskin Charlie, Sub Chief." (Color reproduction of photograph). (Original Number 53407). Detroit Photographic Co. (Copyright) 1899 (Copyright) See BAE Negative Number 46,786. (52) Ute "Buckskin Charlie, Sub-Chief of the Utes." (Color reproduction of photograph.) (Original Number 50623). Same as 4559:(51) but larger. (53) Ute "A Southern Ute." Young man holding bow and arrows. (Color reproduction of painting). G. Latox or Latoy (Artist) , The Denver Lith. Co., Denver, Colorado)
Catalog NUmber 4559: (54) Tribe: Zuni Description: "A Zuni Maiden." At bottom of photo in pencil: "Tsa wel la tsi tsa." Photographer: Hillers Date: [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2240-b. (55) Zuni "Governors of Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2255-c-1. (56) Zuni "Zuni transportation." [extreme left] "In ih ti"; [extreme right] "Ho ta". Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-a. (57) Zuni "The Mesa, The site of Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-e. (58) Zuni "Terraced houses, Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-j. (59) Zuni The Governor's House, Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-v. (60) Zuni "Modern Pueblo, Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-w. (61) Zuni "First Terrace of Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2267-x. (62) Zuni "General View of Zuni." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2308-c. (63) Zuni "Zuni Water Carrier." Hillers [1879] See BAE Negative Number 2380.
Cite as:
Manuscript 4559, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

American Indians / edited by Nancy Shoemaker

Author:
Shoemaker, Nancy 1958-
Physical description:
ix, 291 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Sources
Place:
North America
United States
Date:
2001
Topic:
Historiography
Government relations
Indians, Treatment of--History
History
Politics and government
Contents:
Pt. 1. Ancient America. The Indians' old world: Native Americans and the coming of Europeans / Neal Salisbury ; Nanih Waiya, the sacred mound of the Choctaws / H.S. Halbert ; Legend of Nanih Wayah / Muriel Hazel Wright -- pt. 2. First encounters. The Anglo-Algonquian gender frontier / Kathleen M. Brown ; Castaęda's history of the expedition / Pedro de Castañeda of Náxera ; Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618 / Samuel de Champlain -- pt. 3. International diplomacy and cultural exchange. Dressing for success on the Mohawk frontier: Hendrick, William Johnson, and the Indian fashion / Timothy J. Shannon ; Excerpts from the Treaty of Lancaster, 1744 ; Witham Marshe's journal of the treaty held with the Six Nations by the commissioners of Maryland, and other provinces, at Lancaster -- pt. 4. Cherokee removal. Evidence of surplus production in the Cherokee Nation prior to removal / David M. Wishart ; Excerpts from census roll, 1835, of the Cherokee Indians east of the Mississippi ; Three excerpts from The Cherokee Phoenix -- pt. 5. Sacred places. The sacred Black Hills: an ethnohistorical review / Linea Sundstrom ; Land of the spotted eagle / Luther Standing Bear ; The sixth grandfather: Black Elk's teachings given to John G. Neihardt / Raymon J. DeMallie -- pt. 6. Boarding schools. "Hm! White boy! You got no business here!" / K. Tsianina Lomawaima ; Supplemental report on Indian education / Thomas J. Morgan ; Education of the American Indian / Henry Roe Cloud -- pt. 7. Red Power. Remembering Alcatraz: twenty-five years after / Troy Johnson and Joane Nagel ; Alcatraz, activism, and accommodation / Vine Deloria, Jr. ; Mankiller: a chief and her people / Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Andrew Jackson

Artist:
Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. 1788 - 1838
Sitter:
Andrew Jackson, 15 Mar 1767 - 8 Jun 1845
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Sight: 257.2 x 177.2cm (101 1/4 x 69 3/4")
Frame: 286.1 x 206.4 x 6.4cm (112 5/8 x 81 1/4 x 2 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1836-1837
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Headgear\Hat
Nature & Environment\Clouds
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Glove\Gloves
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane
Architecture\Column
Clothing & Apparel\Cape
Andrew Jackson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Andrew Jackson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Andrew Jackson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Tennessee
Andrew Jackson: Politics and Government\President of US
Andrew Jackson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Tennessee
Andrew Jackson: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Tennessee
Andrew Jackson: Politics and Government\Governor\Florida
Andrew Jackson: Congressional Gold Medal
Portrait
Credit Line:
Current Owner: Smithsonian American Art Museum
Website: americanart.si.edu
Object number:
L/NPG.2.2005
Exhibition Label:
Seventh president, 1829-37
With the possible exception of Abraham Lincoln, no nineteenth-century president wielded his powers more aggressively than Andrew Jackson, which is confirmed by his use of the presidential veto over Congress. Unlike his predecessors, who invoked that power on strictly constitutional grounds, Jackson vetoed key congressional measures, not because he deemed them illegal, but simply because he did not like them. In doing so, he set a precedent that vastly enlarged the presidential role in congressional lawmaking. Among Jackson's opponents, this executive activism drew charges of dictatorship. Those accusations, however, carried little weight among yeoman farmers and laborers, who doted on Jackson's professed opposition to elitism.
Jackson is here depicted in the last year of his presidency, standing on the east portico of the White House with the Capitol in the distance. In 1836 Jackson selected the plan, architects, and site for the new Patent Office Building, now the home of the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. At the same time, he signed into law a statute that has remained the backbone of the U.S. patent system.
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Exhibition:
America's Presidents
On View:
NPG, South Gallery 230
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

Andrew Standing Soldier : a retrospective exhibition / organized by The Heritage Center, Inc., Red Cloud Indian School, The University Art Galleries, The University of South Dakota

Author:
Standing Soldier, Andrew 1917-
University of South Dakota University Art Galleries
Heritage Center (Pine Ridge, S.D.)
W.H. Over Museum
Subject:
Standing Soldier, Andrew 1917 v Exhibitions
Physical description:
36 p. : ill ; 18 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
South Dakota
Date:
1990
20th century
Topic:
Art, American
Artists
Call number:
N6537.S6775 A4 1990
Notes:
"Exhibition dates: April 23-May 20, 1990, The Heritage Center, Inc., Red Cloud Indian School, Rine Ridge, South Dakota ; June 1-30, 1990, Sletwold Hall, W.H. Over Museum, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota."
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

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