Black fire : an anthology of African-Americans writing / edited by LeRoi Jones and Larry Neal
Baraka, Amiri 1934-
Neal, Larry 1937-1981
xviii, 670 p. : ill. ; 22 cm
[I]. ESSAYS. The development of the black revolutionary artist / James T. Stewart -- Reclaiming the lost African heritage / John Henrik Clarke -- African responses to Malcolm X / Leslie Alexander Lacy -- Revolutionary nationalism and the Afro-American / Harold Cruse -- The new breed / Peter Labrie -- Dynamite growing out of their skulls / Calvin C. Hernton -- Black power - a scientific concept whose time has come / James Boggs -- Toward Black liberation / Stokely Carmichael -- The screens / C. E. Wilson -- Travels in the South: a cold night in Alabama / William Mahoney -- The tide inside, it rages! / Lindsay Barrett -- Not just whistling Dixie / A. B. Spellman -- The Fellah, the chosen ones, the guardian / David Llorens -- Brainwashing of black men's minds / Nathan Hare. . POETRY. Charles Anderson -- Richard W. Thomas -- Ted Wilson -- James T. Stewart -- Calvin C. Hernton -- Sun-Ra -- Lethonia Gee -- K. William Kgositsile -- David Henderson -- A. B. Spellman -- Sonia Sanchez -- Q. R. Hand -- Ron Welburn -- Joe Goncalves -- Marvin E. Jackmon -- James Danner -- Al Fraser -- Lance Jeffers -- Walt Delegall -- Welton Smith -- LeRoi Jones -- Barbara Simmons -- Larry Neal -- Hart Leroi Bibbs -- Rolland Snellings -- Carol Freeman -- Kirk Hall -- Edward S. Spriggs -- Henry Dumas -- Reginald Lockett -- Odaro -- S. E. Anderson -- Clarence Franklin -- Jay Wright -- Yusuf Rahman -- Rudy Bee Graham -- Lefty Sims -- Lebert Bethune -- Yusef Iman -- Norman Jordan -- Stanley Crouch -- Frederick J. Bryant, Jr. -- Sam Cornish -- Clarence Reed -- Albert E. Haynes, Jr. -- Lorenzo Thomas -- Gaston Neal -- L. Goodwin -- Ray Johnson -- Bob Bennett -- Ahmed Legraham Alhamisi -- D. L. Graham -- Victor Hernandez Cruz -- Jacques Wakefield -- Kuwasi Balagon -- Bobb Hamilton. . FICTION. Fon / Henry Dumas -- A love song for seven little boys called; Sam / C. H. Fuller, Jr. -- Not your singing, dancing spade / Julia Fields -- That she would dance no more / Jean Wheeler Smith -- Life with red top / Ronald L. Fair -- Sinner man where you gonna run to? / Larry Neal -- Ain't that a groove / Charlie Cobb. . DRAMA. We own the night / Jimmy Garrett -- Flowers for the trashman / Marvin E. Jackmon -- Black ice / Charles Patterson -- Notes from a savage god / Ronald Drayton -- Nocturne on the Rhine / Ronald Drayton -- Madheart / LeRoi Jones -- Prayer meeting or the first militant minister / Ben Caldwell -- How do you do / Ed Bullins -- The leader / Joseph White -- The suicide / Carol Freeman. . AN AFTERWORD. And Shine swam on / Larry Neal
Children's literature of the Harlem Renaissance / Katharine Capshaw Smith
Smith, Katharine Capshaw 1968-
xxvi, 338 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
New York (State)
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
The Emblematic Black Child: Du Bois's Crisis Publications -- Creating the Past, Present, and Future: New Negro Children's Drama -- The Legacy of the South: Revisiting the Plantation Tradition -- The Peacemakers: Carter G. Woodson's Circle -- The Aesthetics of Black Children's Literature: Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes
American literature--African American authors--History and criticism
American literature--History and criticism
Children's literature, American--History and criticism
Readers theatre for African American history / by Jeff Sanders and Nancy I. Sanders
Sanders, Nancy I
xiii, 151 p. ; 28 cm
Preface -- Introduction -- Readers Theatre: The Dynamic Duo -- Preparing the Script -- Introducing the Script -- Practicing the Script -- Performing the Script -- Evaluating the Script -- Want to do More? -- Africa's Glories -- Abubakari and the Empire of Mali -- The American Revolution -- Heroes and Patriots -- Founding Fathers -- Richard Allen and the Free African Society -- Abolitionists -- Robert and Harriet (Forten) Purvis Help Lead the Fight -- The Black Press -- The North Star Shines a Bright Light -- Settling the West -- Bass Reeves Keeps the Law -- Civil War -- Emancipation Day on the South Carolina Sea Islands -- Politics -- United States Senators -- Tuskegee Airmen -- True American Heroes -- The Great Migration -- Moving North to a Better Life -- Harlem Renaissance -- Zora Neale Hurston and the Rent Party -- The Great Debate -- Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois Lead the Way -- Holidays -- Juneteenth: A Historic Day -- Science and Medicine -- A Scientist Hall of Fame -- Inventors -- Lewis Latimer Helps Give Light to the World -- Sports -- Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball -- Literature -- Phillis Wheatley and Famous Poets of Yesterday -- Visual Arts -- Augusta Savage Shapes Her World -- Music -- Marian Anderson's Voice Rings Out -- The Civil Rights Movement -- The March on Washington -- Teacher Resources -- About the Author -- Selected Bibliography
Teddy Roosevelt's Epic (But Strangely Altruistic) Hunt for a White Rhino
Smithsonian staff publications
Tue, 12 Apr 2016 13:00:00 +0000
Blog Post Category:
At the Smithsonian
“I speak of Africa and golden joys.” The first line of Theodore Roosevelt’s own retelling of his epic safari made it clear that he saw it as the unfolding of a great drama, and one that might have very well led to his own death, for the quoted line is from Shakespeare, the Henry IV scene in which the death of the king was pronounced.
As a naturalist, Roosevelt is most often remembered for protecting millions of acres of wilderness, but he was equally committed to preserving something else—the memory of the natural world as it was before the onslaught of civilization. To him, being a responsible naturalist was also about recording the things that would inevitably pass, and he collected specimens and wrote about the life histories of animals when he knew it might be the last opportunity to study them extant. Just as the bison in the American West had faded, Roosevelt knew that the big game of East Africa would one day exist only in vastly diminished numbers. He had missed his chance to record much of the natural history of wild bison, but he was intent on collecting and recording everything possible while on his African expedition. Roosevelt shot and wrote about white rhinos as if they might someday be found only as fossils.
Interestingly, it was the elite European big-game-hunting fraternity that most loudly condemned Roosevelt’s scientific collecting. He had personally killed 296 animals, and his son Kermit killed 216 more, but that was not even a tenth of what they might have killed had they been so inclined. Far more animals were killed by the scientists who accompanied them, but those men escaped criticism because they were mostly collecting rats, bats, and shrews, which very few people cared about at the time. Roosevelt cared deeply about all these tiny mammals, too, and he could identify many of them to the species with a quick look at their skulls. As far as Roosevelt was concerned, his work was no different from what the other scientists were doing—his animals just happened to be bigger.
As you know, I am not in the least a game butcher. I like to do a certain amount of hunting, but my real and main interest is the interest of a faunal naturalist. Now, it seems to me that this opens up the best chance for the National Museum to get a fine collection, not only of the big game beasts, but of the smaller animals and birds of Africa; and looking at it dispassionately, it seems to me that the chance ought not to be neglected. I will make arrangements in connection with publishing a book which will enable me to pay for the expenses of myself and my son. But what I would like to do would be to get one or two professional field taxidermists, field naturalists, to go with us, who should prepare and send back the specimens we collect. The collection which would thus go to the National Museum would be of unique value.
The “unique value” Roosevelt was referring to, of course, was the chance to acquire specimens shot by him—the president of the United States. Always a tough negotiator, Roosevelt put pressure on Walcott by mentioning that he was also thinking about posing his offer to the American Museum of Natural History in New York—but that, as president, he felt it was only appropriate that his specimens go to the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.
Compared to those of other museums, the Smithsonian’s African-mammal collection was paltry back then. The Smithsonian had sent a man to explore Kilimanjaro in 1891 and another to the eastern Congo, but the museum still held relatively few specimens. Both the Field Museum in Chicago and the American Museum in New York had been sending regular expeditions to the continent, bringing home thousands of African specimens. Eager not to fall farther behind, Walcott took up Roosevelt’s offer and agreed to pay for the preparation and transport of specimens. He also agreed to set up a special fund through which private donors could contribute to the expedition. (As a public museum, the Smithsonian’s budget was largely controlled by Congress, and Roosevelt worried that politics might get in the way of his expedition—the fund solved this sticky issue).
For Teddy Roosevelt, the white rhino was the only species of heavy game left for the expedition to collect, and, of all the species, it was the one the Smithsonian would likely never have an opportunity to collect again. (Smithsonian Institution Archives)
As far as Walcott was concerned, the expedition was both a scientific and a public-relations coup. Not only would the museum obtain an important collection from a little-explored corner of Africa, but the collection would come from someone who was arguably one of the most recognized men in America—the president of the United States. Under the aegis of the Smithsonian Institution, Roosevelt’s proposed safari had been transformed from a hunting trip to a serious natural-history expedition promising lasting scientific significance. An elated Roosevelt wrote British explorer and conservationist Frederick Courteney Selous to tell him the good news—the trip would be conducted for science, and he would contribute to the stock of important knowledge being accumulated on the habits of big game.
Roosevelt saw the trip as perhaps his “last chance for something in the nature of a great adventure,” and he devoted the last months of his lame-duck presidency to little other than making preparations. Equipment needed to be purchased, routes mapped, guns and ammo selected. He admitted that he found it very difficult to “devote full attention to his presidential work, he was so eagerly looking forward to his African trip.” Having studied the accounts of other hunters, he knew that the Northern Guaso Nyiro River and the regions north of Mount Elgon were the best places to hunt, and that he had to make a trip to Mount Kenya if he was to have any chance at getting a big bull elephant. He made a list of animals he sought, ordering them by priority: lion, elephant, black rhinoceros, buffalo, giraffe, hippo, eland, sable, oryx, kudu, wildebeest, hartebeest, warthog, zebra, waterbuck, Grant’s gazelle, reedbuck, and topi. He also hoped to get up into some of the fly-infested habitats of northern Uganda in search of the rare white rhino.
The Roosevelt rhinos as seen on display at the Natural History Museum in 1959 (Smithsonian Institution Archives)
As 1909 drew to a close, he prepared to embark on a most dangerous mission. Disbanding his foot safari on the shores of Lake Victoria, he requisitioned a flotilla of river craft—a “crazy little steam launch,” two sailboats, and two rowboats—to take him hundreds of miles down the Nile River to a place on the west bank called the Lado Enclave. A semiarid landscape of eye-high elephant grass and scattered thorn trees, it was the last holdout of the rare northern white rhinoceros, and it was here that Roosevelt planned to shoot two complete family groups—one for the Smithsonian’s National Museum, and another that he had promised to Carl Akeley, the sculptor and taxidermist working on the African mammal hall at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
Nestled between what was then the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the Belgian Congo, the Lado Enclave was a 220-mile-long strip of land that was the personal shooting preserve of Belgium’s King Leopold II. By international agreement, the king could hold the Lado as his own personal shooting preserve on the condition that, six months after his death, it would pass to British-controlled Sudan. King Leopold was already on his deathbed when Roosevelt went to East Africa, and the area reverted to lawlessness as elephant poachers and ragtag adventurers poured into the region with “the greedy abandon of a gold rush.”
In Northern Uganda, the expedition moved downriver, past walls of impenetrable papyrus, until they came upon a low sandy bay that is to this day marked on maps as "Rhino Camp." (Roosevelt Papers, Smithsonian Institution Archives)
Getting to the Lado, however, required Roosevelt to pass through the hot zone of a sleeping-sickness epidemic—the shores and islands at the northern end of Lake Victoria. Hundreds of thousands of people had recently died of the disease, until the Uganda government wisely evacuated the survivors inland. Those who remained took their chances, and Roosevelt noted the emptiness of the land.
The white rhino lived there—a completely different species from the more common black rhino Roosevelt had been collecting. Color, though, actually has little to do with their differences. In fact, the two animals are so different that they are usually placed in separate genera. The white rhino—white being the English bastardization of the Afrikaans word wyd for “wide,” in reference to this species’ characteristically broad upper lip—is specialized for grazing. By comparison, the more truculent black rhino has a narrow and hooked upper lip specialized for munching on shrubs. Although both animals are gray and basically indistinguishable by color, they display plenty of other differences: the white rhino is generally bigger, has a distinctive hump on its neck, and boasts an especially elongated and massive head, which it carries only a few inches from the ground. Roosevelt also knew that of the two, the white rhino was closest in appearance to the prehistoric rhinos that once roamed across the continent of Europe, and the idea of connecting himself to a hunting legacy that spanned millennia thrilled him.
The expedition pitched their tens on the banks of the White NIle, "Rhino Camp," about two degrees above the equator. (Smithsonian Institution Archives)
For many decades since its description in 1817, the white rhino was known to be found only in that part of South Africa south of the Zambezi River, but in 1900 a new subspecies was discovered thousands of miles to the north, in the Lado Enclave. Such widely separated populations were unusual in the natural world, and it was assumed that the extant white rhinos were the remnants of what was once a more widespread and contiguous distribution. “It is almost as if our bison had never been known within historic times except in Texas and Ecuador,” Roosevelt wrote of the disparity.
At the time of Roosevelt’s expedition, as many as one million black rhino still existed in Africa, but the white rhino was already nearing extinction. The southern population had been hunted to the point that only a few individuals survived in just a single reserve, and even within the narrow ribbon of the Lado Enclave, these rhinos were found only in certain areas and were by no means abundant. On the one hand, Roosevelt’s instincts as a conservationist told him to refrain from shooting any white rhino specimens “until a careful inquiry has been made as to its numbers and exact distribution.” But on the other hand, as a pragmatic naturalist, he knew that the species was inevitably doomed and that it was important for him to collect specimens before it went extinct.
Roosevelt made a list of animals he sought, ordering them by priority:. . . He also hoped to get up into some of the fly-infested habitats of northern Uganda in search of the rare white rhino. (Roosevelt Papers, Smithsonian Institution Archives)
As he steamed down the Nile, Roosevelt was followed by a second expedition of sorts, led by a former member of the British East Africa Police. But Captain W. Robert Foran was not intent on arresting Roosevelt—whom he referred to by the code name “Rex”; rather, he was the head of an expedition of the Associated Press. Roosevelt let Foran’s group follow at a respectable distance, by now wanting regular news to flow back to the United States. Foran had also been instrumental in securing a guide for Roosevelt on his jaunt into the virtually lawless Lado Enclave. The guide, Quentin Grogan, was among the most notorious of the elephant poachers in the Lado, and Roosevelt was chuffed to have someone of such ill-repute steering his party.
Grogan was still recovering from a boozy, late-night revel when he first met Roosevelt. The poacher thought [the president’s son] Kermit was dull, and he deplored the lack of alcohol in the Roosevelts’ camp. Among some other hangers‑on eager to meet Roosevelt was another character—John Boyes, a seaman who, after being shipwrecked on the African coast in 1896, “went native” and was so highly regarded as an elephant hunter there that he was christened the legendary King of the Kikuyu. Grogan, Boyes, and a couple of other unnamed elephant hunters had gathered in the hope of meeting Roosevelt, who characterized them all as “a hard bit set.” These men who faced death at every turn, “from fever, from assaults of warlike native tribes, from their conflicts with their giant quarry,” were so like many of the tough cowpunchers he had encountered in the American West—rough and fiercely independent men—that Roosevelt loved them.
Downriver they went, past walls of impenetrable papyrus, until they came upon a low, sandy bay that is to this day marked on maps as “Rhino Camp.” Their tents pitched on the banks of the White Nile, about two degrees above the equator, Roosevelt was in “the heart of the African wilderness.” Hippos wandered dangerously close at night, while lions roared and elephants trumpeted nearby. Having spent the past several months in the cool Kenyan highlands, Roosevelt found the heat and swarming insects intense, and he was forced to wear a mosquito head net and gauntlets at all times. The group slept under mosquito nets “usually with nothing on, on account of the heat” and burned mosquito repellent throughout the night.
In the end, Roosevelt shot five northern white rhinoceros, with Kermit taking an additional four. (Smithsonian Institution Archives)
Although their camp was situated just beyond the danger zone for sleeping sickness, Roosevelt was still bracing himself to come down with some sort of fever or another. “All the other members of the party have been down with fever or dysentery; one gun bearer has died of fever, four porters of dysentery and two have been mauled by beasts; and in a village on our line of march, near which we camped and hunted, eight natives died of sleeping sickness during our stay,” he wrote. The stakes were certainly high in Rhino Camp, but Roosevelt would not have taken the risk if the mission was not important—the white rhino was the only species of heavy game left for the expedition to collect, and, of all the species, it was the one the Smithsonian would likely never have an opportunity to collect again.
Today, the northern white rhino is extinct in the wild and only three remain in captivity. One of the Roosevelt white rhinos is on view at the Natural History Museum. (NMNH)
In the end, Roosevelt shot five northern white rhinoceros, with Kermit taking an additional four. As game, these rhinos were unimpressive to hunt. Most were shot as they rose from slumber. But with a touch of poignancy, the hunts were punctuated with bouts of wildfire-fighting, injecting some drama into one of Roosevelt’s last accounts from the field. Flames licked sixty feet high as the men lit backfires to protect their camp, the evening sky turning red above the burning grass and papyrus. Awakening to a scene that resembled the aftermath of an apocalypse, the men tracked rhino through miles of white ash, the elephant grass having burned to the ground in the night.
Whether the species lived on or died out, Roosevelt was emphatic that people needed to see the white rhinoceros. If they couldn’t experience the animals in Africa, at least they should have the chance to see them in a museum.
Today, the northern white rhino is extinct in the wild and only three remain in captivity. One of the Roosevelt white rhinos is view, along with 273 other taxidermy specimens, in the Smithsonian’s Hall of Mammals at on the National Museum of Natural History.
Darrin Lunde, is a mammal scholar who has named more than a dozen new species of mammals and led scientific field expeditions throughout the world. Darrin previously worked at the American Museum of Natural History, and is currently a supervisory museum specialist in the Division of Mammals at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. Darrin independently authored this book, The Naturalist, based on his own personal research. The views expressed in the book are his own and not those of the Smithsonian.
Speeches 1 -- 1 A Lecture Delivered before the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Salem at Lyceum Hall, Nov. 14,1847 (Boston: Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1847) 3 -- 2 Speech delivered at the Lecture Hall, Croydon, England, September 5, 1849 19 -- 3 Speech delivered at the Concert Rooms, Store Street, London, September 27, 1849 24 -- 4 Speech delivered at the Hall of Commerce, London, August 1, 1851 29 -- 5 Speech delivered at the Town Hall, Manchester, England, August 1, 1854 33 -- Autobiographical Writings 41 -- 1 From Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself(Boston: Anti-Slavery Office, 1847) 43 -- 2 From My Southern Home; or, The South and Its People (Boston: A.G. Brown, 1880) 63 -- Travel Writings 139 -- 1 From Three Years in Europe; or, Places I Have Seen and People I Have Met (London: Charles Gilpin, 1852) 143 -- 2 From The American Fugitive in Europe: Sketches of Places and People Abroad (Boston: John P. Jewett; Cleveland: Jewett, Proctor & Worthington; New York: Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman, 1855) 164 -- Fiction 219 -- 1 From Clotel; or, The President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States (London: Partridge and Oakey 1853) 221 -- 2 The Escape; or, A Leap of Freedom: A Drama in Five Acts (Boston: R.F. Walcutt, 1858) 264 -- Writing Race and Gender 309 -- 1 From The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements (New York: Thomas Hamilton; Boston, R.F. Wallcut, 1863) 313 -- 2 From The Rising Son; or, The Antecedents and Advancement of the Colored Race (Boston: A.G. Brown, 1874) 353 -- 3 From The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity (Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1867) 439 -- Selected Letters 445 -- 1 In The Liberator, July 12, 1850 447 -- 2 In Frederick Douglass' Paper, October 2, 1851 452 -- 3 In Frederick Douglass' Paper, March 16, 1855 (reprinted from the Anti-Slavery Standard) 456 -- 4 In The Christian Recorder, January 22, 1874 458 -- Teaching William Wells Brown: Four Versions of an Anecdote 461 -- 1 From Clotel (1853) 465 -- 2 From The Escape (1858) 466 -- 3 From Clotelle (1865) 468 -- 4 From My Southern Home (1880) 469
Woza Afrika : a festival of South African theater : presented at the Mitzi Newhouse Theater at Lincoln Center by the Woza Afrika Foundation in association with Lincoln Theater, September 10-October 5, 1986
Rubin, Jon M
Woza Afrika Foundation
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
 p. : ill. ; 39 cm
Title from p. .
Staff for the Woza Africa [sic] program booklet: Jon M. Rubin [et al.].
Includes progam notes for Asinamali / Mbongeni Ngema, Bopha / Percy Mtwa, Children of Asazi / Matsemela Manaka, Gangsters / Maishe Maponya, Born in the R.S.A. / Barney Simon and the cast.
Texts of plays issued simultaneously in an anthology edited by Duma Ndlovu.
Woza Afrika! : an anthology of South African plays / selected and edited by Duma Ndlovu ; foreword by Wole Soyinka ; preface by Amiri Baraka
xxviii, 272 p. ; 22 cm
Woza Albert! / Percy Mtwa, Mbongeni Ngema, and Barney Simon -- Gangsters / Maishe Maponya -- Children of Asazi / Matsemela Manaka --Born in the R.S.A. / Barney Simon and the cast -- Asinamali / Mbongeni Ngema -- Bopha! / Percy Mtwa