George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872
oil on canvas
21 3/4 x 16 3/4 in. (55.3 x 42.5 cm)
George Catlin described Seneca Steele as having a “hatchet in his hand.” The artist probably took this portrait in Washington, in February 1831. (Catlin, 1848 Catalogue, Catlin’s Indian Gallery, SAAM online exhibition)
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
Recorded in schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages 1880. Includes terms added in ink by J.N.B. Hewitt, which are also in Manuscript Number 1618, Hewitt's copy of this vocabulary. Also includes terms for the parts of the body in an unidentified language and unidentified handwriting, written along side of the Seneca terms on pages 78-79. Filed with Manuscript 1618.
Manuscript 1765, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Recorded in schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages. Copy by J.N.B. Hewitt from Manuscript Number 1765, with some additional words added by Hewitt (e.g., cf. page 199 in the original and Hewitt's copy).
Manuscript 1618, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Contents: 1. The Vampire (Published as "The Vampire Skeleton", 32nd A. R. page 458). 2 pages. 2. Seneca Witchcraft- 1 page. 3. Seneca Ghost Story 1/2 page. 4. Shagodyoweqgowa (False Faces), 1/2 page. 5. Medicine Men. 1 page. 6. Snake with two heads, 1 page. Published 32nd A. R. page 106. Shagodyoweqgowa. 1 page. See 32nd A. R., page 357. 8. A Seneca Witch Story. 1 page. 9. The Owl and the Two Sisters. 2 pages.
Manuscript 3955, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Oscar Howe (Mazuha Hokshina), Yanktonnai Nakota, 1915-1983
Paper, watercolor, ink
30.1 x 45.2 cm
South Dakota; USA
Part of a series of paintings commissioned by Dr. Oscar Brousse Jacobson (1882-1966, artist, scholar, Native art patron, and director of the University of Oklahoma's School of Art from 1915 to 1954) for "North American Indian Costumes, 1564-1950," a book by Oscar B. Jacobson and Oscar Howe and published by Editions d'Art C. Szwedzicki. Nice, France, 1952. The original paintings were purchased by MAI from Dr. Jacobson before 1966.
Seneca vocabulary, grammatical notes, and the Lord's Prayer in Seneca 1880
Smith, Erminnie A Mrs
Hewitt, J. N. B (John Napoleon Brinton) 1859-1937
Iroquois Seneca grammar
Iroquois Seneca vocabulary
Iroquois Seneca Lord's Prayer
Recorded in Schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages 1877 in J. N. B. Hewitt's handwriting. Last 12 pages are titled, "Grammatical Construction of the Seneca Dialect." The final page is the Lord's Prayer in Seneca with no English.
Manuscript 373, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Contents: Box 1 Unpublished material (pink slips show parts xeroxed for U. Chodowiec). Box 2 Published and unpublished material. Box 3 Published material (32 AR Bureau of American Ethnology). Box 4 Non Iroquois and miscellaneous material. Box 5 Material identified by Chodowiec: "mostly Curtin's myths rewritten and corrected by Hewitt."
Seneka historical legends and mythic tales in English only, collected on the Cattaraugus Reservation, N. Y., during the summer of 1883 and 1886. 1. The Boy Cared for by a Bear. 18 pages. 2. The Man with the Panther-skin Coat. 10 pages. 3. Hi'-non' Ho-ha-waqk, i. e., The Son of Thunder. 7 pages. 4. The Vampire. 3 pages. 5. The Uncle and his Nephew. 27 pages. 6. A Hunter Persued by a Stone-Coat. 6 pages. 7. The Orphan. 5 pages. 8. The Potent Boy. 8 pages. 9. The Seven Maidens Making Wampum. 7 pages. 10. The Man who was aided by Ga-cyen-de-tha' (Fire-dragon). 15 pages. 11. An Uncle and his Nephew (Second Story). 9 pages. 12. Hi'-non' (Thunder) and the Rattlesnakes. 4 pages. 13. Hagowanen and O-the-gwen'-da' (Flint). 33 pages. 14. Two Boys Carried Off by the Cheroki. 1 1/2 pages. 15. Uncle and Nephew. 7 pages. 16. Netyogwesuk. (? Delaware Story). 5 pages. 17. A Woman's Bear Lover. 7 pages. 18. The Two Brothers. 9 pages. 19. Ga-na, The Seneca War Chief. 7 pages. 20. Twelve Brothers and their Uncle (Great-Head). 6 pages. 21. The Woman who married the Great Snake. 5 pages. 22. Hat-hon-das (The Listener). 13 pages. 23. On-gweq i-as (Man he eats) and his Brother. 7 pages. 24. The Man-eating Wife, the Old Woman and the Morning-Star. 8 pages. 25. Dhadyoendzadases and the Old Woman's Grandson. 7 pages. 26. Ga-no-gwi-o-eon, a War-chief. 6 pages.
27. Bloody-Hand Offered Food to the Animals. 3 pages. 28. The Horned-Snake and the Young Woman. 6 pages. 29. The Great Worm and Grandfather, Thunder. 3 pages. 30. The Senecas at War with the Cheroki. 3 pages. 31. An Owl Story. 5 pages. 32. A Young Man pursued by his Sister-in-law. 5 pages. 33. The Dry Village in the Flood. 7 pages. 34. Ha-tci-non-don, a Chief. 35. The Daughters of Owee Ye-gen-djiq (Swan Mother) and the Son of Doen-djo-wens. 5 pages. 36. The Woman turned into a Snake from eating too much Fish. 2 pages. 37. The Two Sisters Captured by the Cheroki. 3 pages. 38. The Man killed by three Hunters. 4 pages. 39. Grandmother and Grandson. 11 pages. 40. The Race between the Turtle and the Fox. 3 pages. 41. A Dead Man speaks out of the Fire, whereat his mother becomes a bear and pursues his murderer. 8 pages. 42. Da-gwa-no-en-yent and her husband. 7 pages. 43. Ho-da-den-on (Hodadeion). 55 pages. 44. Bald Eagle Sends Mud-turtle around the World. 4 pages. 45. The Grandmother and her Granddaughter. 1 page. 46. Dzogeon and his Uncle. 4 pages. 47. Porcupine's Grandson and the Bear. 11 pages. 48. The Hatiwen-non-da-dye's (Thunders) rescue a woman from Antropophagi. 6 pages. 49. Sha-go-dyo-weq-go-wa. No 1. 3 pages. 50. The Murderous Crow. 4 pages.
74. Seneka Superstitions. 1 page. 75. The Man who became a fish and a Nya-gwai-e-he'. 76. Charm broken by eating an Otter's heart. 4 pages. 77. The Squeezed heart and the Naked Dance. 3 pages. 78. The Poor Hunter and the Little Man. 3 pages. 79. The Owl and the Two Sisters. 3 pages. 80. The Battle With the Great Snake. 2 pages. 81. The Fox and the Rabbit. 2 pages. 82. Da-gwa-no-en-yent. 2 pages. 83. Ongwe i-as and his Brother Dagwano-en-yent. 5 pages. 84. Gen-non' sgwa' (Stone Coat). 1 page. 85. The Gen-non' s-gwa' (Stone Coat) 2 pages. 86. The Gen-non' s-gwa' (Stone Coat). 3 pages. 87. Medicine Men. 2 pages. 88. The Snake with two heads. 2 pages. 89. The Turtle and his forces on the warpath. 5 pages. 90. The Red people and the Senekas. 1 page. 91. Seneka Ghost Story. 1 page. 92. Seneka Witch Story. 1 page. 93. Seneka Witchcraft. 1 page. 94. The Two Brothers. 3 pages. 95. Hotho' (Cold). 1 page. 96. The Story of the Boy and the Chestnuts. 5 pages. 97. Gaq-ga and Sga-ge-diq. 4 pages. 98. The Man who married a Buffalo Woman. 8 pages. 99. Wishakon and his Grandfather Visit Plethoak. 8 pages. 100. Ha-den-the-ni and Ha'-ni-gon-gen-da-tha'. 21 pages. 101. Ho-di-on-skon. 102. The Creation of Man. 2 pages. 103. The Great Bear and the Six Hunters, or the Great Dipper (Constellation).
Manuscript 3860, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Case Open: 12 x 18.9 x 0.8 cm (4 3/4 x 7 7/16 x 5/16")
Case Closed: 12 x 9.4 x 1.6 cm (4 3/4 x 3 11/16 x 5/8")
Blacksnake, a Seneca/Six Nations chief, was one of the few Indian leaders who remained on the American side in the War of 1812, fighting in several battles on the Niagara frontier.
Although Seneca soldiers were honorably mustered out, the War of 1812 was a disaster for American Indians. They suffered major defeats at Horseshoe Bend and the loss of their most gifted leader, Tecumseh. The Treaty of Ghent promised them peace, "to restore . . . all . . . [their] possessions, rights, and privileges," but Britain’s abandonment of Indian allies after the war ended its ability to resist an expanding America.
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution