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Seneca

Place:
Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Number:
138742
USNM Number:
946
Specimen Count:
1
Record Last Modified:
7 Oct 2014
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Meteorites
Meteorites
Polished Thin Section
Mineral Sciences
Data Source:
NMNH - Mineral Sciences Dept.
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Seneca Ray Stoddard

Artist:
Seneca Ray Stoddard, 1844 - 1917
Sitter:
Seneca Ray Stoddard, 1844 - 1917
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 11 x 19.3 cm (4 5/16 x 7 5/8")
Mount: 13.3 x 21.5 cm (5 1/4 x 8 7/16")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1879
Topic:
Exterior\Landscape
Equipment\Camera
Seneca Ray Stoddard: Visual Arts\Artist\Photographer
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Larry J. West
Object number:
S/NPG.2007.111
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National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Seneca Steele, a Great Libertine

Artist:
George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872
Sitter:
Seneca Steele
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
21 3/4 x 16 3/4 in. (55.3 x 42.5 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1831
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian\Seneca
Portrait male
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
Object number:
1985.66.269
Description:
George Catlin described Seneca Steele as having a “hatchet in his hand.” The artist probably took this portrait in Washington, in February 1831. (Catlin, 1848 Catalogue, Catlin’s Indian Gallery, SAAM online exhibition)
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Smithsonian American Art Museum
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[Seneca Falls, New York (upstream)]

Artist:
Unidentified
Medium:
daguerreotype
Dimensions:
plate: 4 1/4 x 5 1/2 in. (10.8 x 14.0 cm.)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
ca. 1850
Topic:
Cityscape\town
Landscape\river\Seneca River
Landscape\New York\Seneca Falls
Landscape\waterfall\Seneca Falls
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment
Object number:
1994.91.232
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Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
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Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Seneca, 1700

Artists/Makers:
Oscar Howe (Mazuha Hokshina), Yanktonnai Nakota, 1915-1983
Object Name:
Painting
Media/Materials:
Paper, watercolor, ink
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
30.1 x 45.2 cm
Culture/People:
Yanktonnai Nakota
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
South Dakota; USA
Date Created:
1948-1952
Catalog Number:
24/9006
Collection History:
Part of a series of paintings commissioned by Dr. Oscar Brousse Jacobson (1882-1966, artist, scholar, Native art patron, and director of the University of Oklahoma's School of Art from 1915 to 1954) for "North American Indian Costumes, 1564-1950," a book by Oscar B. Jacobson and Oscar Howe and published by Editions d'Art C. Szwedzicki. Nice, France, 1952. The original paintings were purchased by MAI from Dr. Jacobson before 1966.
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Modern and Contemporary Arts
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
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Seneca man, Cornplanter 1796

Creator:
Bartoli, F
Subject:
O'Bail, John
Kaiiontwakon
By What One Plants
Ki-on-twog-ky
Physical description:
1 8x10 in photograph
Culture:
Iroquois Seneca
Indians of North America Northeast
Seneca Indians
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1796
Local number:
NAA INV 9377100
OPPS NEG 928
Notes:
Known as John O'Bail, a chief. Also called Kaiiontwakon (By What One Plants or Ki-on-twog-ky). Born 1732-40; died 1836. Mixed blood. See Handbook of American Indians.
Cite as:
Negative 928, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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[Seneca Falls, New York (downstream)]

Artist:
Unidentified
Medium:
daguerreotype
Dimensions:
plate: 4 1/4 x 5 1/2 in. (10.8 x 14.0 cm.)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
ca. 1850
Topic:
Architecture\industry\factory
Cityscape\town
Cityscape\New York\Seneca Falls
Landscape\river\Seneca River
Architecture\industry\Cowing and Co.
Architecture\industry\Sash and Blind Factory
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment
Object number:
1994.91.231
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Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
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Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Seneca Thanksgiving rituals,

Author:
Chafe, Wallace L.
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1961
Citation:
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, 183: 1-302.
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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Seneca Lake and Watkins Glen, for the Lehigh Valley Railroad

Artist:
William H. Rau, born Phildelphia, PA 1855-died Phildelphia, PA 1920
Medium:
albumen silver print
Dimensions:
sheet and image: 17 1/4 x 20 3/8 in. (43.8 x 51.7 cm.)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1899
Topic:
Landscape\New York\Watkins Glen
Landscape\lake\Seneca Lake
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase from the Charles Isaacs Collection made possible in part by the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment
Object number:
1994.91.152
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Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
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Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Doll Representing Seneca Mother. "Gaya Da'"

Donor Name:
Dr. William N. Fenton
Collector:
Fenton
Culture:
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
: Seneca
Object Type:
Doll
Place:
Coldspring Settlement, Allegany Reservation, New York, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1940-Aug-27
Topic:
Ethnology
Accession Number:
157457
USNM Number:
E380992-0
Specimen Count:
1
Record Last Modified:
15 Dec 2014
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Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
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Cornplanter, Seneca Chief 1796 Print

Creator:
Bartoli, F
Physical description:
1 leaf
Culture:
Iroquois Seneca
Indians of North America Northeast
Seneca Indians
Type:
Works of art
Date:
1796
Local number:
NAA INV 08957700
Cite as:
Spc Ne Iroquois Seneca Bae (37)-(38), (41)-(42) National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Photographs of American Indians and Other Subjects 1840s-1960s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Seneca texts on cosmology October 1896

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B (John Napoleon Brinton) 1859-1937
Creator:
Abrams, Chauncey
Physical description:
20 pages
Culture:
Iroquois Seneca
Indians of North America Northeast
Seneca Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
October 1896
Topic:
Religion--Iroquois--Seneca
Cosmology--Iroquois--Seneca
Local number:
NAA MS 2330
Cite as:
Manuscript 2330, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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RED JACKET. SENECA WAR CHIEF.

Publisher:
McKenney and Hall, 1836-1844
Lithographer:
Courbould, 19th century
Copy after:
Charles Bird King, born Newport, RI 1785-died Washington, DC 1862
Printer:
Charles Joseph Hullmandel, English, born London, England 1789-died London, England 1850
Sitter:
RED JACKET
SA-GO-YOU-WAT-HA
Keeper Awake
Medium:
hand-colored lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
sheet: 19 5/8 x 13 5/8 in. (49.9 x 34.6 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
ca. 1837-1844
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian\Seneca
Miscellaneous\medal\Peace Medal
Portrait male
Portrait male
Portrait male
Occupation\other\chief
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase
Object number:
1985.66.153,293
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Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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The Seneca Eagle Dance 1940s Painting

Creator:
Smith, Ernest
Physical description:
1 leaf
Culture:
Iroquois Indians
Seneca
Indians of North America Northeast
Type:
Works of art
Date:
1940
1940s
Local number:
NAA INV 08681100
NAA MS 4398 Oversize
Summary:
Indians Inside Longhouse Watching Four Men Perform Dance
Cite as:
Manuscript 4398 Oversize, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Materials relating to The Iroquois Eagle Dance, an Offshoot of the Calumet Dance, Bureau of American Ethnoloy Bulletin 156 [Fenton, William Nelson]
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Seneca Morphology and Dictionary

Author:
Chafe, Wallace L.
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1967
Citation:
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, 4: 1-126.
Abstract:
This work is an extended description of the structure of words in the Seneca language. A description of the grammar of Seneca words has already been published in the International Journal of American Linguistics (Chafe, 1960, 1961 a). A major omission from that work, however, was a comprehensive list of the verb roots, noun roots, and particles of the language, with specification of their grammatical peculiarities and examples of their use. The present work is designed to fill that gap. Its chief purpose is to make available a Seneca dictionary, or lexicon. Since, however, the dictionary contains many references to paragraphs in the Seneca Morphology mentioned above, it was thought useful to republish that work as part of this volume. Republication seems all the more useful in view of the fact that the original Seneca Morphology is scattered through eight numbers of two different volumes of the journal. Minor revisions and corrections have been made, but extensive changes, however desirable they might have been, were out of the question because the references in the dictionary were already keyed to paragraph numbers in the original version, as were the references given in the Grammatical Commentary of Seneca Thanksgiving Rituals (Chafe, 1961 b).
Seneca is at present the native language of a few thousand persons, most of whom live on the Allegany, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda Reservations in western New York State and on the Grand River Reserve in Ontario, Canada. There are few if any speakers now under 30 years of age. Seneca is historically important as the language of the Five (now Six) Nations of the Iroquois and as the language of Handsome Lake, the Iroquois prophet (Parker, 1913; for a history of the Seneca see Parker, 1926). Within the Iroquoian language family, Seneca is a member of the Northern Iroquoian subgroup, which includes also Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora among the languages still spoken. Seneca is most closely related to Cayuga, but the two are different enough to be considered separate languages. The dialect differentiation within Seneca itself is minor. Earlier works on Seneca include several brief grammatical sketches (Voegelin and Preston, 1949, and Holmer, 1952, 1953, 1954) and texts (Hewitt, 1903, 1918). A list of still earlier sources is available in Pilling (1888).
The material on which this work is based was obtained during four summers of fieldwork, 1956-59, on the three New York reservations. It consists of an extensive corpus of Seneca words and texts, including formal speeches, legends, historical accounts, and conversations. I am deeply grateful for the assistance provided by numerous speakers of Seneca, above all by Solon Jones and Leroy Button of the Cattaraugus Reservation, Lena P. Snow, Tessie Snow, and Edward Curry of the Allegany Reservation, and Corbett Sundown and Betsy Carpenter of the Tonawanda Reservation. Appreciation is also due to William N. Fenton, Floyd G. Lounsbury, the Smithsonian Institution, Yale University, and especially to the New York State Museum and Science Service, under whose auspices the fieldwork was conducted. Both the Smithsonian Institution and the University of California provided support for the completion of the manuscript, and thanks are due to Karlena Glemser, Myra Rothenberg, and Aura Cuevas for their help in this regard.
The lexicon of a language is a vast terrain which no one could hope to explore fully during a few scattered field trips. Although grammatical analysis can perhaps lead to a point of diminishing returns after a reasonable period of investigation, I doubt that such a point has even been approached for the vocabularies of any languages except those few which have a long tradition of lexicography. Certainly the experience which I and others have had with American Indian languages refutes the ethnocentric myth that such languages are poor in their means of expression. What is given in the dictionary of this work is simply what I was able to obtain in a period that was totally inadequate for the purpose.
In making this lexical material available, I have had several possible uses of it in mind. I should say first that I have not intended that anyone should use it for learning to speak the Seneca language, although I would be very happy if someone were to find it helpful for that purpose. Above all I have wanted to provide data that can be used in comparative Iroquoian studies. Such work is stymied, as it is in most American Indian language families, by the absence of detailed lexical material. This is the first modern dictionary of any Iroquoian language, and I fervently hope that other and better ones will follow. Reconstruction, subgrouping, and the possible establishment of relationships outside the family cannot proceed without them. Second, the listing of roots with examples of their use will serve to elucidate the morphological patterns of the language beyond the few examples provided in the morphology, and to show something of the scope and frequency of constructions mentioned there. I regret the absence of syntactic examples; this compilation is a byproduct of a preoccupation with morphology. Examples of syntactic patterns as well as further morphological examples may be culled from my "Seneca Thanksgiving Rituals" and from Hewitt's texts. Finally, this material may prove useful in "language and culture" studies of various kinds.
Doi:
10.5479/si.00810223.4.1
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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Seneca Chief Governor Blacksnake

Artist:
F. C. Flint
Sitter:
Blacksnake, 1753 - 1859
Medium:
Quarter-plate daguerreotype
Dimensions:
Image (site): 9 x 6.9 cm (3 9/16 x 2 11/16")
Plate: 10.4 x 8.2 cm (4 1/8 x 3 1/4")
Case Open: 12 x 18.9 x 0.8 cm (4 3/4 x 7 7/16 x 5/16")
Case Closed: 12 x 9.4 x 1.6 cm (4 3/4 x 3 11/16 x 5/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1850
Topic:
Cased object
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2010.24
Exhibition Label:
Blacksnake, a Seneca/Six Nations chief, was one of the few Indian leaders who remained on the American side in the War of 1812, fighting in several battles on the Niagara frontier.
Although Seneca soldiers were honorably mustered out, the War of 1812 was a disaster for American Indians. They suffered major defeats at Horseshoe Bend and the loss of their most gifted leader, Tecumseh. The Treaty of Ghent promised them peace, "to restore . . . all . . . [their] possessions, rights, and privileges," but Britain’s abandonment of Indian allies after the war ended its ability to resist an expanding America.
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National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Seneca version of the Law of the Woman Chief 1925

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B (John Napoleon Brinton) 1859-1937
Creator:
Clute, Alexander H
Physical description:
30 pages
Culture:
Iroquois Seneca Law of the woman chief
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1925
Topic:
Government--Iroquois--Seneca
Local number:
NAA MS 3510
Cite as:
Manuscript 3510, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Seneca woman, Lena Cayuga, 17 years, Seneca Indian Territory. U. S. Indian School 1904

Creator:
Carpenter, Charles H
Collector:
Tilton, Willis G
Subject:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)
Physical description:
1 photographic negative
Culture:
Iroquois Seneca (identification uncertain)
Indians of North America Northeast
Seneca Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1904
Local number:
OPPS NEG T15191
Notes:
Photograph probably taken at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis
Cite as:
Photo Lot 89-8, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Willis G. Tilton photograph collection of American Indians circa 1880-1930 (bulk 1899-1904)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Polygala senega

Microhabitat Description:
Dry or moist woods or prairies
Preparation:
Photograph
Common name:
Seneca snakeroot
Seneca-snakeroot
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Polygalales Polygalaceae
Published Name:
Polygala senega
Specimen Count:
1
Record Last Modified:
1 Jun 2013
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Non-specimen graphic
DC Flora
Botany
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
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Polygala senega

Preparation:
Photograph
Place:
Dorcas Bay, Bruce Peninsula, CAN
Common name:
Seneca snakeroot
Seneca-snakeroot
Taxonomy:
Plantae Dicotyledonae Polygalales Polygalaceae
Published Name:
Polygala senega
Specimen Count:
1
Record Last Modified:
1 Jun 2013
See more items in:
Non-specimen graphic
Plant Image Collection
Botany
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
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