National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
National Congress of American Indians
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Trimble, Charles E
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
251 linear feet
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
The road to Yucca Mountain : the development of radioactive waste policy in the United States / J. Samuel Walker
Walker, J. Samuel
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
xi, 228 p. : ill ; 24 cm
Shipping list no.: 2009-0442-P.
"Published in association with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission"--T.p. verso.
A solvable problem -- A "huge and ever-increasing problem" -- An "atomic garbage dump for Kansas" -- New directions in radioactive waste management -- Progressing toward stalemate -- Commercial low-level waste: a "once low priority matter" -- The transportation of nuclear waste -- A legislative "solution."
Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom : the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it
United States Department of Energy
United States Office of Environmental Management
United States Department of Energy
ix, 106 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm
Building nuclear warheads: the process -- Wastes and other byproducts of the cold war -- Contamination and cleanup -- An international perspective -- Transition to new missions -- Looking to the future
Old Particle Accelerator Tech Might Be Just What the Doctor Ordered
Smithsonian staff publications
Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:00:00 +0000
Blog Post Category:
Smart News History & Archaeology
Smart News Ideas & Innovations
Smart News Science
Eighty-three years after the cyclotron was first patented, science is taking a fresh look at the atom smasher as a potential producer of the radioactive isotope that helps doctors diagnose millions of patients across the world every year.
The cyclotron was patented on this day in 1934 by Ernest Lawrence, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. The physicist took home a 1939 Nobel Prize for his invention, whose greatest significance in the words of the Nobel committee was in the “production of artificially radioactive substances.”
“Lawrence’s first cyclotron, all of 4 inches in diameter, was small enough to hold in one hand,” writes the Science & Technology Review. “This tiny apparatus of brass and sealing wax, which cost about $25 to build, successfully accelerated hydrogen molecular ions to 80,000 volts.”
The Review is run out of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The lab was named in honor of Lawrence’s prestigious career, which mostly unfolded in the “Golden Age of Particle Physics” that Lawrence’s work helped to usher in.
In this climate, experiments with the cyclotron quickly helped scientists to discover many of the radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine today, including technetium-99, commonly called the “workhorse of nuclear medicine” because of how many places it’s used. A doctor injects a small amount of radioactive isotope into a patient's body. The isotope is absorbed by the patient's body and then picked up by scanners that detect radiation. In this way, technetium-99 can be used to see inside people's bodies in procedures from heart stress tests to bone scans. Its short half-life (only six hours) means that it disappears from the body quickly.
But for the rest of the twentieth century, the isotopes first produced using the simple cyclotron were made at uranium-powered nuclear reactors. This all started to change in the late 2000s, when the aging reactors that produced technetium-99 experienced technical problems, and the global medical supply of an essential diagnostic tool was threatened. The manager of one of those reactors told Richard Van Noorden for Nature that it was “the isotope equivalent of an electricity blackout.”
Many hospitals were out of technetium-99 for weeks, Van Noorden wrote. And it was only the first time. “The crash made it painfully clear that the world’s medical-isotope supply chain was dangerously fragile, relying heavily on about four government-subsidized reactors built in the 1950s and 1960s,” he wrote. And now that North America’s only isotope-producing reactor has halted production, the supply is more under threat than ever.
During this ongoing crisis, some proposed a solution that involved going back to the beginning: the cyclotron. One solution emerged in Canada, whose Chalk River reactor is one of the main global producers of technetium-99. Researchers across the country have collaborated on pilot projects using local cyclotrons to produce the medical isotopes that used to be produced centrally at the reactor, but the technology to produce the isotopes in large enough quantities for the medical community is not fully ready yet.
Some hospitals around the world currently have medical cyclotrons, but they perform other tasks in nuclear medicine and can’t produce technetium-99.
TRIUMF, the University of British Columbia-based laboratory leading the charge, argues on its website that the innovation is actually an improvement on the current system because it cuts down on waste. Technetium-99 only has a six-hour half-life, so much of it “ends up being wasted as it decays during shipment from far-flung reactors to pharmaceutical companies to hospitals,” the website reads. Installing local cyclotrons to produce technetium-99 decreases the waste and will make medical isotope procedures less expensive, according to the website.
Think of their proposal as the 100-Mile Diet, just for medical isotopes.
Innovation and environmental risk / edited by Lewis Roberts and Albert Weale
Roberts, L. E. J (Lewis Edward John) 1922-
xiii, 186 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
The public acceptance of risk and innovation / Baroness Platt of Writtle -- Innovation and the public perception of risk / J.D. Rimington -- The role of the media / Geoffrey Lean -- Acceptance of innovation : an industry view of environmental aspects / J.C. Felton -- The regulation of pesticide use : an historical perspective / John Sheail -- Pesticide innovation and public acceptability : the role of regulation / Joyce Tait, Sylvia Brown and Susan Carr -- The release of genetically modified organisms / John E. Beringer -- Health risks from food / D.L. Georgala -- Public acceptance of innovation / Derek C. Burke -- Radiation protection standards : how are they set and are they adequate? / Roger H. Clarke -- Institutional innovation to generate the public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal / Ray Kemp -- Variation in information use in the evaluation of the social acceptability of nuclear waste management options / P.T. Allen
Innovation and the political context of technical advice / Roger Williams -- Entrepreneurship and innovation from an environmental risk perspective / Gerd Rainer Wagner -- Towards a vernacular science of environmental change / Timothy O'Riordan -- The public acceptance of innovation : final session - discussion panel
A New Experimental Fusion Reactor Powers Up in Germany
Smithsonian staff publications
Mon, 08 Feb 2016 15:56:00 +0000
Blog Post Category:
Smart News Science
The quest to imitate the Sun—a.k.a. build a nuclear fusion reactor capable of producing abundant, sustainable energy—just took another step forward. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Greifswald, Germany turned on an experimental reactor and created hydrogen plasma for the first time, reports Frank Jordans for The Associated Press.
Fusion has been a kind of holy grail for physicists. If successfully harnessed, it could be a source of safe, clean nuclear energy. Instead of splitting atoms, as nuclear fission reactors do, fusion joins atoms, and hazardous radioactive waste is not produced.
"Everything went well today," Robert Wolf, a senior scientist involved with the project, tells Jordans at the AP. "With a system as complex as this you have to make sure everything works perfectly and there's always a risk."
The device in Germany is called the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, reports David Talbot for MIT Technology Review. The stellarator is designed to contain plasma created by smashing together hydrogen atoms and blasting them with microwaves until the matter soars to temperatures of 100 million degrees, at which time the atoms' nuclei fuse to form helium. The whole process generates energy and mirrors what happens at the center of the Sun. In essence, the stellarator's donut-shape has to create a tiny star.
Yet fusion researchers aren't quite ready to power the world yet. Containing that star is the real challenge. Wednesday's experiment, by design, only created the plasma for a fraction of second before stopping to cool down. But that was long enough to hail the experiment as a success.
The stellarator uses a system of magnetic currents to contain the plasma, Talbot writes. Other devices are trying different approaches. In France, an international team is building a fusion reactor based on a device called a tokamak. This version is also donut shaped, but uses a strong electric current to trap the plasma. It's thought to be easier to build than a stellarator, but harder to operate. Other approaches include using magnetized rings and liquid metal pushed by pistons to compress and contain the plasma or collide the atoms in a linear accelerator, reports M. Mitchell Waldrop for Nature.
However, all of these devices are still decades away from commercial fusion power. That timeline, and the expense involved in developing the technology, has critics doubtful that the fusion energy dream is achievable. “I think these things are well motivated, and should be supported—but I don't think we're on the verge of a breakthrough," Stephen Dean, head of an advocacy group called Fusion Power Associates, tells Nature.
In the meantime, the stellarator in Germany will continue its inaugural test phase through mid-March, reports Jon Fingas for EnGadget. Then an upgrade will boost its capacity to run longer and heat hotter. Already the device has taken 19 years to build and cost about $1.3 billion, Fingas writes.
Hypothetically, the stellarator could run continuously. Their next goal is to keep the plasma stable for 30 minutes, though even that benchmark will take time to achieve. "If we manage 2025, that's good," Wolf tells the AP. "Earlier is even better."
Pollution, edited by Robert S. Leisner and Edward J. Kormondy
Leisner, Robert S. 1927-
Kormondy, Edward John 1926-
vii, 85 p. illus. 28 cm
The effects of pesticides, by W. A. Niering.--The sea-level Panama Canal: potential biological catastrophe, by J. C. Briggs.--Thermal addition: one step from thermal pollution, by S. Friedman.--DDT on trial in Wisconsin, by B. Ingersoll.--Who needs DDT? By T. H. Jukes.--DDT on trial in Wisconsin, part II, by B. Ingersoll.--DDT roundup.--DDT goes to trial in Wisconsin, by C. F. Wurster.--Radioactivity and fallout: the model pollution, by G. M. Woodwell.--Pollution, is there a solution? By J. G. New and J. G. Holway.--Monitoring pesticide pollution, by P. A. Butler.--Interactions, by M. R. Zavon.--Some effects of air pollution on our environment, by V. J. Schaefer.--Technology assessment, by A. C. Barker and J. A. Fowler.--Water pollution, by R. D. Hennigan.--Population pollution, by F. S. L. Williamson.--Research and development for better solid waste management, by A. W. Breidenbach and R. W. Eldredge
Plutopia : nuclear families, atomic cities, and the great Soviet and American plutonium disasters / Kate Brown
Brown, Kate (Kathryn L.)
x, 406 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Ozërsk (Cheliabinskaia oblastʹ)
Ozërsk (Cheliabinskaia oblastʹ, Russia)
Part One. Incarcerated space and Western nuclear frontiers -- Mr. Matthias goes to Washington -- Labor on the lam -- "Labor shortage" -- Defending the nation -- The city plutonium built -- Work and the women left holding plutonium -- Hazards -- The food chain -- Of flies, mice and men -- Part Two. The Soviet working class atom and the American response -- The arrest of a journal -- The Gulag and the bomb -- The Bronze Age atom -- Keeping secrets -- Beria's visit -- Reporting for duty -- Empire of calamity -- "A few good men" in pursuit of America's permanent war economy -- Stalin's rocket engine : rewarding the plutonium people -- Big Brother in the American heartland -- Neighbors -- The vodka society -- Part Three. The plutonium disasters -- Managing a risk society -- The walking wounded -- Two autopsies -- Wahluke Slope : into harm's way -- Quiet flows the Techa -- Resettlement -- The zone of immunity -- The socialist consumers' republic -- The uses of an open society -- The Kyshtym belch, 1957 -- Karabolka, beyond the zone -- Private parts -- "From crabs to caviar, we had everything" -- Part Four. Dismantling the plutonium curtain -- Plutonium into portfolio shares -- Chernobyl redux -- 1984 -- The forsaken -- Sick people -- Cassandra in coveralls -- Nuclear glasnost -- All the kings' men -- Futures
In Plutopia, Brown draws on official records and dozens of interviews to tell the stories of Richland, Washington and Ozersk, Russia-the first two cities in the world to produce plutonium. To contain secrets, American and Soviet leaders created plutopias--communities of nuclear families living in highly-subsidized, limited-access atomic cities. Brown shows that the plants' segregation of permanent and temporary workers and of nuclear and non-nuclear zones created a bubble of immunity, where dumps and accidents were glossed over and plant managers freely embezzled and polluted. In four decades, the Hanford plant near Richland and the Maiak plant near Ozersk each issued at least 200 million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment--equaling four Chernobyls--laying waste to hundreds of square miles and contaminating rivers, fields, forests, and food supplies. Because of the decades of secrecy, downwind and downriver neighbors of the plutonium plants had difficulty proving what they suspected, that the rash of illnesses, cancers, and birth defects in their communities were caused by the plants' radioactive emissions. Plutopia was successful because in its zoned-off isolation it appeared to deliver the promises of the American dream and Soviet communism; in reality, it concealed disasters that remain highly unstable and threatening today. --from publisher description
Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund -- Acceptable risk -- Acid rain -- Agricultural runoff -- Air pollution -- Air quality control regions -- Air quality index -- Alar -- Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act -- Algal blooms -- Alliance of Small Island States -- Alternative Motor Fuels Act -- American Farm Bureau Federation -- American Heritage Rivers Initiative -- Antarctica treaty -- Antiquities Act -- Aquaculture -- Arctic National Wildlife Refuge -- Asbestos -- Babbitt, Bruce -- Bald eagle -- Barrier islands -- Batteries -- Baucus, Max -- Below-cost timber sales -- Best available control technology -- Bhopal -- Biodiversity -- Bliley, Thomas J., Jr. -- Browner, Carol -- Brownfields -- Btu tax -- Bush, George -- Bycatch -- Carbon dioxide -- Carbon sequestration -- Carbon sinks -- Carter, Jimmy -- CFCs -- Chafee, John H. -- Citizen lawsuits -- Clean Air Act -- Clean coal -- Clean Water Act -- Clearcutting -- Clinton, Bill -- Coastal Barrier Resources Act -- Coastal Zone Management Act -- Command and control -- Conformity -- Conservation Reserve Program -- Consumption -- Convention on Biological Diversity -- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) -- Conventional pollutants -- Coral reefs -- Corporate Average Fuel Economy -- Cost-benefit analysis -- Council on Environmental Quality -- Criteria air pollutants -- Critical habitat -- Cryptosporidium -- Cumulative impact -- Dams -- DDT -- Debt for nature swaps -- Deforestation -- Delaney clause -- Dingell, John D. -- Dioxin -- Dolphin-safe tuna -- Dombeck, Michael P. -- Drift-net fishing
Earth Day -- Earth Summit -- Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act -- Emissions trading -- Endangered Species Act -- Endangered Species Committee -- Endocrine disruptors -- Energy efficiency -- Energy Policy Act -- Environmental impact statements -- Environmental justice -- Environmental movement -- Environmental Protection Agency -- Environmental Quality Incentives Program -- Environmental riders -- Estuaries -- Eutrophication -- Everglades -- Exotic species -- Extinction -- Exxon Valdez -- Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act -- Federal Land Policy and Management Act -- Federal Water Pollution Control Act -- Filtration -- Finding of no significant impact -- Fish and Wildlife Foundation -- Flood insurance -- Flow control -- Food Quality Protection Act -- Fossil fuels -- Garbage -- General Mining Law -- Genetically modified organisms -- Global Climate Change Prevention Act -- Global economy -- Global Environment Facility -- Global warming -- Globalization -- Gore, Al -- Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument -- Grandfather clauses -- Grazing fees -- Great Lakes -- Green parties -- Greenhouse gases -- Grizzly bear -- Groundwater -- Group of Ten -- Habitat conservation plans -- Habitat loss -- Hazardous air pollutants -- Hazardous Materials Transportation Act -- Hazardous waste -- Haze -- Headwaters forest -- High-level nuclear waste -- House Commerce Committee -- House Resources Committee -- Incinerators -- Indoor air pollution -- Indoor Radon Abatement Act -- Instream flows -- Integrated pest management -- Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act -- International Monetary Fund -- International Whaling Commission -- Interstate shipments of waste -- IUCN-The World Conservation Union -- Jobs vs. the environment -- Kyoto Protocol
Lacey Act -- Land and Water Conservation Fund -- Landfills-- Lands Legacy Initiative -- Law of the Sea -- Lead -- Love Canal -- Low-flow toilets -- Low-level radioactive waste -- Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act -- Manure -- Marine Mammal Protection Act -- Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act -- Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act -- Maximum contaminant levels -- Mercury -- Miller, George -- Mining -- Mobile sources -- Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer -- Mountaintop removal -- MTBE -- Multiple Use -- Municipal solid waste -- Murkowski, Frank H. -- National ambient air quality standards -- National Association of Manufacturers -- National Environmental Policy Act -- National Forest Management Act -- National forests -- National Marine Fisheries Service -- National marine sanctuaries -- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration -- National parks -- National priorities list -- National trails system -- National Water Quality Inventory -- National wilderness preservation system -- National wildlife refuge system -- Natural Resources Conservation Service -- Negligible risk -- NIMBY -- Nixon, Richard M. -- No net loss -- "No regrets" -- No surprises -- Noise pollution -- Nonattainment areas -- Nongovernmental organizations -- Non-Indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Act -- Nonpoint source pollution -- North American Free Trade Agreement -- North American Precipitation Assessment Program -- Northern spotted owl -- Nuclear energy -- Nuclear Regulatory Commission -- Nuclear waste -- Nutrients -- Occupational Safety and Health Administration -- Offshore drilling -- Oil Pollution Act -- Old-growth forests -- Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act -- Overfishing -- Ozone depletion -- Particulate matter -- Passenger pigeon -- PCBs -- Persistent organic pollutants -- Pesticides -- Pfiesteria -- Pittman-Robertson -- Point sources -- Polluter pays -- Population growth -- Port and Tanker Safety Act -- Port and Waterways Safety Act -- Precautionary principle -- Predator and pest control -- Prevention of significant deterioration -- Private property rights -- Public lands -- Public notification
Radon -- Rangelands -- Reagan, Ronald -- Reasonable certainty of no harm -- Recycling -- Reformulated gasoline -- Regional fishery management councils -- Regulatory impact analysis -- Regulatory relief -- Renewable energy -- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act -- Retroactive liability -- Risk assessment -- Roadless areas -- Roosevelt, Theodore -- Ruckelshaus, William -- Safe Drinking Water Act -- Safe harbor -- Salmon -- Salvage logging -- Secondary treatment -- Section 404 -- Sediment pollution -- Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee -- Senate Environment and Public Works Committee -- Sierra Club -- Sikes Act -- Silent Spring -- Sludge -- Smith, Robert -- Smog -- Snail darter -- Solid Waster Disposal Act -- Sound science -- Species recovery plans -- Sport utility vehicles -- State implementation plans -- Stationary sources -- Sugar price supports -- Superfund -- Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act -- Sustainable Fisheries Act -- Sustainable use -- Swampbuster -- Three-Mile Island -- Tier 2 standards -- Tongass National Forest -- Total maximum daily loads -- Toxic Substances Control Act -- Toxics Release Inventory -- Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Authorization Act -- Transboundary pollution -- Tropical rain forests-- Turtle excluder devices -- Underground injection wells -- Underground storage tanks -- U.N. Environment Programme -- Unfunded mandates -- Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act -- Urban sprawl -- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers -- U.S. Department of Agriculture -- U.S. Department of Energy -- U.S. Department of the Interior -- U.S. Forest Service -- Water pollution -- Water scarcity -- Watershed management -- Watt, James G. -- Wetlands -- Wetlands Reserve Program -- Whaling -- Wild and Scenic Rivers Act -- Wilderness Act -- Wildfires -- Windblown pollution -- Wolves -- World Bank -- World Heritage sites -- World Trade Organization -- Yellowstone National Park -- Young, Don -- Yucca Mountain -- Zebra mussels -- Zero risk