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for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf

view <I>for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf</I> digital asset number 1
Published by:
Playbill, American, founded 1884
Subject of:
Dr. Ntozake Shange, American, born 1948
Used by:
Booth Theatre, American, founded 1913
ink on paper, metal
9 x 5 5/8 x 1/8 in. (22.9 x 14.3 x 0.3 cm)
magazines (periodicals)
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
November 1977
African American
Drama (Theatre)
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Dow B. Ellis
Object number:
Playbill used by permission. All rights reserved, Playbill Inc.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera
A Changing America: 1968 and Beyond
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 1, C1 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

Les Collégiens 1945

view <I>Les Collégiens 1945</I> digital asset number 1
Created by:
Harris-Stowe State University, American, founded 1857
ink on paper
H x W: 10 1/2 x 8 in. (26.7 x 20.3 cm)
Place depicted:
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, North and Central America
African American
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

Radical Members of the South Carolina Legislature

view <I>Radical Members of the South Carolina Legislature</I> digital asset number 1
Created by:
Subject of:
George W. Dusenberry, American, died 1869
Whitefield J. McKinlay, American
Elias Evander Dickson, American, 1832 - 1909
Charles McDuffie Wilder, American
William R. Hoyt, American
Benjamin Franklin Randolph, American, died 1868
David Harris, American
James P. Mays, American
Justus K. Jillison, American
Hutson J. Lomax, American
Benjamin Franklin Jackson, American
William M. Thomas, American
Henry W. Webb, American
Benjamin A. Boseman Jr., American, 1840 - 1881
Reuben Tomlinson, American
Jonathan Jasper Wright, American, 1840 - 1885
Francis DeMars, American
William J. Brodie, American
Eben Hayes, American
Lawrence Cain, American
Henry J. Maxwell, American, 1837 - 1906
James Martin, American, died 1868
Wilson Cooke, American
Franklin F. Miller, American
Prince R. Rivers, American, born 1825
Hiram W. Duncan, American
Lemuel Boozer, American, 1809 - 1870
Powell Smythe, American
John B. Wright, American
Franklin Israel Moses Jr., American, 1838 - 1906
Sancho Saunders, American
Samuel Nuckles, American
John Hannibal White, American, 1828 - 1878
Barney Burton, American
Henry L. Shrewsbury, American
Edward Charles Mickey, American
James A. Henderson, American
Henry E. Hayne, American, born 1840
Junius S. Mobley, American
James Hutson, American
Sen. William Beverly Nash, American, 1822 - 1888
Abraham W. Smith, American
Charles H. Pettengill, American
John B. Hyde, American
Samuel J. Lee, American, died 1895
William M. Simons, American
John A. Chestnut, American
Harry McDaniel, American
John Gardner, American
Stephen Atkins Swails, American
Wade Perrin, American
Burrell S. James, American
William E. Johnson, American
Lucius Wimbush, American
Elliott Stannmore Jerome Hayes, American, 1848 - 1913
Simeon Farr, American
John W. Mead, American
Benjamin A. Thompson, American
Joseph H. Rainey, American, 1832 - 1887
albumen and silver nitrate on photographic paper
H x W: 4 x 2 1/2 in. (10.2 x 6.4 cm)
albumen prints
African American
Political organizations
Politics (Practical)
Race relations
Reconstruction (United States History, 1865-1877)
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Media Arts-Photography
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

The Guardian

view <I>The Guardian</I> digital asset number 1
Published by:
Homer G. Phillips Hospital, American, 1937 - 1979
ink on paper and cardboard
10 3/4 × 8 1/4 × 9/16 in. (27.3 × 21 × 1.5 cm)
Place made:
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States
African American
United States--History--1961-1969
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Pauline Brown Payne
Object number:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials
Making a Way Out of No Way
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

The Negro Motorist Green-Book

view <I>The Negro Motorist Green-Book</I> digital asset number 1
Published by:
Victor Hugo Green, American, 1892 - 1960
Subject of:
James A. Jackson, American, 1878 - 1960
ink on paper
H x W x D: 7 × 5 × 1/8 in. (17.8 × 12.7 × 0.3 cm)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
African American
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture

Virginia Herald Vol. XVIII No. 1386

view <I>Virginia Herald Vol. XVIII No. 1386</I> digital asset number 1
Published by:
The Virginia Herald, American, 1787 - 1876
ink on newsprint
H x W (page): 17 x 10 1/2 in. (43.2 x 26.7 cm)
November 30, 1804
African American
Mass media
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Documents and Published Materials
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
Additional Online Media:

The affordable housing reader / edited by J. Rosie Tighe And Elizabeth J. Mueller

Tighe, J. Rosie
Mueller, Elizabeth J
Physical description:
xxiii, 565 pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm
United States
Part 1: Conflicting motivations for housing policy in the U.S. -- Introduction to part one -- "How the other half lives" / Jacob Riis -- "The lost history of urban renewal" / Alexander von Hoffman -- "Introduction and summary" / The President's Committee on Urban Housing, Chairman Edgar F. Kaiser -- "Housing policy and the myth of the benevolent state" / Peter Marcuse -- "The reluctant hand: privatization of public housing in the U.S." / Norman Krumholz -- "Why a right to housing is needed and makes sense: editors' introduction" / Rachel G. Bratt, Michael E. Stone and Chester Hartman -- Part 2: Competing definitions of housing problems -- Introduction to part two -- 'The concept of housing affordability: six contemporary uses of the housing expenditure-to-income ratio' / J. David Hulchanski -- "What is housing affordability? The case for the residual income approach" / Michael E. Stone -- "How do we know when housing is 'affordable'?" / Edward L. Glaeser and Joseph Gyuorko -- "Counterpoint: the 'housing + transportation index' and fair housing" / Philip Tegeler and Scott Bernstein -- "Remedial phase report of john powell in Thompson v. HUD August 19, 2005" / john a. powell -- Part 3: Conflicting views of low income homeownership -- Introduction to part three -- "The grapes of rent: a history of renting in a country of owners" / Donald A. Krueckeberg -- "Low income homeownership: American dream or delusion?" / Anne B. Shlay -- "More than money: what is shared in shared equity homeownership?" / John Emmeus Eavis -- "The social benefits and costs of homeownership: a critical assessment of the research" / William M. Rohe, Shannon van Zandt, and George McCarthy -- "High risk lending and public policy: 1995-2008" / Dan Immergluck
Part 4: Shifting emphases in the provision of affordable housing -- Introduction to part four -- "The evolution of low-income housing policy, 1949 to 1999" / Charles J. Orlebeke -- "Federal policy and the rise of nonprofit housing providers" / Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley -- "The low-income housing tax credit as an aid to finance: How well has it worked?" / Kirk McClure -- "Strengths and weaknesses of the housing voucher program" / Margery Austin Turner -- "Federally-assisted housing: privatization vs. preservation" / Emily Paradise Achtenberg -- Part 5: Competing goals: place as community or opportunity? -- Introduction to part five -- "Federal support for CDCs: some of the history and issues of community control" / Stewart E. Perry -- "Neoliberal urban policy and new paths of neighborhood change in the American inner city" / Kathe Newman and Philip Ashton -- "Housing dispersal programs" / Edward G. Goetz -- "Has HOPE VI transformed residents' lives? New evidence from the HOPE VI panel study" / Susan J. Popkin, Diane K. Levy, and Larry Buron -- "Is mixed-income development an antidote to urban poverty?" / Mark L. Joseph -- Reconciling people and place in housing and community development policy / Nestor M. Davidson -- Part 6: The relationship between land use regulations and housing choices -- Introduction to part six -- "Regulations and housing development: what we know" / Michael H. Schill -- "Local land use regulation and the chain of exclusion" / Rolf Pendall -- "Housing market effects of inclusionary zoning" / Antonio Bento, Scott Lowe, Gerrit-Jan Knaap and Arnab Chakraborty -- "Growth management and affordable housing policy" / Arthur C. Nelson and Susan M. Wachter -- "Neighborhood change and transit: what we learned" / Stephanie Pollack, Barry Bluestone, and Chase Billingham -- Part 7: Housing and race: enduring challenges, debated strategies -- Introduction to part seven -- "By words and deeds: racial steering by real estate agents in the U.S. in 2000" / George Galster and Erin Godfrey -- "The dynamics of racial residential segregation" / Camille Zubrinsky Charles -- "Fair housing and community development: time to come together" / Elizabeth K. Julian -- The future of fair housing / National Commission on Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity
Low-income housing
Housing policy
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943

Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Newman, Marshall Thornton 1911-1994
Newton, Philip
Niederle, Ludor
Nordenskiold, Erland
Novak, Albert J
Nusbaum, Jesse L (Jesse Logan)
Osgood, Cornelius
Oetteking, Bruno
Okada, Mitsuru
Osborn, Henry Fairfield
Ousdal, Asbjorn P
Paget, Richard
Palic, Georgine
Panhuys, L.C. van
Papanek, Jan
Papez, James W
Peabody, Charles
Peake, Harold J.E
Pearl, Raymond
Pearson, Karl
Pendray, G. Edward
Pergler, Charles
Peterson, Martin
Pittard, Eugene
Plissetzky, M
Poniatowski, Stanislaw
Porter, Keyes
Pospisil, Frantisek
Powell, Ransom J
Pownall, Sophia
Psenka, R.J
Putnam, Edward K
Putnam, Frederic Ward
Pycraft, W.P
Rainey, Froelich G
Roberts, Frank H. H (Frank Harold Hanna) 1897-1966
Romer, Alfred S
Rabkin, Samuel
Radoscavljevich, Paul R
Ranke, J
Rasmussen, Axel
Rathbun, Richard
Ravenal, William de C
Ray, Cyrus N
Reft, Herman
Renc, Ludmilla
Retzius, Gustave
Reymert, Martin L
Rich, Willis H
Riggs, Arthur Stanley
Rivet, Paul
Rogers, Spencer L
Roosevelt, Theodore
Ruffer, Alice
Russell, James Townsend
Firth, Raymond
Rutot, A
Ruzicka, Vladislau
Rybot, N.V.L
Smith, E.H
Stebbins, G. Ledyard
Sanderson, S. Edward
San Diego Exposition
Sapir, Edward 1884-1939
Saville, Marshall W
Schotensack, Otto
Schuller, Rudolf R
Schultz, Adolph H
Schurmeier, H.L
Schwalbe, Gustav
Schwerz, F
Seib, George A
Seler, Eduard
Seligman, C.G
Seligman, Edwin R.A
Sellards, Elias Howard
Seltzer, Carl C
Senyurek, Muzaffer Suleyman 1915-1961 Turkish
Sera, G.L
Settles, Olive
Setzler, Frank M (Frank Maryl) 1902-1975
Severa, W.F
Shanklin, William M
Shapiro, Harry Lionel
Shirjajov, Fedor G
Shufeldt, Robert W (Robert Wilson) 1850-1934
Silva, Simoens de
Silva, Antonio Carlos Simoens da
Skinner, H. Alan
Skutil, Joseph
Smetanka, J.F
Smith, G. Elliot
Smith, Harlan I
Smith, Maurice G
Smith-Woodward, Arthur
Spier, Leslie
Spitzka, Edward Anthony
Sprowls, Jesse W
Stanton, Frederick Leston
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur 1879-1962
Steggerda, Morris
Stegman, Louis
Stepanek, Bedrich
Stephenson, J.E
Stephenson, Beatrice L
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1850-1915
Stevenson, Paul H
Stewart, T. D (Thomas Dale) 1901-1997
Stirling, Matthew Williams 1896-1975
Stolyhwo, Kazimir
Streeter, George L
Suehla, Engelbert
Suk, Vojtech Dr
Sullivan, Louis Robert
Swanton, John Robert
Swiggett, Glen Levin
Tax, Sol 1907-
Tello, Julio C
Taylor, Griffith
Ten Kate, Herman F.C
Terry, Robert J
Thompson, J.C
Thompson, Warren S
Thomson, Arthur
Tildesley, M.L
Ting, V.K
Todd, Thomas Wingate
Toula, J.J
Townsend, C.H.T
Tozzer, Alfred Marston
Trotter, Mildred
Uhle, Max
Uzel, H. Drahos
Virchow, Hans
Volk, Ernest
Vallois, Henri V
Vaughan, Victor Clarence
Vesely, Vaclav
Vishnevsky, B.N
Vojan, J.E. Salaba
Vraz, E.T.S
Washburn, Sherwood Larned
Walcott, Charles D (Charles Doolittle) 1850-1927
Walcott, Gregery D
Waldeyer, W
Wallace, Anthony Francis Clark
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell
Wallis, Wilson D (Wilson Dallam) 1886-1970
Ward, Freeman
Wardle, H. Newell
Warner, Jack
Warner, Langdon
Watson, C. Roy
Waugh, Leuman M. Dr
Weidenreich, Franz
Weigner, Karel
Weinberger, Bernhard Wolf
Welch, William H
Welcker, D.H
Wellcome, Henry L
Werner, Edward Chalmers
Wessel, Bessie B
Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978
Whitford, A.C
Wickersham, James
Wilder, Burt G
Wilder, Harris Hawthorne
Williams, Herbert U
Willis, Bailey 1857-1949
Wilson, Alan Pressley
Wineman, Walter
Wissler, Clark
Woodruff, Charles E. Dr
Worcester, Dean Conant
Wunderly, J
Yerkes, Robert M
Zuckerman, Solly
Zickefoose, Harold E
Zelizko, I.V
Zollschan, Ignace
Kearful, Francis
Botsford, James W
Cary, Francis
Cowper, Harold
Erskine, John 1879-1951
Erstein, Richard
Parkes, George A
Wicht, Edwin W
Berry, Edward
Black, Davidson
Burkitt, A.N
Ward, Charles B
United States Department of the Navy
Oriental Institute
Rhodesian Broken Hill Development Company
United States
Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology
United States Department of War
Obermaier, Hugo
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders
Schuck, A
Shirokogoroff, S.M
Simek, Bohnmil
Thalbitzer, William
Waldegg, Hermann von
Wilson, Edwin B
Physical description:
133 linear feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
ca 1887-1943
This record has been created in order to complete the indexing of record AAK7790 and 7792.
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers, [ca. 1880-1946]

Archambault, Anna Margaretta, 1856-1956
Place of publication, production, or execution:
Physical Description:
2 partial microfilm reels.
Access Note / Rights:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Correspondence and papers relating primarily to Archambault's work in miniatures. Omitted from microfilming are photographs of Archambault's sitters and models.
Correspondents include: W. Osler Abbott, M.D., Yarnall Abbott, Wayman Adams, A. J. Arnold, the Arts Club of Washington, D.C., Emily H. Bache, William Jacob Baer, W. Pope Barney, Katherine Carter Barrows, Julia H. Bartholomew, Alice C. Bartram, Walter Emerson Baum, Martha Wheeler Baxter, Eulabee Dix Becker, B. Bennet-Alder, Edward Biddle, Gertrude Bosler Biddle, James Biddle, Nicholas Biddle, Winthrop L. Biddle, Sally Cross Bill, Horace Binney, John S. Bioren, Ellen M. Bishop, Clarence Wyatt Bispham, Edwin H. Blashfield, Mrs. W. S. Blight, Johanna Magdelene Boericke, Henry Harrick Bond, E. Boner, Elizabeth Fearne Bonsall, Mary Waterman Bonsall, Katharine K. Borda, Alexander Bower, Ralph L. Boyer, Hugh H. Breckenridge, Edith W. Bridy, R. S. Brock, Emily Hall Brown, Ella Shepard Bush, Margaret Lesley Bush-Brown, Alfreda F. Butler, Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Mary Butler, Sophia Cadwalader, Alexander S. Calder, Alexander M. Calder, James Campbell, Emma Ratcliffe Caperton, Horace T. Carpenter, Henry Sparks Cattell, Orville T. Chamberlain, William M. Chase, Elizabeth Wiltbank Clark, Mary M. Clawson, Katherine M. Cohen, Calvin Coolidge, Dr. Cooper, Emma Lampert Cooper, Dorothea Coulomb, Elizabeth K. Coyne, James Craig, Thomas Bigelow Craig, Edith I. Crary,
Colonel A. C. Cron, Nina Nash Cron, Mrs. Cunningham, J. E. B. Cunningham, Charles Edmund Dana, Thomas B. Davies, George Walter Dawson, Blanche Dillaye, Eulabee Dix, ? Drayton, Abby Dreer, Mary S. Drexel, John J. Dull, Alice Belin Du Pont, Pierre Samuel Du Pont, Helen Winslow Durkee, H. M. Eberhard, Jacob Eichholtz, Elizabeth Shippen Elliott, Hannah Elliott, Margaret Ellwarger, Edith Emerson, Lydia F. Emmet, Margaret Evans, Ludwig E. Faber, Fairmount Park Art Association, William H. Falkner, Brigitta Moran Farmer, Katherine Levin Farrell, Lillian Wood Febiger, Mark Fenderson, Mantle Fielding, Riter Fitzgerald, Samuel S. Fleisher, Charlotte Fowler, W. H. Fox, Benjamin Franklin, John Frazer, Florence W. Fulton, Caroline M. Fryberger, John P. Garber, Horatio Gates, George Gibbs, William Wallace Gilchrist, Jr., Pemberton Ginther, John H. Ginvin, George W. Goethals, Charles A. Grafly, Frederick C. Gruber, Benjamin Barton Gumpert, Walter C. Hager, William Maclay Hall, Esq., Samuel Hambleton, Ralph T. Hanson, Florence Kling Harding, George Harding, Warren G. Harding, Laura Harlan, Evelyn Shaylor Harmon, Marian Dunlap Harper, Alexandrina Robertson Harris, Lowell Birge Harrison, Thomas Alexander Harrison, Charles Henry Hart, John F. Haskins,
Malthe M. Hasselriis, Cecelia Haupt, Charles E. Haupt, Herman Haupt, Lewis Muhlenberg Haupt, Mary E. Haupt, Paul Haupt, Margaret Foote Hawley, J. Carroll Hayes, John Russell Hayes, Lillian D. Heinsohn, Helen W. Henderson, Robert Henri, George W. Hewitt, Luther E. Hewitt, Mary Baer Hiester, Michael Hillegas, Laura Coombs Hills, Paula B. Himmelsbach, Robert H. Hinckley, Edward Ellsworth Hipsher, William S. Hoerner, W. J. Holland, Louisa Homberg, George Horst, Robert Norman Hudspeth, Romilly F. Humphries, Anna Warren Ingersoll, Henry Inman, Helsey C. Ives, Annie Hulbert Jackson, Harry L. Johnson, Ella Bond Johnston, John W. Jordan, Isaac A. Josephi, Susette S. Kedst, Margaret Kendall, William Sergeant Kendall, Mr. Kevorkian, Fiske Kimball, Anna Belle Wing Kindlund, Jeannette Klauder, Mrs. Edward C. Knight, Herman Frederick Krafft, Ebba V. Krebs, Laura D. Stroud Ladd, Mary Laird, John Lambert, William L. Lathrop, Charlotte A. Lea, Henry F. Lee, Harry Leith-Ross, Charles G. Leland, Robert W. Lesley, Lucie Holt Le Son, Edmond L. Levy, John F. Lewis, Francis O. Libby, Robert M. Lindsay, Gertrude L. Little, Mary Wingate Lloyd, A. J. Loos, Stephen B. Luce, Anna Lynch, Nicolas S. Macsoud, Henri Marceau, John Marshall, Samuel W. McCall, Henry McCarter, Judge McCarthy, Mary McClellan, Florence M. McIntyre,
Robert Tait McKenzie, Mary McMillan, Ruth Dwight McVitty, Bessie L. Meade, Lelia Mechlin, Lillian B. Meeser, Andrew W. Mellon, Anna Lea Merritt, Cora E. Miller, Leslie William Miller, Francis Davis Millet, M. Reed Minnich, Laura M. D. Mitchell, Sara P. Snowden Mitchell, J. Hampton Moore, Laura Mordecai, Alice Morgan, Edward Morrell, Robert Morris, John Ludlow Morton, Stanley Muschamp, John Neagle, Claud P. Newell, Annie Nicholls, Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, George E. Nitzsche, William S. Nortenheim, Charlotte Luce Noyes, Imogen Brashear Oakley, Thornton Oakley, Violet Oakley, Charles A. Oliver, Anna W. Olmsted, George L. Omwake, Mary Louise Shook Osborne, Harlan Page, Mary Crozer Page, Lydia Parrish, Elsie Dodge Pattee, Elizabeth R. Pennell, J. H. Penniman, Pennsylvania School of Miniature Painting, Pennsylvania Society of Miniature Painters, Pennsylvania University Cultural Olympics Gallery, K. W. Penrose, Augusta H. Peoples, Bertha E. Perrie, Harriet Felton Peters, Philadelphia City History Society, Philadelphia the Commercial Museum, Philadelphia Public Art School, Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Frederic Poole, D. T. Pratt, George R. Prowell, Evelyn Purdie, Edward Willis Redfield, Anne Reilly, John A. Richardson, Helen P. Robinson, J. G. Rosengarten, Albert Rosenthal, J. T. Rothrock,
Homer Saint-Gaudens, San Francisco, Panama-Pacific International Exhibition, 1915, Elizabeth de Santa Eulalia, Emily Sartain, Harriet Sartain, Frank R. Savidge, Edith Sawyer, Henry Lyman Sayen, William A. Schaeffer, Julia E. Schelling, Walter E. Schofield, Alice T. Searle, Anne Douglas Sedgwick, Helen Merrick Semple, Sarah Sergeant, Helen Sharpe, Matilda Hast Shelton, Annie W. S. Siebert, Edna H. Simpson, Caroline Sinkler, John Ray Sinnock, A. W. Skibinsky, James L. Slayden, Marianna Sloan, M. E. Smedley, Edgar F. Smith, Georgine Wetherell Smith, Maude H. Smith, Walter H. Smith, William Jones Smith, William Rudolph Smith, Louise H. Snowden, William C. Sproul, St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904, William H. Staake, Lucy M. Stanton, John B. Stetson, Jr., Louise Stockton, William S. Stockton, Virginia H. Stout, ? Strachey, Maria Judson Strean, Thomas Sully, Frederick Summerhill, Berth Swindell, William H. Taft, Mary H. Tannahill, Emily H. D. Taylor, Frank W. Taylor, Helen I. Taylor, Theodora W. Thayer, Adile Biddle Thomas, George B. Thomas, Henry J. Thouron, Douglas Tilden, Ruel P. Tolman, James B. Townsend, John E. D. Trask, Benjamin Trott, Rachel Bulley Trump, Sarah A. Turle, Helen M. Turner, Charles J. Turrell, U. S. Naval Academy Museum, Moses Veale, Samuel B. Vrooman, J. S. Waln, John Wanamaker,
Edward Warwick, Booker T. Washington, Elizabeth Fisher Washington, Marjorie Watmough, Harvey M. Watts, E. A. Weaver, Mabel R. Welch, Samuel P. Wetherill, Candace Wheeler, Janet D. Wheeler, H. C. Whipple, Bishop White, W. G. White, William John Wittemore, Charles F. Wignall, Joseph Willcox, Henry Willet, Alyn Williams, Francis Howard Williams, Mary Rhoads Garrett Williams, Talcott Williams, George Charles Williamson, Sydney E. Wilson, William Powell Wilson, William E. Winner, Frances A. Wister, Jones Wister, Mary C. Wood, J. E. Woodbridge, Charles H. Woodbury, Joseph W. Woods, David H. Wright, Henriette Wyeth, and Elinor Carr Zimmerman.
Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers, [ca. 1880-1946]. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Additional Forms:
Microfilm reels P26 (347-) & P27 (1-461) available for use at Archives of American Art offices and through interlibrary loan.
Location of Originals:
Originals in: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Anna Margaretta Archambault papers.
Biography Note:
Portrait and minature painter, author, educator; Philadelphia, Pa.
Microfilmed by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for the Archives of American Art, 1955. Donated to the HSP by Anna Archambault, 1933-1946.
Location Note:
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 750 9th St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20001
Miniature painting
Portrait painters
Women painters
Miniature painters
Record number:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

Armstrong Manual Training School yearbook

view Armstrong Manual Training School yearbook digital asset number 1
Evans-Tibbs Collection
Public Schools of the District of Columbia
Physical description:
59 pages; 7 1/2 x 12 inches
African American
Washington (D.C.)
Armstrong Manual Training School, built in 1902, was authorized by congress as a vocational high school for African American youth in Washington, DC. The school was named for Samuel C. Armstrong (1839-1893), a white commander of an African American Civil War regiment and founder of Hampton Institute, now University. Designed by local architect Waddy B. Wood, the Renaissance Revival building provided carpentry, machine, foundry, and blacksmith workshops. In addition, the school taught chemistry and physics. Dr. Wilson Bruce Evans, the father of performing artist Lillian Evans Tibbs, served as founding principal. Duke Ellington, William "Billy" Eckstein, and John Malachi are among a host of Armstrong graduates who became prominent in their profession. In 1996 the school was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in the District of Columbia.
Cite as:
Evans-Tibbs collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of the Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs, Jr
African Americans
Local number:
ACMA 06-016.2
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives

Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution 1868-1897

Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
Adams, William W
Ainsworth, R.H
Atkins, Francis H
Alden, C.H
Alden, George
Artes, Charles F
Ashbaugh, A
Axt, G.H.T.F
Bailey, E.J
Bailey, Sylvanus
Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
Baker, M
Barkwell, M.C
Bean, Tarleton H (Tarleton Hoffman) 1846-1916
Beauchamp, William Martin 1830-1925
Beckwith, Paul E
Bell, James
Bell, William 1830-1910
Bentley, Edwin
Berlandier, L
Berthold, E.L
Bickley, B.F
Bine, D.M
Bliss, L.W
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Boban, E
Bock, Conrad
Bonsall Lieutenant
Bower, Isaac M
Bowers, Stephen
Boyd, E.S
Brester, G.M.W.B
Brewer, J.W
Brinderhoff, S.B
Brooke, John
Brooke, Lloyd
Brower, D.R
Brown, Paul R
Bryan, F.T
Bryan, O.N
Buchanan, W.F
Budd, T.A
Burton, H.G
Byrne, Charles B
Campbell, A.B
Campbell, C.H
Carl, W.E
Carpenter, W.L
Carvello, Carlos
Catlin, George 1796-1872
Catlin, Robert
Chandler, T.W
Cheney, J. Edward
Chirouse, E.C
Choate, Rufus
Clark, H
Clark, J.H
Clark, Sam
Clark, W.N
Cochran, John J
Coles, Thomas Mrs
Collins, William A
Comfort, A.E
Cook, J.J.M
Cooper, J. G (James Graham) 1830-1902
Cope, E.D
Corliss, A.W
Couch, D.N
Coues, Elliott
Couthouy, J.P
Corbusier, William Henry 1844-1930
Cowles, Edward
Crocker, Charles
Culbertson, T.A
Dall, William Healey 1845-1927
Dana, J.D
Daniel, Z. T
Davis, W.B
Day, W.E
De Corse, J.S
De Hass, Wills
DeWitt, Calvin
Dodge, Richard I
Douglass, H
Drayton, J
Drindard, William B
Duke, E.T
Dunbar, R.W
Durant, H.K
Earle, Frank S
Edwards, L.A
Elbrey, J
Evans, J
Evans, T.E
Everette, W.W
Fay, Joseph
Feilner, E
Ferguson, J.B
Flint, J.M
Forrer, Robert
Forisch, Otto
Forwood, W.H
Frick, A.P
Fryer, B.E
Gale, Robert
Gawler, A.H
Gecks, August
Gibbs, George
Gibson, William
Giddings, E
Gillis Lieutenant
Girard, J. Basil
Glover, T
Goddard, C.E
Goellner, Adolf
Gould, J. Loomis
Goward, G
Graves, Thomas
Gray, C.C
Griest, K.W
Hachenburg, G.P
Haile, J
Hall, Asaph
Hall, J.D
Hartigan, J.F
Harvey, P.F
Havard, V
Hayden, F. V (Ferdinand Vandeveer) 1829-1887
Hayes, Isaac I
Healey, M.A
Henriques, J.A
Henry, Joseph 1797-1878
Henshaw, Henry W
Hittell, J.S
Hitz, R.G
Hodge, H.C
Hoff, A.H
Hopkins, George N
Horan, Thomas
Horton, S.M
Hoy, P.R
Hubbard, V.B
Huntington, D.L
Hutchinson, F.W
Irwin, B.J.D
Jackson, Donald
Janeway, J.H
Jones, J.E
Jones, William H
Jouy, P.L
Junghanns, L.H
Kales, J.W
Keasbey, G.M
Keay, John T
Keenan, T.J.R
Kent, E.M
Kerr, M.C
Kershner, E
Ketchum, F.E
Kidder, J.H
Kiefer, George
Kimball, James P
King, J.H.T
King, W.Howard
Kirk, R.M
Kitching, S
Knight, C.W
Kollman Dr
Kruidsen, Valdemar
Kumlien, L
LaFourette, John
Lamb, J.M
Langdon, F.W
Lever, Edward A
Logan, Thomas M
Lyon, Sydney S
Lyon, William B
MacTavish Governor
Madison, T.C
Marsh, E.J
Mastin, C.H
Matthews, Washington
Maus, L.M
McAdams, William
McClellan, Ely
McClellan, John
McConnell, M
McCormick, Charles
McCoy, Lewis
McElderry, Henry
McKay, C.L
McKee, J. Cooper
McKinney, R.C
McLean, John J
McMeen, J.M
McMillan, Thomas
McPhail, B.G
Meacham, F
Meiggs, Henry
Meiggs, Montgomery
Metz, Charld L
Middleton, J. D
Milhau, J.J
Miller, Thomas
Mills, Anson
Minor, Thomas T
Mintzer, W.A
Moore, Clarence B (Clarence Bloomfield) 1852-1936
Moran, George H
Moseley, E.B
Moser, J.F
Mott, W
Muller, Alfred
Muller, Rudolph
Munn, C.E
Mylius, A.B
Nash, G.W
Nash, Thomas H
Neale, H
Nelson, Edward William 1855-1934
Newberry, J.S
Newcomer, F.S
Nickerson, A.H
Nittre, L.R
Nordvi, A.G
Norris, Philetus W (Philetus Walter) 1821-1885
Notson, William N
Nunn, C.E
Opevis, Girard
Oliver, G.H
Page, T.J
Palmer, Edward 1831-1911
Parish, Edward
Patterson, D.C
Patton, A
Peet, S. D
Perley, Harry O
Phillips, D.A
Pocock, Eli D
Pope, J
Porter, Joseph Y
Powell, John Wesley Major
Powers, Richard
Powers, Stephen
Price, Marshall F
Prieto, Frederico
Raggety, C.H
Ray, P.H
Alaska Commercial Company
American Geographical Society
Aukland Museum
Georgetown University
Howard University
Collection Ledeboer
Reagles, J Jr
Rankin, M
Reid, A
Reid, James H
Reynolds, R.M
Richardson, Samuel W
Richardson, W.F
Ring, R.M
Robinson, L.E
Rogers, B.F
Rogers, J.J
Rose, George F
Rothrock, J.T
Ruby, Charles
Russell, James Townsend
Scammon, C.M
Schafhirt, E.F
Schell, H.S
Schmidt, Christian
Shufeldt, Robert W (Robert Wilson) 1850-1934
Schumacher, Paul J. F
Schuber, H
Seeds, O.H
Severance, Mark S
Shannon, W.C
Shaw, James
Sherrit, J.N
Sherman, O.T
Shotwell, J.R
Siler, A.L
Skinner, J.O
Smith, D.S
Smith, Edwin
Smith, Rodney
Smoot, Samuel C
Snively, David S
Spencer, W.G
Squier, Edward George
Steman, A.B
Sternberg, C.H
Stesson, S
Storrow, Edward
Suckley, George 1830-1869
Suddarth, J.L
Swan, James Gilchrist
Swift, Eben
Symmons, F.M
Symons, S.W
Tappan, W.H
Taylor, D.B
Taylor, M.K
Taylor, S
Tesson, L.S
Thibault, J.K
Thing, L.H
Thomas, Cyrus
Thomas, H.L
Thombs, P.R
Thompson, S.K
Town, F.L
Turner, Lucien McShan
Van Duyn, William B
Varden, J
Vickery, R.S
Vidal, Sebastian
Wagner, C
Walker, S. T
Wallace, Catharine P
Walters, Fred G
Warren, G. K
Webb, J.G
Webb, T.C
Weed, James F
Whipple, Amiel Weeks Lieutenant, U. S. Army
White, R.H
Whitehead, W.E
Wilcox, T.E
William, Robert E
Wilson, A.D
Wolff, P
Wolverton, M.D
Wood, W.S
Woodward, W.E
Woodruff, Ezra
Wortman, J.L
Wright, T
Wurdemann, G
Yarrow, H. C (Harry Crécy) 1840-1929
Yates, Lorenzo Gordin
Yeomans, A.A
Young, Alfale
University of Basel
Transit of Venus Expedition 1874-1875
United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842)
Physical description:
4.33 linear feet
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM; now the National Museum of Health and Medicine of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) was established by the Surgeon General in 1862 during the course of the Civil War. Its initial focus was on specimens of morbid pathology mainly derived from victims of the war, but as the museum developed, its purpose expanded and around 1864 it was organized into surgical, photographic, medical, and microscopic sections. In 1867, it reorganized into medical, microscopical, anatomical, comparative anatomical, and miscellaneous sections.
Of particular interest here is the anatomical section, for to it were assigned specimens of normal human anatomy, including a growing collection comprised mainly of human skulls but also including other normal human bone specimens. Most of the antomical specimens were remains of American Indians but also included were remains of people of European and African descent as well as those from populations of Asia and Ocenia. The purpose of the collection was anthropological research.
The collection grew as the result of a Circular No. 2 issued in 1867 by the Surgeon General. It called upon military medical officers to collect crania together with specimens of Indian weapons, dress, implements, diet, and medicines. More immediately, however, the collection was developed from arrangements with the Smithsonian Institution by which the Smithsonian transferred its collection of human remains that had begun in the early 1850s. The Smithsonian also agreed to transfer such specimens as it would obtain the future. In return, the AMM agreed similarly to transfer to the Smithsonian artifactual and other ethnological specimens that came into its possession.
Among specimens acquired by the AMM under the terms of this agreement were items collected by the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (also known as the Wilkes Expedition). Other official expeditions that contributed specimens were those of Ferdinand V. Hayden (including the United States Geological Survey of the Territories), George M. Wheeler's United States Army Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, and John Wesley Powell's Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. Also going to the AMM were specimens acquired by the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, including the many specimens of human remains recovered by its large-scale survey of mounds east of the Rocky Mountains. Individual mound explorers, army personnel, medical officers, and private physicians contributed to the collection through donations to the Smithsonian or through direct gifts to the AMM.
Although several early AMM staff members--including George A. Otis, Washington Matthews, and Daniel S. Lamb--were relatively active in research on the anthropological collections, later curators had but little interest in it. Consequently, by the late 1890s, the collection was virutally unused. In 1897, William Henry Holmes, the head curator of the newly formed Department of Anthropology in the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum (USNM), noticed the collection during a visit to the AMM. He informally requested transfer of the specimens--especially the American Indian skulls that had come to form the bulk--to the USNM, and officials at the AMM, eager to devote space to active collections, agreed. This arrangement was formally proposed and approved through exchanges of letters between the Surgeon General and the Secretary of the Smithsonian; and, in May 1898, 2206 skulls were transferred to the Smithsonian.
imperialistic expansion abraod, and questions about race and mixtures of races scientifically current, he argued the utility of physical studies of the American people. As a result of his efforts, Ales Hrdlicka, a physician and physical anthropologist, was appointed a curator in the USNM in 1903. Following Hrdlicka's appointment, a second major transfer of bone materials from the AMM was arranged. This time some 674 items, including articulated skeletons, pelves, brains, and physical anthropological instruments, were involved. This second transfer of specimens was made in January, 1904.
With such a collection in hand, Holmes pursued a cherished plan to establish a division of physical anthropology in his department. With the great wave of immigration to America,
Includes letters, lists, endorsements.
The records consist mainly of memoranda prepared by the AMM staff and letters and notes which documents the specimens. There are also invoices, lists, labels, and printed items. Indexed are names of correspondent, collectors, and donors.
Cite as:
United States Army Medical Museum, Records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Physical anthropology
Skeletal material
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Baird's Atlas

view Baird's Atlas digital asset number 1
Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
Physical description:
Number of Images: 149; Color: Color; Size: 10w x 12h; Type of Image: Book; Medium: Paper
1850s - 1870s
Historic Images of the Smithsonian
Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), ornithologist, was the first director of the United States National Museum (USNM) and second Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1878-1887).
A book filled with lists of the names of correspondents interleaved with atlas pages. The names are broken up geographically and were correspondents of Spencer F. Baird, second Smithsonian Secretary. Many of the correspondents listed in the book collected and donated natural history specimens to the Smithsonian.
Contained within:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 91-069, Box 1, Folder: 1
Contact information:
Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,
Collectors and collecting
Natural history
Standard number:
SIA2014-01441 through SIA2014-01527
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant ones are shown: View entire completed project in transcription center
  • View Baird's Atlas digital asset number 1

Biographies of distinguished scientific men. By François Arago ... Tr. by Admiral W.H. Smyth ... the Rev. Baden Powell ... and Robert Grant ..

Arago, F (François) 1786-1853
Smyth, W. H (William Henry) 1788-1865
Powell, Baden 1796-1860
Grant, Robert 1814-1892
Fairbairn, William Sir 1789-1874
Physical description:
2 v. illus., diagrs. 19 cm
1st ser. The history of my youth. An autobiography of Francis Arago. Bailly. Herschel. Laplace. Joseph Fourier.--2d ser. Carnot. Malus. Fresnel. Thomas Young. James Watt. Notes by W. Fairbairn
Call number:
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Biographies of distinguished scientific men. By François Arago ... Translated by Admiral W.H. Smyth ... the Rev. Baden Powell ... and Robert Grant ..

Arago, F (François) 1786-1853
Smyth, W. H (William Henry) 1788-1865
Powell, Baden 1796-1860
Grant, Robert 1814-1892
Fairbairn, William Sir 1789-1874
Arago, F (François) 1786-1853
Physical description:
viii, 607, [1] p. illus., diagrs. 23 cm
The history of my youth; an autobiography of Francis Arago.--Bailly.--Herschel.--Laplace.--Joseph Fourier.--Carnot.--Malus.--Fresnel.--Thomas Young.--James Watt.--Note by W. Fairbairn
Call number:
Q141 .A65 E1857
Q141.A65 E1857
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Biographies of distinguished scientific men. Translated by W. H. Smyth, Baden Powell and Robert Grant

Arago, F (François) 1786-1853
Arago, F (François) 1786-1853
Physical description:
2 v. 23 cm
Reprint of the 1859 ed.
1st ser. The history of my youth.--Bailly.--Herschel.--Laplace.--Joseph Fourier. 2d ser. Carnot.--Malus.--Frensel.--Thomas Young.--James Watt
Call number:
Q141 .A65 E1972
Q141.A65 E1972
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, 1874-1978, bulk 1920-1970

view Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, 1874-1978, bulk 1920-1970 digital asset number 1
Bladensburg Union Burial Association
Plummer, Henry Vinton 1844-1905
Plummer, Nellie Arnold 1860-ca. 1920
Bladensburg Union Burial Association
Physical description:
3.64 linear feet (4 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Application forms
Minute books
Bladensburg (Md.)
bulk 1920-1970
In 1870 in Bladensburg, Maryland, undertaker Francis Gasch refused to conduct a burial because the family of the deceased could not afford to pay the exorbitant cost of the funeral. At the time, this plight was quite common for newly freed African Americans. Recognizing the need for action, Henry Vinton Plummer, pastor of the St. Paul Baptist Church in Bladensburg, intervened on the behalf of the family and assumed financial responsibility for the burial. Thereafter, in an effort to empower the community to establish their own resources, Vinton called a meeting in June, 1870, where he proposed the establishment of a society which would ensure its members a proper funeral through the collection of membership dues. The society, which was christened the Bladensburg Burying Association, eventually became the Bladensburg Union Burial Association and served several generations of members in the Bladensburg area.
The collection, which dates from 1874 to 1978 and measures 3.64 linear feet, documents the history of the Bladensburg Union Burial Association. The records include the Association's constitution, by-laws, treasurer reports, receipts, and correspondence.
Cite as:
The Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Reverend L. Jerome Fowler
African American churches
African American clergy
Funeral rites and ceremonies
Local number:
ACMA 2003.7076
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
Additional Online Media:

Bureau of American Ethnology Letters Received 1888-1906

Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology
Wulfing, John M correspondent
Antwerp International Exposition
Abbe, Cleveland 1838-1916
Aldrich, Charles F
Allison, E.H
Anciaux, Mary A
Bair, Joseph H
Bandelier, Adolphe Francis Alphonse
Barnes, Mary S
Barnard, W. C
Bartlett, Charles H
Baum, Henry Mason
Beauchamp, William Martin 1830-1925
Benedict, A. L
Bibbins, Arthur
Bickmore, Albert S
Bingman, F. E
Blackmar, Frank W
Blake, W. W
Bolton, Herbert Eugene
Boman, E
Bowditch, Charles P
Bowers, Stephen
Brannon, Peter A
Brant-Sero, J. O
Bratley, Jesse Hastings
Breasted, James Henry
Brinton, Daniel Garrison
Bulmer, Thomas S Dr
Burbank, Elbridge Ayer
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941
Carrico, E. T
Chamberlain, Alexander Francis
Chapin, Frederick H
Chapman, John Wight
Chavero, Alfredo
Clayton, J. B
Clerc, G. O
Connelley, William E
Conover, George S
Coues, Elliott
Coville, Frederick V (Frederick Vernon) 1867-1937
Cresson, Hilborne T
Crivelli, Camillus
Culin, Stewart
Curtin, Jeremiah
Cushing, Emily M
Cushing, Frank Hamilton 1857-1900
Dall, William Healey 1845-1927
Davis, Richard
Dayton, Charles N
Deane, Cecil A
Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel 1853-1935
Densmore, Frances
De Rougé, E
Detrich, Charles H
Dinwiddie, William
Dixon, Roland Burrage
D'Olier, J. G
Dorenberg, J
Dorsey, George Amos
Dorsey, James Owen 1848-1895
Duncan, D. W. C
Eames, Wilberforce
Eells, Myron Rev
Eells, Myron Rev
Emmert, John W. 1842-1917
Emmons, George Thornton
Everett, Willis Eugene
Ewing, Henry P
Farrand, Livingston
Fewkes, Jesse Walter 1850-1930
Fletcher, Alice Cunningham
Fletcher, Robert
Folkmar, Daniel 1861-1932
Fowke, Gerard
Gann, Thomas
Gaillard, D.D Captain
Gatschet, Albert S (Albert Samuel) 1832-1907
Gilbert, Grove Karl 1843-1918
Gill, Mary Wright
Wright, Mary Irwin
Gill, De Lancey W
Gilfillan, Joseph Alexander
Goddard, Pliny Earle
Good, J. B Rev
Goode, G. Brown (George Brown) 1851-1896
Grayson, G. W (George Washington) 1843-1920
Grinnell, George Bird
Haddon, Alfred Cort
Hale, Horatio
Hamblin, H. M
Hartman, C. V
Hatcher, John Bell 1861-1904
Henshaw, Henry Wetherbee
Herrick, Martha J
Hewett, Edgar Lee
Hewitt, J. N. B (John Napoleon Brinton) 1859-1937
Heysinger, I. W
Hilder, Frank F
Hill, Alfred J
Hill, Robert T
Horsford, Cornelia
Hodge, Frederick Webb 1864-1956
Hoffman, Walter James 1846-1899
Holmes, William Henry 1846-1933
Hough, Walter 1859-1935
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Hudson, John W
Hulbert, Archer B
Ingersoll, Truman W
James, George Wharton
Jenks, Albert Ernest
Jones, William 1871-1909
Kroeber, A. L (Alfred Louis) 1876-1960
Le Baron, J. Francis
Le Jeun, J. M
Le Plongeon, Augustus
Lewis, James Otto 1799-1858
Lewis, Jose
Long, M. C
MacCauley, Clay 1843-1925
MacCurdy Human Skeletal Remains from the Highlands of Peru illustrations
MacDonald, Arthur
McGee, W. J. 1853-1912
McGuire, Joseph Deakins
MacLean, J. P
Mallery, Garrick
Mason, Otis Tufton 1838-1908
Matthews, Washington
Meadows, Charles A
McBeth, Kate C
Meany, Edmond S
Meeker, Louis L
Mindeleff, Cosmos 1863-
Montgomery, Henry
Moon, Karl
Mooney, James 1861-1921
Moore, Clarence B (Clarence Bloomfield) 1852-1936
Moorehead, Warren King
Morice, A. G
Muybridge, Eadweard 1830-1904
Nelson, Edward William 1855-1934
Newcomb, Simon
Newell, W. W
Peabody, Charles
Peabody, Lucy E
Peet, Stephen D
Pepper, George H (George Hubbard) 1873-1924
Petitot, Emile Fortune Stanislas Joseph
Peterson, C. A
Petter, Rodolphe
Pettigrew, F.W
Pico, Juan Estevan Chumash
Pierce, P. B
Pilling, James Constantine
Pinart, Alphonse Louis
Pinchot, Gifford
Pittier, Henri
Powell, John Wesley Major
Putnam, Frederic Ward
Lafone Quenedo, Samuel A
Reynolds, Henry L
Riggs, Alfred Longley
Riggs, Stephen Return 1812-1883
Rockhill, William Woodville
Royce, Charles C
Russell, Frank A
Rust, Horatio N
St Clair, Harry Hull II
Sanborn, John P Jr
Sapir, Edward 1884-1939
Saville, Marshall H
Sawyer, Wells 1863-1960
Scott, Hugh Lenox General
Seler, Eduard
Shelley, W. C
Shufeldt, Robert W (Robert Wilson) 1850-1934
Silver, Dilworth M
Smith, Harlan I
Sparhawk, Frances C
Sparkman, P. S
Speck, Frank G (Frank Gouldsmith) 1881-1950
Starr, Frederick
Stevenson, Sara Yorke
Swan, James Gilchrist
Swanton, John Reed
Thomas, Cyrus
Thompson, Alton H
Thwaites, Reuben Gold
Tooker, William Wallace
Tozzer, Alfred Marston
True, Frederick W
Turner, Lucien McShan
Wartenberg, H. Schmidt
Weeks, Stephen B
White, Dabney
White, Mark
Wittemore, Isaac T
Wickersham, James
Wilcox, Helen M. C
Willoughby, Charles Clark
Wilson, Thomas
Winship, George Parker
Winton, George B
Wissler, Clark
Wood, Herbert S
Wood, Norman B
Wood, T. A
Woodburn, J. A
Wren, Christopher
Wright, George Frederick
Wyman, Walter C
Yates, Lorenzo Gordin
Custer, Milo
Bourke, John Gregory 1846-1896
Physical description:
10.5 feet
Archival materials
This is a continuation of the series of letters received during 1879-1888.
Cite as:
Letters received, 1888-1906, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Bureau of American Ethnology Letters Received 1888-1906
Bureau of American Ethnology Records 1878-1965 [Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology]
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Cartes de visite portraits of nineteenth century artists [graphic]

Photograph album
William S. & Alfred Martien (Firm)
Former owner:
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.) DSI
Physical description:
1 album (176 cartes de visite photographic prints) : ports. ; 25 cm
Between 1856 and 1880?
Title devised by cataloger.
Added title transcribed from gilt- and black-printed t.p., which reads: Photograph album, Philadelphia, Wm. S. & A. Martien. The publishing house of Wm. S. & A. Martien was active between 1856 and 1864, although some of the portraits may date from either before or after that period.
An index (handwritten on forms printed in gold, [4] leaves) is inserted at the front of the volume, following the title leaf. Most of the photographs also have handwritten captions.
The title and index leaves have decorative borders.
The album leaves have four double-sided rounded rectangular openings, each measuring 8 x 5 cm., cut into laminated sheets of paperboard, with triple gilt borders printed around each opening.
Some brief newsclippings (obituaries) and biographical citations about the subjects are tipped- or laid-in.
(from index) Edwin A. Abbey -- Oswald Achenbach -- R. Ansdell -- Baker -- E. Ball -- Jacob Barker -- F. Barrias -- Carl Becker -- E. Bellange -- L. Belly -- Bida -- C.F. Blauvelt -- Aug. Bonheur -- Rosa Bonheur -- Gustav Boulanger -- Bonnat -- I. Breton -- H. Bishing in morgue -- Cabanel -- Calame -- Compt Calix -- Frederick Church -- Leon Cogniet -- Coleman -- H. Collingwood -- F. Sidney Cooper -- F. Corbould -- Corot -- Coudon -- Samuel Cousins -- Couture -- Crukshanks -- F.B. Carpenter in morgue -- Daubigny -- Decamps -- Delacroix -- Diaz -- Doré -- Gustav Doré -- A.B. Durand -- Felix O.C. Darley in morgue -- Williams Elliott -- Sir Charles Eastlake -- J.O. Eaton in morgue -- T. Faed -- Thos. Fenimore -- Fichel -- Flandrin -- Robt Fleury -- Fracissina -- Freeman -- Pierre Edouard Frere -- Th Frere -- Wm P. Frith -- Louis Gallait -- J.L. Gerome -- J. Gilbert -- Girardet -- F. Goodall -- Rene Goubie -- Carl Haag -- James Hamilton -- Hamon -- I.D. Harding -- Joel Hart -- Wm Hazeltine -- G.P.A. Healy -- Leon Hermann -- J.C. Horsley -- Miss Hosmer -- Hoquet -- Holman Hunt -- Daniel Huntington -- Ingres -- George Inman -- John O'B. Inman -- Isabey -- Ives -- David Johnson in morgue -- Kaulback -- Kinsett - Knaus -- Daniel R. Knight -- George Lance -- Sir E. Landseer -- La Farge? -- Lavoie -- John Leech -- Lessing or Lossing -- E. Leutze -- Le Clear in morgue -- D. Maclise -- E. Meissionier -- L. Mignot -- Millais -- Montalant -- Edward Moran -- S.F.B. Morse -- Wm S. Mount -- Moyer -- C.L. Muller -- Mulready -- McDonald in morgue -- Thomas Moran in morgue -- Mary Nimmo Moran in morgue -- Edward Moran in morgue -- Norton -- J.C. Nichel in morgue -- Overbeck -- Page -- Palmer -- "Pawn Shops" by Waugh -- Rembrandt Peale -- George Platt -- Hiram Powers -- W.H. Powell in morgue -- Thos. B. Read -- Mrs Richards? -- F. DeBerg Richards -- Wm T. Richards -- Gustave Richter -- Rinehart -- D. Roberts -- Rogers -- P. Roth? -- Peter F. Rothermel -- Rousseau -- Ruskin -- Christian Schussele -- E. Signol -- Simmons -- Russell Smith -- Miss E. Stebbins -- Alfred Stevens -- Joseph Stevens -- Story -- Thomas Sully -- Tissot -- Constantine Tryon -- Unknown -- Horace Vernet -- Verbekhoven -- Vernier -- Vibert -- Samuel B. Waugh -- Waugh's "The Pawn Shop" -- Paul Weber -- Philip Weber? -- F.C. Welch -- Worthington Whittredge -- F. Williams -- Winterhalten -- Arnold Wittkamp -- Abraham Woodside -- Zamacois -- Ziem
A collection of 176 cartes de visite or photographic portraits of various American, British, and European artists active during the second half of the 19th century, assembled by an unidentified previous owner and housed in a commercially-produced blank album. The photographs originate from a number of different photography studios, including Bayard & Bertall, Bingham, Matthew Brady, Carjat & Cie., H.G. DeBurlo, Disdéri, Franck, F. Joubert, McLean & Co., Mayer & Pierson, Ernst Milster, Nadar, Pierre Petit, Ch. Reutlinger, Richards, and others.
Visiting cards
Carte de visite photographs
Call number:
N40 .P57
N40 .P57 1856
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Collections from Exploring Expeditions, 1875

Birnie, Rogers
Dutton, Clarence E (Clarence Edward) 1841-1912
Gilbert, Grove Karl 1843-1918
Hayden, F. V (Ferdinand Vandeveer) 1829-1887
Lockwood, George M
Marshall, William L
Ord, Edward Otho Cresap 1818-1883
Powell, John Wesley 1834-1902
Rothrock, Joseph T. 1839-1922
Thompson, A. H (Almon Harris) 1839-1906
Wheeler, George M (George Montague) 1842-1905
Whipple, C. W
White, Charles A (Charles Abiathar) 1826-1910
Yarrow, H. C (Harry Crécy) 1840-1929
United States National Museum
United States
Chronology of Smithsonian History
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1875, p. 51-57
During 1875, specimens for the collections of the National Museum are obtained from explorations of the west by Hayden, Powell, Thompson, Gilbert, Dutton, White, Wheeler, Marshall, Lockwood, Birnie, Whipple, Yarrow, Rothrock, Ord, and others.
Contact information:
Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520,
National Collections
Scientific expeditions
Territorial expansion
Discovery and exploration
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div

The conservation status of the world’s reptiles

Fallabrino, Alejandro
Lawson, Dwight
Measey, G. J.
La Marca, Enrique
Garcia, Miguel A.
Hilton-Taylor, Craig
Stuart, Simon N.
Jose, Reizl
Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando
Raxworthy, Chris
Carreira, Santiago
Rhodin, Anders G. J.
Papenfuss, Theodore
Shi, Hai-Tao
Keogh, J. S.
Auliya, Mark
Ram, Mala
Nguyen, Truong Q.
Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes
Slimani, Tahar
Sadek, Riyad
Flores-Villela, Oscar
Dorcas, Michael E.
Mayer, Gregory
Pianka, Eric R.
Ineich, Ivan
Magnusson, William E.
Dodd Jr., C. Kenneth
Radder, Raju
Rasmussen, Arne R.
Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi
Broadley, Don
Diesmos, Arvin C.
Macey, Robert
Das, Indraneil
Livingstone, Suzanne R.
Cisneros-Heredia, Diego
Couper, Patrick J.
Anderson, Steve
Pleguezuelos, Juan
Gaulke, Maren
Chanson, Janice
Gadsden, Hector
Mathew, Rosamma
Pupin, Fabio
Lane, Amanda
Marques, Otavio A. V.
Courtney, Tony
Doan, Tiffany M.
Schleich, Hermann H.
Maritz, Bryan
Cruz, Felix
Bowles, Philip
Daniels, R. J. R.
Latta, Gabrielle
Lipczynski, Nicola
Batistella, Alexandre
Burgess, Joseph
Catenazzi, Alessandro
Zug, George R.
Ross, James P.
Brown, Rafe
Cox, Neil
Iverson, John
Austin, Christopher C.
Gower, David J.
Basu, Dhruvayothi
Gamble, Tony
Rödel, Mark-Oliver
Dirksen, Lutz
Lymberakis, Petros
Crother, Brian
Mathews, Nixon
Lau, Michael
Ota, Hidetoshi
Young, Bruce E.
Sindaco, Roberto
Gatus, Joey
Grant, Tandora
Roosenburg, Willem M.
Vogt, Richard C.
Lavin, Pablo
Kwet, Axel
Montgomery, Chad
Doody, J. S.
Fitzgerald, Lee
Kaska, Yakup
Castro, Fernando
Mott, Tami
Nogueira, Cristiano
Martins, Marcio
Hare, Kelly
Luiselli, Luca
van Dijk, Peter Paul
Richman, Nadia
LeBreton, Matthew
Bennett, Daniel
Hedges, S. B.
Jenkins, Richard
Passos, Paulo
Feng, Xie
Malhotra, Anita
Mateo, José A.
Hamilton, Alison M.
Sanders, Kate
Vences, Miguel
Schmitz, Andreas
Barreto-Lima, Andr
Geniez, Philippe
Ajtic, Rastko
Shine, Richard
Embert, Dirk
Captain, Ashok
de Silva, Anslem
Collen, Ben
Alencar, Laura R. V.
Mariaux, Jean
Egan, Vincent T.
Frost, Darrell
Cheylan, Marc
Bauer, Aaron
Chapple, David G.
Baillie, Jonathan E. M.
Afuang, Leticia E.
Orlov, Nikolai
Lardner, Bjorn
Sharifi, Mozafar
Rivas, Gilson
Schmidt, Benedikt R.
Limpus, Duncan
Goldberg, Stephen
Guo, Peng
Hoffmann, Michael
Pauwels, Olivier S. G.
Murphy, John
Böhm, Monika
Avci, Aziz
Powell, Robert
Hollingsworth, Bradford
Mahler, D. L.
Gonzalez, Juan-Carlos T.
Barrio-Amorós, César L.
Jaksic, Fabian M.
Allison, Allen
Costa, Gabriel C.
Greenbaum, Eli
Pasachnik, Stesha
Joger, Ulrich
Georges, Arthur
Pollock, Caroline
Baker, Patrick J.
Lehr, Edgar
Daltry, Jennifer C.
Ramer, Jan
Cogalniceanu, Dan
Heideman, Neil
Hammerson, Geoffrey
Temple, Helen J.
Tognelli, Marcelo F.
Whiting, Martin J.
Somaweera, Ruchira
Wilson, Byron
Zhou, Kaiya
Van Sluys, Monique
Vogel, Gernot
Wren, Sally
Tuniyev, Sako
Spawls, Steve
Stafford, Peter
Vinke, Sabine
Kaya, Ug
Tolson, Peter J.
Kumlutas, Yusuf
van Buurt, Gerard
Velasco, Alvaro
Zamin, Tara
Stuebing, Rob
Wiewandt, Thomas
Vinke, Thomas
Werner, Yehudah L.
Sy, Emerson
Tuniyev, Boris
Wilkinson, John
Vogrin, Milan
Tolley, Krystal
Sweet, Sam
Wearn, Oliver R.
Aguilar, Cé
Andrén, Claes
Ariano-Sánchez, Daniel
Böhme, Wolfgang
Castañeda, Maria,del Rosario
Cedeño-Vázquez, José R.
Crochet, Pierre-André
França, Frederico G. R.
García, Andrés
García-Pérez, Juan E.
Köhler, Gunther
López-Luna, Marco A.
Márquez, Rafael
Métrailler, Sébastien
Morato, Sé
Muñoz-Alonso, Antonio
Nilson, Gö
Núñez, Herman
Ottenwalder, José
Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor
Pérez-Mellado, Valentín
Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E.
Üzüm, Nazan
Veselý, Milan
Milton, David A.
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka
Hutchinson, Mark
Corti, Claudia
Lobo, Aaron S.
Mccranie, James R.
Menegon, Michele
Santos-Barrera, Georgina
El Mouden, El Hassan
Riservato, Elisa
Hitchmough, Rod
Ananjeva, Natalia
Arredondo, Juan Camilo
Duarte de, Barros Filho
Lundberg, Mikael
Feng, Zhao-Jun
Bates, Michael F.
Reynolds, Robert
Espinoza, Robert E.
Rico, Edmund L.
da Rocha, Pedro L. B.
Akarsu, Ferdi
Ganesh, S. R.
Cogger, Hal
Latta, Craig
Shea, Glenn
Aghasyan, Aram
Ponce-Campos, Paulino
Kuchling, Gerald
Grieco, Cristina
Lamar, William
Gerlach, Justin
Masterson, Gavin
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles.
Böhm, Monika, Collen, Ben, Baillie, Jonathan E. M., Bowles, Philip, Chanson, Janice, Cox, Neil, Hammerson, Geoffrey, Hoffmann, Michael, Livingstone, Suzanne R., Ram, Mala, Rhodin, Anders G. J., Stuart, Simon N., van Dijk, Peter Paul, Young, Bruce E., Afuang, Leticia E., Aghasyan, Aram, García, Andrés, Aguilar, Cé, Ajtic, Rastko, Akarsu, Ferdi, Alencar, Laura R. V., Allison, Allen, Ananjeva, Natalia, Anderson, Steve, Andrén, Claes, et al. 2013. The conservation status of the world’s reptiles. Biological Conservation, 157: 372-385. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015
Natural History
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Smithsonian Libraries

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