The affordable housing reader / edited by J. Rosie Tighe And Elizabeth J. Mueller
Tighe, J. Rosie
Mueller, Elizabeth J
xxiii, 565 pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm
Part 1: Conflicting motivations for housing policy in the U.S. -- Introduction to part one -- "How the other half lives" / Jacob Riis -- "The lost history of urban renewal" / Alexander von Hoffman -- "Introduction and summary" / The President's Committee on Urban Housing, Chairman Edgar F. Kaiser -- "Housing policy and the myth of the benevolent state" / Peter Marcuse -- "The reluctant hand: privatization of public housing in the U.S." / Norman Krumholz -- "Why a right to housing is needed and makes sense: editors' introduction" / Rachel G. Bratt, Michael E. Stone and Chester Hartman -- Part 2: Competing definitions of housing problems -- Introduction to part two -- 'The concept of housing affordability: six contemporary uses of the housing expenditure-to-income ratio' / J. David Hulchanski -- "What is housing affordability? The case for the residual income approach" / Michael E. Stone -- "How do we know when housing is 'affordable'?" / Edward L. Glaeser and Joseph Gyuorko -- "Counterpoint: the 'housing + transportation index' and fair housing" / Philip Tegeler and Scott Bernstein -- "Remedial phase report of john powell in Thompson v. HUD August 19, 2005" / john a. powell -- Part 3: Conflicting views of low income homeownership -- Introduction to part three -- "The grapes of rent: a history of renting in a country of owners" / Donald A. Krueckeberg -- "Low income homeownership: American dream or delusion?" / Anne B. Shlay -- "More than money: what is shared in shared equity homeownership?" / John Emmeus Eavis -- "The social benefits and costs of homeownership: a critical assessment of the research" / William M. Rohe, Shannon van Zandt, and George McCarthy -- "High risk lending and public policy: 1995-2008" / Dan Immergluck
Part 4: Shifting emphases in the provision of affordable housing -- Introduction to part four -- "The evolution of low-income housing policy, 1949 to 1999" / Charles J. Orlebeke -- "Federal policy and the rise of nonprofit housing providers" / Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley -- "The low-income housing tax credit as an aid to finance: How well has it worked?" / Kirk McClure -- "Strengths and weaknesses of the housing voucher program" / Margery Austin Turner -- "Federally-assisted housing: privatization vs. preservation" / Emily Paradise Achtenberg -- Part 5: Competing goals: place as community or opportunity? -- Introduction to part five -- "Federal support for CDCs: some of the history and issues of community control" / Stewart E. Perry -- "Neoliberal urban policy and new paths of neighborhood change in the American inner city" / Kathe Newman and Philip Ashton -- "Housing dispersal programs" / Edward G. Goetz -- "Has HOPE VI transformed residents' lives? New evidence from the HOPE VI panel study" / Susan J. Popkin, Diane K. Levy, and Larry Buron -- "Is mixed-income development an antidote to urban poverty?" / Mark L. Joseph -- Reconciling people and place in housing and community development policy / Nestor M. Davidson -- Part 6: The relationship between land use regulations and housing choices -- Introduction to part six -- "Regulations and housing development: what we know" / Michael H. Schill -- "Local land use regulation and the chain of exclusion" / Rolf Pendall -- "Housing market effects of inclusionary zoning" / Antonio Bento, Scott Lowe, Gerrit-Jan Knaap and Arnab Chakraborty -- "Growth management and affordable housing policy" / Arthur C. Nelson and Susan M. Wachter -- "Neighborhood change and transit: what we learned" / Stephanie Pollack, Barry Bluestone, and Chase Billingham -- Part 7: Housing and race: enduring challenges, debated strategies -- Introduction to part seven -- "By words and deeds: racial steering by real estate agents in the U.S. in 2000" / George Galster and Erin Godfrey -- "The dynamics of racial residential segregation" / Camille Zubrinsky Charles -- "Fair housing and community development: time to come together" / Elizabeth K. Julian -- The future of fair housing / National Commission on Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity
Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers, [ca. 1880-1946]
Archambault, Anna Margaretta, 1856-1956
Place of publication, production, or execution:
2 partial microfilm reels.
Access Note / Rights:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Correspondence and papers relating primarily to Archambault's work in miniatures. Omitted from microfilming are photographs of Archambault's sitters and models.
Correspondents include: W. Osler Abbott, M.D., Yarnall Abbott, Wayman Adams, A. J. Arnold, the Arts Club of Washington, D.C., Emily H. Bache, William Jacob Baer, W. Pope Barney, Katherine Carter Barrows, Julia H. Bartholomew, Alice C. Bartram, Walter Emerson Baum, Martha Wheeler Baxter, Eulabee Dix Becker, B. Bennet-Alder, Edward Biddle, Gertrude Bosler Biddle, James Biddle, Nicholas Biddle, Winthrop L. Biddle, Sally Cross Bill, Horace Binney, John S. Bioren, Ellen M. Bishop, Clarence Wyatt Bispham, Edwin H. Blashfield, Mrs. W. S. Blight, Johanna Magdelene Boericke, Henry Harrick Bond, E. Boner, Elizabeth Fearne Bonsall, Mary Waterman Bonsall, Katharine K. Borda, Alexander Bower, Ralph L. Boyer, Hugh H. Breckenridge, Edith W. Bridy, R. S. Brock, Emily Hall Brown, Ella Shepard Bush, Margaret Lesley Bush-Brown, Alfreda F. Butler, Joseph G. Butler, Jr., Mary Butler, Sophia Cadwalader, Alexander S. Calder, Alexander M. Calder, James Campbell, Emma Ratcliffe Caperton, Horace T. Carpenter, Henry Sparks Cattell, Orville T. Chamberlain, William M. Chase, Elizabeth Wiltbank Clark, Mary M. Clawson, Katherine M. Cohen, Calvin Coolidge, Dr. Cooper, Emma Lampert Cooper, Dorothea Coulomb, Elizabeth K. Coyne, James Craig, Thomas Bigelow Craig, Edith I. Crary,
Colonel A. C. Cron, Nina Nash Cron, Mrs. Cunningham, J. E. B. Cunningham, Charles Edmund Dana, Thomas B. Davies, George Walter Dawson, Blanche Dillaye, Eulabee Dix, ? Drayton, Abby Dreer, Mary S. Drexel, John J. Dull, Alice Belin Du Pont, Pierre Samuel Du Pont, Helen Winslow Durkee, H. M. Eberhard, Jacob Eichholtz, Elizabeth Shippen Elliott, Hannah Elliott, Margaret Ellwarger, Edith Emerson, Lydia F. Emmet, Margaret Evans, Ludwig E. Faber, Fairmount Park Art Association, William H. Falkner, Brigitta Moran Farmer, Katherine Levin Farrell, Lillian Wood Febiger, Mark Fenderson, Mantle Fielding, Riter Fitzgerald, Samuel S. Fleisher, Charlotte Fowler, W. H. Fox, Benjamin Franklin, John Frazer, Florence W. Fulton, Caroline M. Fryberger, John P. Garber, Horatio Gates, George Gibbs, William Wallace Gilchrist, Jr., Pemberton Ginther, John H. Ginvin, George W. Goethals, Charles A. Grafly, Frederick C. Gruber, Benjamin Barton Gumpert, Walter C. Hager, William Maclay Hall, Esq., Samuel Hambleton, Ralph T. Hanson, Florence Kling Harding, George Harding, Warren G. Harding, Laura Harlan, Evelyn Shaylor Harmon, Marian Dunlap Harper, Alexandrina Robertson Harris, Lowell Birge Harrison, Thomas Alexander Harrison, Charles Henry Hart, John F. Haskins,
Malthe M. Hasselriis, Cecelia Haupt, Charles E. Haupt, Herman Haupt, Lewis Muhlenberg Haupt, Mary E. Haupt, Paul Haupt, Margaret Foote Hawley, J. Carroll Hayes, John Russell Hayes, Lillian D. Heinsohn, Helen W. Henderson, Robert Henri, George W. Hewitt, Luther E. Hewitt, Mary Baer Hiester, Michael Hillegas, Laura Coombs Hills, Paula B. Himmelsbach, Robert H. Hinckley, Edward Ellsworth Hipsher, William S. Hoerner, W. J. Holland, Louisa Homberg, George Horst, Robert Norman Hudspeth, Romilly F. Humphries, Anna Warren Ingersoll, Henry Inman, Helsey C. Ives, Annie Hulbert Jackson, Harry L. Johnson, Ella Bond Johnston, John W. Jordan, Isaac A. Josephi, Susette S. Kedst, Margaret Kendall, William Sergeant Kendall, Mr. Kevorkian, Fiske Kimball, Anna Belle Wing Kindlund, Jeannette Klauder, Mrs. Edward C. Knight, Herman Frederick Krafft, Ebba V. Krebs, Laura D. Stroud Ladd, Mary Laird, John Lambert, William L. Lathrop, Charlotte A. Lea, Henry F. Lee, Harry Leith-Ross, Charles G. Leland, Robert W. Lesley, Lucie Holt Le Son, Edmond L. Levy, John F. Lewis, Francis O. Libby, Robert M. Lindsay, Gertrude L. Little, Mary Wingate Lloyd, A. J. Loos, Stephen B. Luce, Anna Lynch, Nicolas S. Macsoud, Henri Marceau, John Marshall, Samuel W. McCall, Henry McCarter, Judge McCarthy, Mary McClellan, Florence M. McIntyre,
Robert Tait McKenzie, Mary McMillan, Ruth Dwight McVitty, Bessie L. Meade, Lelia Mechlin, Lillian B. Meeser, Andrew W. Mellon, Anna Lea Merritt, Cora E. Miller, Leslie William Miller, Francis Davis Millet, M. Reed Minnich, Laura M. D. Mitchell, Sara P. Snowden Mitchell, J. Hampton Moore, Laura Mordecai, Alice Morgan, Edward Morrell, Robert Morris, John Ludlow Morton, Stanley Muschamp, John Neagle, Claud P. Newell, Annie Nicholls, Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, George E. Nitzsche, William S. Nortenheim, Charlotte Luce Noyes, Imogen Brashear Oakley, Thornton Oakley, Violet Oakley, Charles A. Oliver, Anna W. Olmsted, George L. Omwake, Mary Louise Shook Osborne, Harlan Page, Mary Crozer Page, Lydia Parrish, Elsie Dodge Pattee, Elizabeth R. Pennell, J. H. Penniman, Pennsylvania School of Miniature Painting, Pennsylvania Society of Miniature Painters, Pennsylvania University Cultural Olympics Gallery, K. W. Penrose, Augusta H. Peoples, Bertha E. Perrie, Harriet Felton Peters, Philadelphia City History Society, Philadelphia the Commercial Museum, Philadelphia Public Art School, Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Frederic Poole, D. T. Pratt, George R. Prowell, Evelyn Purdie, Edward Willis Redfield, Anne Reilly, John A. Richardson, Helen P. Robinson, J. G. Rosengarten, Albert Rosenthal, J. T. Rothrock,
Homer Saint-Gaudens, San Francisco, Panama-Pacific International Exhibition, 1915, Elizabeth de Santa Eulalia, Emily Sartain, Harriet Sartain, Frank R. Savidge, Edith Sawyer, Henry Lyman Sayen, William A. Schaeffer, Julia E. Schelling, Walter E. Schofield, Alice T. Searle, Anne Douglas Sedgwick, Helen Merrick Semple, Sarah Sergeant, Helen Sharpe, Matilda Hast Shelton, Annie W. S. Siebert, Edna H. Simpson, Caroline Sinkler, John Ray Sinnock, A. W. Skibinsky, James L. Slayden, Marianna Sloan, M. E. Smedley, Edgar F. Smith, Georgine Wetherell Smith, Maude H. Smith, Walter H. Smith, William Jones Smith, William Rudolph Smith, Louise H. Snowden, William C. Sproul, St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904, William H. Staake, Lucy M. Stanton, John B. Stetson, Jr., Louise Stockton, William S. Stockton, Virginia H. Stout, ? Strachey, Maria Judson Strean, Thomas Sully, Frederick Summerhill, Berth Swindell, William H. Taft, Mary H. Tannahill, Emily H. D. Taylor, Frank W. Taylor, Helen I. Taylor, Theodora W. Thayer, Adile Biddle Thomas, George B. Thomas, Henry J. Thouron, Douglas Tilden, Ruel P. Tolman, James B. Townsend, John E. D. Trask, Benjamin Trott, Rachel Bulley Trump, Sarah A. Turle, Helen M. Turner, Charles J. Turrell, U. S. Naval Academy Museum, Moses Veale, Samuel B. Vrooman, J. S. Waln, John Wanamaker,
Edward Warwick, Booker T. Washington, Elizabeth Fisher Washington, Marjorie Watmough, Harvey M. Watts, E. A. Weaver, Mabel R. Welch, Samuel P. Wetherill, Candace Wheeler, Janet D. Wheeler, H. C. Whipple, Bishop White, W. G. White, William John Wittemore, Charles F. Wignall, Joseph Willcox, Henry Willet, Alyn Williams, Francis Howard Williams, Mary Rhoads Garrett Williams, Talcott Williams, George Charles Williamson, Sydney E. Wilson, William Powell Wilson, William E. Winner, Frances A. Wister, Jones Wister, Mary C. Wood, J. E. Woodbridge, Charles H. Woodbury, Joseph W. Woods, David H. Wright, Henriette Wyeth, and Elinor Carr Zimmerman.
Anna Margaretta Archambault selected papers, [ca. 1880-1946]. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Microfilm reels P26 (347-) & P27 (1-461) available for use at Archives of American Art offices and through interlibrary loan.
Location of Originals:
Originals in: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Anna Margaretta Archambault papers.
Portrait and minature painter, author, educator; Philadelphia, Pa.
Microfilmed by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for the Archives of American Art, 1955. Donated to the HSP by Anna Archambault, 1933-1946.
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 750 9th St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20001
Armstrong Manual Training School, built in 1902, was authorized by congress as a vocational high school for African American youth in Washington, DC. The school was named for Samuel C. Armstrong (1839-1893), a white commander of an African American Civil War regiment and founder of Hampton Institute, now University. Designed by local architect Waddy B. Wood, the Renaissance Revival building provided carpentry, machine, foundry, and blacksmith workshops. In addition, the school taught chemistry and physics. Dr. Wilson Bruce Evans, the father of performing artist Lillian Evans Tibbs, served as founding principal. Duke Ellington, William "Billy" Eckstein, and John Malachi are among a host of Armstrong graduates who became prominent in their profession. In 1996 the school was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in the District of Columbia.
Evans-Tibbs collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of the Estate of Thurlow E. Tibbs, Jr
Army Medical Museum records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution 1868-1897
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
Adams, William W
Atkins, Francis H
Artes, Charles F
Baird, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887
Bean, Tarleton H (Tarleton Hoffman) 1846-1916
Beauchamp, William Martin 1830-1925
Beckwith, Paul E
Bell, William 1830-1910
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Bower, Isaac M
Brown, Paul R
Byrne, Charles B
Catlin, George 1796-1872
Cheney, J. Edward
Cochran, John J
Coles, Thomas Mrs
Collins, William A
Cooper, J. G (James Graham) 1830-1902
Corbusier, William Henry 1844-1930
Dall, William Healey 1845-1927
Daniel, Z. T
De Corse, J.S
De Hass, Wills
Dodge, Richard I
Drindard, William B
Earle, Frank S
Girard, J. Basil
Gould, J. Loomis
Hayden, F. V (Ferdinand Vandeveer) 1829-1887
Hayes, Isaac I
Henry, Joseph 1797-1878
Henshaw, Henry W
Hopkins, George N
Jones, William H
Keay, John T
Kimball, James P
Lever, Edward A
Logan, Thomas M
Lyon, Sydney S
Lyon, William B
McKee, J. Cooper
McLean, John J
Metz, Charld L
Middleton, J. D
Minor, Thomas T
Moore, Clarence B (Clarence Bloomfield) 1852-1936
Moran, George H
Nash, Thomas H
Nelson, Edward William 1855-1934
Norris, Philetus W (Philetus Walter) 1821-1885
Notson, William N
Palmer, Edward 1831-1911
Peet, S. D
Perley, Harry O
Pocock, Eli D
Porter, Joseph Y
Powell, John Wesley Major
Price, Marshall F
Alaska Commercial Company
American Geographical Society
Reagles, J Jr
Reid, James H
Richardson, Samuel W
Rose, George F
Russell, James Townsend
Shufeldt, Robert W (Robert Wilson) 1850-1934
Schumacher, Paul J. F
Severance, Mark S
Smoot, Samuel C
Snively, David S
Squier, Edward George
Suckley, George 1830-1869
Swan, James Gilchrist
Turner, Lucien McShan
Van Duyn, William B
Walker, S. T
Wallace, Catharine P
Walters, Fred G
Warren, G. K
Weed, James F
Whipple, Amiel Weeks Lieutenant, U. S. Army
William, Robert E
Yarrow, H. C (Harry Crécy) 1840-1929
Yates, Lorenzo Gordin
University of Basel
Transit of Venus Expedition 1874-1875
United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842)
4.33 linear feet
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM; now the National Museum of Health and Medicine of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) was established by the Surgeon General in 1862 during the course of the Civil War. Its initial focus was on specimens of morbid pathology mainly derived from victims of the war, but as the museum developed, its purpose expanded and around 1864 it was organized into surgical, photographic, medical, and microscopic sections. In 1867, it reorganized into medical, microscopical, anatomical, comparative anatomical, and miscellaneous sections.
Of particular interest here is the anatomical section, for to it were assigned specimens of normal human anatomy, including a growing collection comprised mainly of human skulls but also including other normal human bone specimens. Most of the antomical specimens were remains of American Indians but also included were remains of people of European and African descent as well as those from populations of Asia and Ocenia. The purpose of the collection was anthropological research.
The collection grew as the result of a Circular No. 2 issued in 1867 by the Surgeon General. It called upon military medical officers to collect crania together with specimens of Indian weapons, dress, implements, diet, and medicines. More immediately, however, the collection was developed from arrangements with the Smithsonian Institution by which the Smithsonian transferred its collection of human remains that had begun in the early 1850s. The Smithsonian also agreed to transfer such specimens as it would obtain the future. In return, the AMM agreed similarly to transfer to the Smithsonian artifactual and other ethnological specimens that came into its possession.
Among specimens acquired by the AMM under the terms of this agreement were items collected by the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (also known as the Wilkes Expedition). Other official expeditions that contributed specimens were those of Ferdinand V. Hayden (including the United States Geological Survey of the Territories), George M. Wheeler's United States Army Geographical Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, and John Wesley Powell's Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. Also going to the AMM were specimens acquired by the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, including the many specimens of human remains recovered by its large-scale survey of mounds east of the Rocky Mountains. Individual mound explorers, army personnel, medical officers, and private physicians contributed to the collection through donations to the Smithsonian or through direct gifts to the AMM.
Although several early AMM staff members--including George A. Otis, Washington Matthews, and Daniel S. Lamb--were relatively active in research on the anthropological collections, later curators had but little interest in it. Consequently, by the late 1890s, the collection was virutally unused. In 1897, William Henry Holmes, the head curator of the newly formed Department of Anthropology in the Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum (USNM), noticed the collection during a visit to the AMM. He informally requested transfer of the specimens--especially the American Indian skulls that had come to form the bulk--to the USNM, and officials at the AMM, eager to devote space to active collections, agreed. This arrangement was formally proposed and approved through exchanges of letters between the Surgeon General and the Secretary of the Smithsonian; and, in May 1898, 2206 skulls were transferred to the Smithsonian.
imperialistic expansion abraod, and questions about race and mixtures of races scientifically current, he argued the utility of physical studies of the American people. As a result of his efforts, Ales Hrdlicka, a physician and physical anthropologist, was appointed a curator in the USNM in 1903. Following Hrdlicka's appointment, a second major transfer of bone materials from the AMM was arranged. This time some 674 items, including articulated skeletons, pelves, brains, and physical anthropological instruments, were involved. This second transfer of specimens was made in January, 1904.
With such a collection in hand, Holmes pursued a cherished plan to establish a division of physical anthropology in his department. With the great wave of immigration to America,
Includes letters, lists, endorsements.
The records consist mainly of memoranda prepared by the AMM staff and letters and notes which documents the specimens. There are also invoices, lists, labels, and printed items. Indexed are names of correspondent, collectors, and donors.
United States Army Medical Museum, Records concerning skeletal material transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Number of Images: 149; Color: Color; Size: 10w x 12h; Type of Image: Book; Medium: Paper
1850s - 1870s
Historic Images of the Smithsonian
Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), ornithologist, was the first director of the United States National Museum (USNM) and second Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1878-1887).
A book filled with lists of the names of correspondents interleaved with atlas pages. The names are broken up geographically and were correspondents of Spencer F. Baird, second Smithsonian Secretary. Many of the correspondents listed in the book collected and donated natural history specimens to the Smithsonian.
Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, 1874-1978, bulk 1920-1970
Bladensburg Union Burial Association
Plummer, Henry Vinton 1844-1905
Plummer, Nellie Arnold 1860-ca. 1920
Bladensburg Union Burial Association
3.64 linear feet (4 boxes)
In 1870 in Bladensburg, Maryland, undertaker Francis Gasch refused to conduct a burial because the family of the deceased could not afford to pay the exorbitant cost of the funeral. At the time, this plight was quite common for newly freed African Americans. Recognizing the need for action, Henry Vinton Plummer, pastor of the St. Paul Baptist Church in Bladensburg, intervened on the behalf of the family and assumed financial responsibility for the burial. Thereafter, in an effort to empower the community to establish their own resources, Vinton called a meeting in June, 1870, where he proposed the establishment of a society which would ensure its members a proper funeral through the collection of membership dues. The society, which was christened the Bladensburg Burying Association, eventually became the Bladensburg Union Burial Association and served several generations of members in the Bladensburg area.
The collection, which dates from 1874 to 1978 and measures 3.64 linear feet, documents the history of the Bladensburg Union Burial Association. The records include the Association's constitution, by-laws, treasurer reports, receipts, and correspondence.
The Bladensburg Union Burial Association records, Anacostia Community Museum, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Reverend L. Jerome Fowler
Cartes de visite portraits of nineteenth century artists [graphic]
William S. & Alfred Martien (Firm)
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.) DSI
1 album (176 cartes de visite photographic prints) : ports. ; 25 cm
Between 1856 and 1880?
Title devised by cataloger.
Added title transcribed from gilt- and black-printed t.p., which reads: Photograph album, Philadelphia, Wm. S. & A. Martien. The publishing house of Wm. S. & A. Martien was active between 1856 and 1864, although some of the portraits may date from either before or after that period.
An index (handwritten on forms printed in gold,  leaves) is inserted at the front of the volume, following the title leaf. Most of the photographs also have handwritten captions.
The title and index leaves have decorative borders.
The album leaves have four double-sided rounded rectangular openings, each measuring 8 x 5 cm., cut into laminated sheets of paperboard, with triple gilt borders printed around each opening.
Some brief newsclippings (obituaries) and biographical citations about the subjects are tipped- or laid-in.
(from index) Edwin A. Abbey -- Oswald Achenbach -- R. Ansdell -- Baker -- E. Ball -- Jacob Barker -- F. Barrias -- Carl Becker -- E. Bellange -- L. Belly -- Bida -- C.F. Blauvelt -- Aug. Bonheur -- Rosa Bonheur -- Gustav Boulanger -- Bonnat -- I. Breton -- H. Bishing in morgue -- Cabanel -- Calame -- Compt Calix -- Frederick Church -- Leon Cogniet -- Coleman -- H. Collingwood -- F. Sidney Cooper -- F. Corbould -- Corot -- Coudon -- Samuel Cousins -- Couture -- Crukshanks -- F.B. Carpenter in morgue -- Daubigny -- Decamps -- Delacroix -- Diaz -- Doré -- Gustav Doré -- A.B. Durand -- Felix O.C. Darley in morgue -- Williams Elliott -- Sir Charles Eastlake -- J.O. Eaton in morgue -- T. Faed -- Thos. Fenimore -- Fichel -- Flandrin -- Robt Fleury -- Fracissina -- Freeman -- Pierre Edouard Frere -- Th Frere -- Wm P. Frith -- Louis Gallait -- J.L. Gerome -- J. Gilbert -- Girardet -- F. Goodall -- Rene Goubie -- Carl Haag -- James Hamilton -- Hamon -- I.D. Harding -- Joel Hart -- Wm Hazeltine -- G.P.A. Healy -- Leon Hermann -- J.C. Horsley -- Miss Hosmer -- Hoquet -- Holman Hunt -- Daniel Huntington -- Ingres -- George Inman -- John O'B. Inman -- Isabey -- Ives -- David Johnson in morgue -- Kaulback -- Kinsett - Knaus -- Daniel R. Knight -- George Lance -- Sir E. Landseer -- La Farge? -- Lavoie -- John Leech -- Lessing or Lossing -- E. Leutze -- Le Clear in morgue -- D. Maclise -- E. Meissionier -- L. Mignot -- Millais -- Montalant -- Edward Moran -- S.F.B. Morse -- Wm S. Mount -- Moyer -- C.L. Muller -- Mulready -- McDonald in morgue -- Thomas Moran in morgue -- Mary Nimmo Moran in morgue -- Edward Moran in morgue -- Norton -- J.C. Nichel in morgue -- Overbeck -- Page -- Palmer -- "Pawn Shops" by Waugh -- Rembrandt Peale -- George Platt -- Hiram Powers -- W.H. Powell in morgue -- Thos. B. Read -- Mrs Richards? -- F. DeBerg Richards -- Wm T. Richards -- Gustave Richter -- Rinehart -- D. Roberts -- Rogers -- P. Roth? -- Peter F. Rothermel -- Rousseau -- Ruskin -- Christian Schussele -- E. Signol -- Simmons -- Russell Smith -- Miss E. Stebbins -- Alfred Stevens -- Joseph Stevens -- Story -- Thomas Sully -- Tissot -- Constantine Tryon -- Unknown -- Horace Vernet -- Verbekhoven -- Vernier -- Vibert -- Samuel B. Waugh -- Waugh's "The Pawn Shop" -- Paul Weber -- Philip Weber? -- F.C. Welch -- Worthington Whittredge -- F. Williams -- Winterhalten -- Arnold Wittkamp -- Abraham Woodside -- Zamacois -- Ziem
A collection of 176 cartes de visite or photographic portraits of various American, British, and European artists active during the second half of the 19th century, assembled by an unidentified previous owner and housed in a commercially-produced blank album. The photographs originate from a number of different photography studios, including Bayard & Bertall, Bingham, Matthew Brady, Carjat & Cie., H.G. DeBurlo, Disdéri, Franck, F. Joubert, McLean & Co., Mayer & Pierson, Ernst Milster, Nadar, Pierre Petit, Ch. Reutlinger, Richards, and others.
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1875, p. 51-57
During 1875, specimens for the collections of the National Museum are obtained from explorations of the west by Hayden, Powell, Thompson, Gilbert, Dutton, White, Wheeler, Marshall, Lockwood, Birnie, Whipple, Yarrow, Rothrock, Ord, and others.
Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles.
Böhm, Monika, Collen, Ben, Baillie, Jonathan E. M., Bowles, Philip, Chanson, Janice, Cox, Neil, Hammerson, Geoffrey, Hoffmann, Michael, Livingstone, Suzanne R., Ram, Mala, Rhodin, Anders G. J., Stuart, Simon N., van Dijk, Peter Paul, Young, Bruce E., Afuang, Leticia E., Aghasyan, Aram, García, Andrés, Aguilar, Cé, Ajtic, Rastko, Akarsu, Ferdi, Alencar, Laura R. V., Allison, Allen, Ananjeva, Natalia, Anderson, Steve, Andrén, Claes, et al. 2013. The conservation status of the world’s reptiles. Biological Conservation, 157: 372-385. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015