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Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 1 Personal Computer

Maker:
Tandy Corporation
Physical Description:
manufactured (overall production method/technique)
plastic (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 in x 29 in x 24 in; 22.86 cm x 73.66 cm x 60.96 cm
Object Name:
microcomputer
Place made:
United States: Texas, Fort Worth
Date made:
1977-1981
Description:
In the early 1970s, most personal computers came as hobbyist kits requiring a high level of technical expertise to assemble. Don French, a buyer for the consumer electronics chain Tandy Radio Shack (TRS), believed that Radio Shack should offer an assembled personal computer and hired engineer Steve Leininger to design it. In the summer of 1977, Radio Shack introduced the TRS-80 for $599. This offering included a BASIC language interpreter, four kilobytes of RAM, a Zilog Z80 processor at 1.77 megahertz, a twelve-inch video monitor, a cassette recorder, a power supply, and a cassette tape containing the games Blackjack and Backgammon. While some Tandy executives were skeptical about the success of the PC market, the availability of the TRS-80 on five thousand Radio Shack store shelves helped the Model 1 sell over one hundred thousand units during its first year, which was 50 percent of the total PCs sold in 1978.
The TRS-80 had its microprocessor inside its keyboard. While you could purchase just the TRS-80 for $400, most opted for the package that included the twelve-inch monitor and cassette recorder for $600. This object includes the TRS-80 Expansion Interface for $299 (below monitor) that gave the machine an extra thirty-two kilobytes of memory; the TRS-80 Telephone Interface II for $199 (far left) that allowed for network communication; two Mini-Disk drives for $499 (right of monitor); and printer for $399 (far right).
References:
Radio Shack, A Tandy Company, 1978 Catalog No. 289, page 166, accessed September 1, 2014, http://www.radioshackcatalogs.com/catalogs/1978
Radio Shack, A Tandy Company, 1979 Catalog No. 302, pages 79–82, accessed September 1, 2014, http://www.radioshackcatalogs.com/catalogs/1979
“BYTE News,” BYTE, May 1979, 117.
Peggy A. Kidwell and Paul E. Ceruzzi, Landmarks in Digital Computing (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994), 96–99.
Subject:
Computers & Business Machines
American Enterprise
Credit Line:
Gift of K.S. Widelitz
ID Number:
1983.0169.01
Catalog number:
1983.0169.01
Accession number:
1983.0169
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
American Enterprise
Exhibition:
American Enterprise
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Texas Instruments Model 99/4A Personal Computer

Maker:
Texas Instruments
Physical Description:
plastic (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
average spatial: 5.7 cm x 3.81 cm x 2.6 cm; 2 1/4 in x 1 1/2 in x 1 in
Object Name:
microcomputer
Date made:
1981-1984
Description:
When the TI-99/4a was introduced in 1981, Texas Instruments claimed it was both "a major breakthrough in computer technology," and, probably more important, the "lowest priced, 16-bit computer available." It cost only $525. The TI 99/4a was a redesign of the TI-99/4 system, which had been a market failure and was discontinued. The new machine sold well, but by August 1982, TI was falling behind its competitors, especially Commodore. So it began offering a $100 rebate on the TI-99/4a. It quickly became the best-selling home computer in America, controlling, by the end of 1982, approximately 35% of the market--150,000 machines a month.
In February 1983, TI cut the price to $150, and then in June 1983, it offered a plastic version of the TI-99/4a for less than $100. But now it had gone too far. It was selling computers for less than cost, resulting in a second quarter loss of $100 million.
The TI-99/4a operated on a TI TMS99000 at 3 MHz and included 16 KB of RAM and 26 KB of ROM. The computer included a RS-232 interface card and a 32K memory expansion card as well as a Data Storage cassette. Texas Instruments controlled the development of software for the machine and offered only around 300 titles. These did not include many of the most popular programs of the time.
Initially, the only way to expand the machine was to use a port on the right side of the console. Peripherals could extend out several feet. To remedy the situation TI released a more convenient Peripheral Expansion Box (PEB) and, surprisingly, sold 250,000 units at $1,475.00 each--far more than the cost of the computer.
Eventually Texas Instruments sold over 2.5 million units of the TI-99/4A. However the company decided that computers were not a promising business and dropped out of the PC market in 1984.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Family & Social Life
Computers & Business Machines
Credit Line:
Scott and Shane Briscoe
ID Number:
1990.0494.01
Catalog number:
1990.0494.01
Accession number:
1990.0494
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Models

Author:
Mendy, Renée
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI
Type:
Articles
Place:
Africa
Date:
1998
Notes:
Col. ill.
Feature on African fashion models.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Call number:
TT504.6.A35 A78 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Oluchi : a model with a cause / by M. B. Akinyemi

Author:
Akinyemi, M. B
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI
Subject:
Onweagba, Oluchi 1980-
Type:
Articles
Place:
Nigeria
Date:
2007
Notes:
Color illustrations.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Call number:
GT730 .C65
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

i/O Personal Digital Assistant (Concept Model)

Designer:
Michael Barry
Shawn Hanna, b. 1969
Jay Wilson
Firm:
GVO Inc., 1966–2001
Manufacturer:
GVO Inc., 1966–2001
Medium:
Plastic and rubber housing
Type:
models and prototypes
Decorative Arts
recharging base
Object Name:
recharging base
Made in:
USA
Date:
1994
Catalogue Status:
Research in Progress
Description:
Green i/O unit of irregular rectangular shape with black keypad and retractable antenna; stylus and earphone in recesses in body. Irregular square green base with attached black plug; slot for i/O unit.
Credit Line:
Gift of G.V.O., Inc.
Accession Number:
1995-88-1-a/e
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Abraham Lincoln's Patent Model

Patentee:
Lincoln, Abraham
Maker:
Lincoln, Abraham
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
brown (overall color)
fabric (part material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 3/4 in x 26 1/4 in x 4 3/4 in; 24.765 cm x 66.675 cm x 12.065 cm
Object Name:
patent model
Date made:
prior to 1849
Date patented:
1849-05-22
Description:
Like many people of his era, Lincoln believed deeply in the value of personal initiative, inventiveness, and scientific and technological change. Lincoln’s mechanical and scientific interests began with his training as a surveyor in New Salem and continued throughout his life.
In 1848 he decided try his own hand at developing an invention to lift boats grounded in shallow water. On May 22, 1849, Congressman Abraham Lincoln received a patent for his method of lifting boats over shoals. A trip to Niagara Falls inspired the design, when he witnessed a grounded boat being lifted over shallow waters. Lincoln produced the model with the help of Walter Davis, a Springfield mechanic. There is no evidence that he ever sought to put the idea into production.
Transfer from the U.S. Patent Office, 1922
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Government, Politics, and Reform
Transportation
Patent Models
Related Publication:
Rubenstein, Harry R.. Abraham Lincoln: An Extraordinary Life
ID Number:
PL*031940
Catalog number:
31940
Accession number:
48865
Patent number:
6469
See more items in:
Political History: Political History, Presidential History Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

[Portrait in Italy.] Photonegative 1905

Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood
Photographer:
Underwood, Elmer 1859-1947
Physical description:
Silver gelatin on glass
1 item, 5" x 8"
Type:
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Italy
Rome (Italy)
Date:
1905
1900-1910
Notes:
Company catalog card included.
Currently stored in box 3.1.22 [181].
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Local number:
RSN 13501
Video number 12772
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection 1895-1921
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH

Noëlla Coursaris : a day in the life of a model-extraordinaire

Author:
Olisemeka, Nkechi I
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI
Subject:
Coursaris, Noëlla
Type:
Articles
Place:
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
2007
Notes:
Color illustrations.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Call number:
E184.A24 K58
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Kesso, princesse peuhle / Kesso Barry

Author:
Barry, Kesso
Subject:
Barry, Kesso
Physical description:
232 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 22 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
France
Date:
1988
C1988
Topic:
Fula (African people)
Models (Persons)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

The chronicles of Keira Plum Sykes ; phographed by Arthur Elgort

Author:
Sykes, Plum
Elgort, Arthur
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI
Subject:
Knightley, Keira 1985- Travel
Type:
Articles
Place:
Africa, East
Kenya
Date:
2007
Notes:
Color illustrations, including front cover.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Call number:
TT500 .V7X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

1837 Swasey's Patent Model of a Cloth Napping Machine

Inventor:
Swasey, Benjamin
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (mechanisms material)
cloth (cylinders material)
Object Name:
cloth napping machine
cloth napping machine patent model
Associated place:
United States: Maine, Mount Vernon
Model constructed:
before 1837-08-08
Date made:
before1837-08-08
Patent date:
1837-08-08
Description:
Cloth Napping Machine Patent Model
Patent No. 350, issued August 8, 1837
Benjamin Swasey of Mount Vernon, Maine
Swasey’s patent concerned the setting of teazles ( thistle-like plant heads) in the wires of the large napping cylinder. He also claimed certain springs and levers that shifted the cloth rollers in and out of gear. This shifting of the cloth rollers caused the cloth to come in contact with the teazles as the cloth was wound forward and then disengaged the cloth from the teazles as the cloth rewound.
In this way, the cloth could roll from one cylinder to another as long as necessary to ensure a well-napped surface. Also, the shifting of gears did not require a person to match and unmatch the gears. Friction bands on the ends of the cloth rollers, together with hanging weights, kept tension on the cloth even.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Textiles
Patent Models
Patent Models
Invention
Patent Models, Textile Machinery
Listed:
Janssen, Barbara Suit. Patent Models Index
ID Number:
TE*T11403.011
Accession number:
89797
89797
Catalog number:
T11403.011
Patent number:
350
See more items in:
Home and Community Life: Textiles
Patent Models
Patent Models, Textile Machinery
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Reginald Marsh art notebook #4, models and expenses

Creator:
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954
Subject:
Marsh, Reginald
Physical description:
1 notes 22 x 16 cm.
Type:
Writings
Date:
1934-1954
Summary:
Notebook containing loose pages of dated lists of work expenditures, contact information for artists' models, and some sketches and correspondence. Two additional notecards and three torn notes inserted in volume.
Only two pages are displayed here, including Marsh's list "Expenses in the pursuit of art."
To view this item online in its entirety, see Series 4, Box 4, folders 13-14 of the Reginald Marsh papers.
Topic:
Artists' materials
Artists' models
Finances, Personal
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)10152
See more items in:
Reginald Marsh papers, 1897-1955
Data Source:
Archives of American Art

How to grow a Model. [Print advertising.] Women's publications. 1945

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company
Physical description:
1 item col. 37.5 x 29 cm
Type:
Print advertising
Photographs
Date:
1945
Summary:
Caption: "How to grow a Model". Mother and toddler girl at top, both in yellow.
Published May & June 1946.
Topic:
Mothers
Models (Persons)
Daughters
Local number:
245660
Ivorydata4 1517
0307910322 (Scan No.)
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection 1883-1998
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH

Cradleboard model/toy

Media/Materials:
Wood, hide, glass bead/beads, paint, cotton cloth, cotton thread
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, overlay beadwork, painted
Dimensions:
17 x 6 x 4 cm
Culture/People:
Kiowa
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
Kiowa and Comanche Reservation; Oklahoma; USA
Date Created:
1896-1901
Collection History:
Collected between 1896 and 1901 by Mrs. Ida A. R. Fick (Ida Roff) when she taught at an Episcopal Indian school in Anadarko, Oklahoma; acquired by MAI in 1942.
Catalog Number:
20/5861
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian

Additional Online Media:

Male model : the world behind the camera / Charles Hix, with Michael Taylor ; designed by Brian Burdine

Author:
Hix, Charles
Taylor, Michael Byron
Physical description:
192 p. : ill. ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1979
C1979
Notes:
Includes index.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Men--Employment
Call number:
HD8039.M772U54X 1979
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Casio Personal-I Handheld Electronic Calculator - Model H-802

Maker:
Casio Computer Company, Ltd.
Physical Description:
plastic (case; display window; keys material)
metal (circuitry material)
paper (sticker material)
Measurements:
overall: 3/4 in x 3 in x 4 7/8 in; 1.905 cm x 7.62 cm x 12.3825 cm
Object Name:
electronic calculator
Place made:
Japan
Date made:
1976-1977
Description:
This handheld electronic calculator has a plastic case that is black in front and cream-colored on the edges and back. The keyboard has an array of square plastic keys, including ten digit keys, a decimal point key, a total key, and four keys for arithmetic functions that are to the right of the digit keys. Across the top of the keyboard are AC (all clear), C (clear entry), square root, and percentage keys.
Behind the keyboard is an eight-digit display. Text behind this reads: CASIO personal-I (/) ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR. The on/off switch is at the top of the left side, and the socket for a power adapter is along the top edge at the left.
A battery compartment at the top of the back would hold two AA batteries. A sticker inside the compartment reads: 4409774. Text below the compartment reads: CASIO personal-I (/) BATTERY SUPPLY 1.5Vx2 (/) or use AC ADAPTOR AD-2S (/) 0.2W (/) H802 MADE IN JAPAN (/) BM CASIO COMPUTER CO. LTD.
Advertisements for the Casio Personal-I calculator appeared in the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times during 1976 and 1977. The calculator cost $9.95 initially, with sale prices as low as $8.90. Ball and Flamm also date the calculator to about 1976.
References:
Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, The Complete Collector’s Guide to Pocket Calculators, Tustin, CA: Wilson/Barnett, 1997, p. 52.
Chicago Tribune, June 29, 1976, p. 4.
Los Angeles Times, September 9, 1976, p. N3.
Los Angeles Times, March 17, 1977, p. T4.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Handheld Electronic Calculators
Computers & Business Machines
Credit Line:
Gift of John B. Priser
ID Number:
1986.0988.024
Catalog number:
1986.0988.024
Accession number:
1986.0988
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Computers
Handheld Electronic Calculators
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Additional Online Media:

Fashion in Africa : a personal view by Ethiopian top model

Author:
Getaneh, Anna
Smithsonian Libraries African Art Index Project DSI
Subject:
Getaneh, Anna
Type:
Articles
Place:
Africa
Date:
1998
Notes:
Col. ill.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Fashion designers
Fashion
Call number:
TT504.6.A35 A78 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Young America's Look is That Ivory Look. [Print advertising.] General circulation publications 1950

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company
Physical description:
1 item col. 28 x 20 cm
Type:
Print advertising
Photographs
Date:
1950
Summary:
Caption: "Young America's Look is That Ivory Look". Framed photographs of baby and woman, rose between them.
Published March 1950.
Topic:
Children
Models (Persons)
Women
Local number:
244940
Ivorydata4 797
0207910801 (Scan No.)
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection 1883-1998
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH

That Ivory Look. [Print advertising.] General circulation publications 1953

Creator:
Procter & Gamble Company
Physical description:
1 item col. 39 x 29.5 cm
Type:
Print advertising
Photographs
Date:
1953
Summary:
Caption: "That Ivory Look: Young America has it...You can have it in 7 days!" Woman in straw hat with pink rose.
Published Aug. & Sept. 1953.
Topic:
Women
Models (Persons)
Children
Local number:
245690
Ivorydata4 1547
0307910352 (Scan No.)
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection 1883-1998
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH

Story of the Girl who said "NO" to Hollywood! [Print advertising, women's publications.] 1945

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company
Physical description:
1 item, col., 37.5 x 29 cm
Type:
Print advertising
Photographs
Place:
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1945
Summary:
Large photo in center of woman lying down with arm over head.
Published July & Aug. 1946.
Topic:
Models (Persons)
Women in advertising
Local number:
Ivorydata4 1515
0307910320 (Scan No.)
See more items in:
Ivory Soap Advertising Collection 1883-1998
Data Source:
Archives Center - NMAH

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