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National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)

view National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989) digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Deloria, Vine
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Tonasket, Mel
Trimble, Charles E
Arrow, Inc
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
Physical description:
251 linear feet
Type:
Administrative records
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Clippings
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Videotapes
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
20th century
1934-
Notes:
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
Summary:
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
Cite as:
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Alaska Natives--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Indian termination policy
Radioactive wastes--Management
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu)
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Lithograph of "Indian Antiquities" pottery artifacts

view Lithograph of "Indian Antiquities" pottery artifacts digital asset: American Indian woodenware / Plate X
Original artist:
Wallis, O. J.
Dreser, William
Herbst, Francis
Richard, John H.
Stanley, John Mix
Siebert, Selmar
Graphic artist:
Sinclair, Thomas
Dougal, William H.
Duval, Peter S.
Printer:
Nicholson, A. O. P.
Publisher:
United States Navy
Author:
Cassin, John
Ewbank, Thomas
Baird, Spencer Fullerton
Gilliss, James Melville
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 30 cm x 24 cm; 11 13/16 in x 9 7/16 in
overall: 48 cm x 29.7 cm; 18 7/8 in x 11 11/16 in
Object Name:
Senate Book of U.S. Naval Astonomical Expedition
book
Object Type:
Lithograph
Engraving
Hand-Color Lithograph
Chromolithograph
Book print location:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Print location of some prints:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Associated Place:
South America
Date made:
1855
Description:
P.S. Duval and Company (c.1840s–1858) of Philadelphia printed this lithograph of “Indian Antiquities,” depicting South American woodenware, from an original sketch by John M. Stanley (1814–1872) of Detroit (1834–1840, 1864–1872) and Washington, D.C. (1850-1860). The illustration was published in 1855 by A.O.P. Nicholson in Washington, D.C. as Plate X in the “Indian remains” section of volume II of The United States Naval Astronomical Survey to the Southern Hemisphere, written by Thomas Ewbank (1792–1870).
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Anthropolgy
Amphibians
Mammals
Navy
U.S. Congress
South America
Environmental History
Birds
Fish
Fossils
Shells
Indians
Reptiles
Maps
Exploration and Discovery
Art
Communications
Government, Politics, and Reform
Measuring & Mapping
Military
Natural Resources
Science & Mathematics
Survey Prints
ID Number:
2007.0204.01
Accession number:
2007.0204
Catalog number:
2007.0204.01
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Survey Prints
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978

view National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
Youpee, William
Toda, Chinzu
Subject:
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
Physical description:
40 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Type:
Sound recordings
Letters
Printed material
Minutes
Lists
Date:
1971-1978
Notes:
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
Summary:
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands.
Cite as:
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Topic:
Indian-government relations
Indian interest groups
Local number:
NMAI.AC.014
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Kee-o-kúk, The Watchful Fox, Chief of the Tribe

view Kee-o-kúk, The Watchful Fox, Chief of the Tribe digital asset number 1
Artist:
George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872
Sitter:
Keokuk
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 6 0.9 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1835
Description:
George Catlin painted Kee-o-kúk at the Sac and Fox village in 1835. He described the chief as a “vain man” who was very pleased with his portraits, including this version. He wears an elaborate costume of white buckskin leggings, a red blanket, and a bear-claw necklace. Two years later, in 1837, Catlin brought Kee-o-kúk to Washington, where the artist showed his portraits, hoping the government would buy his Indian Gallery. During this visit, a journalist for the New York Evening Herald described the chief as a “fine and noble looking man.” Kee-o-kúk thought it useless for his people to fight the United States government. Instead, he signed over lands in the states known today as Illinois, Missouri, and Wisconsin, for which his tribe received about seventy-five cents per acre. Catlin noted that the Sac and Fox “have sold so much of their land lately, that they have the luxuries of life to a considerable degree . . . they look elated and happy, carrying themselves much above the humbled manner of most of the semi-civilized tribes, whose heads are hanging and drooping in poverty and despair.” (Dippie, Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage, 1990)
Topic:
Dress\ethnic\Indian dress
Figure male\full length
Portrait male
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Object\weapon\spear
Dress\accessory\shield
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
Object number:
1985.66.1
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum

Albert Gallatin

view Albert Gallatin digital asset number 1
Artist:
Thomas Worthington Whittredge, 22 May 1820 - 25 Feb 1910
Copy after:
Gilbert Stuart, 3 Dec 1755 - 9 Jul 1828
Sitter:
Albert Gallatin, 29 Jan 1761 - 12 Aug 1849
Medium:
Oil on cardboard
Dimensions:
68.5cm x 55.8cm (26 15/16" x 21 15/16"), Accurate
Type:
Painting
Date:
after 1859
Topic:
Albert Gallatin: Literature\Writer
Albert Gallatin: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of Treasury
Albert Gallatin: Politics and Government\Diplomat
Albert Gallatin: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania
Albert Gallatin: Business and Industry\Banker
Albert Gallatin: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania
Albert Gallatin: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Historical Society\President
Albert Gallatin: Native American\Treaty Negotiator
Albert Gallatin: Politics and Government\US Senator\Pennsylvania
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.76.34
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Catahecassa

view Catahecassa digital asset number 1
Attribution:
Albert Newsam, 20 May 1809 - 20 Nov 1864
Copy after:
Charles Bird King, 26 Sep 1785 - 18 Mar 1862
Lithographer:
Lehman & Duval Lithography Company, active 1835 - 1837
Publisher:
Edward C. Biddle, active early 19th Century
Publication:
Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall's History of the Indian Tribes of North America, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 1837 - 1844
Sitter:
Catahecassa, c. 1740 - 1831
Medium:
Hand-colored lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 31.5cm x 22.9cm (12 3/8" x 9")
Sheet: 50.8cm x 36.2cm (20" x 14 1/4")
Type:
Print
Place:
United States\Pennsylvania\Philadelphia\Philadelphia
Date:
1837
Topic:
Catahecassa: Native American\Orator
Catahecassa: Native American\Leader\Chief
Catahecassa: Native American\Treaty Negotiator
Catahecassa: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.94.102
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Catahecassa

Black Hoof
view Catahecassa digital asset number 1
Artist:
Henry Inman, 28 Oct 1801 - 17 Jan 1846
Copy after:
Charles Bird King, 26 Sep 1785 - 18 Mar 1862
Sitter:
Catahecassa, c. 1740 - 1831
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
77.2 x 64.8 cm (30 3/8 x 25 1/2" ), Estimate
Type:
Painting
Date:
1830-1833
Topic:
Interior
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Headgear\Turban
Catahecassa: Native American\Orator
Catahecassa: Native American\Leader\Chief
Catahecassa: Native American\Treaty Negotiator
Catahecassa: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.82.105
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Benjamin O'Fallon

view Benjamin O'Fallon digital asset number 1
Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Sitter:
Benjamin O'Fallon, 20 Sep 1793 - 17 Dec 1842
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
138cm x 103.7cm (54 5/16" x 40 13/16"), Accurate
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1833
Topic:
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Headgear\Military
Exterior\Landscape
Nature & Environment\Water\Lake
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Sash
Benjamin O'Fallon: Business and Industry\Merchant\Trader
Benjamin O'Fallon: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; partial gift of Edward Gesuele Peterson and Nancy Gesuele Peterson
Object number:
NPG.81.33
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Ca-ta-he-cas-sa - Black Hoof

view Ca-ta-he-cas-sa - Black Hoof digital asset number 1
Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Lithographer:
J. T. Bowen Lithography Company, active 1834 - 1844?
Publisher:
Frederick W. Greenough, active c. 1838
Sitter:
Catahecassa, c. 1740 - 1831
Medium:
Hand-colored lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 50.6 x 36cm (19 15/16 x 14 3/16")
Type:
Bound Object
Date:
1838
Topic:
Print
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Headgear\Turban
Catahecassa: Native American\Orator
Catahecassa: Native American\Leader\Chief
Catahecassa: Native American\Treaty Negotiator
Catahecassa: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Betty A. and Lloyd G. Schermer
Object number:
NPG.99.167.27
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Inscribing empire: Guam and the War in the Pacific National Historical Park

view Inscribing empire: Guam and the War in the Pacific National Historical Park digital asset: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/16799/nmai_Herman_PG_2008.pdf
Author:
Herman, R. Douglas K.
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2008
Citation:
Political Geography, 27(6): 630-651.
Abstract:
National parks form an archipelago of government-run, on-site "museums," geographic sites of territorial and rhetorical nation-building. The War in the Pacific National Historical Park, which occupies seven parcels of land on the small island of Guam, celebrates the "freedom" that the U.S. brought to the region in World War II. But in fact, this landscape sits at the nexus of several contested territories. Guam was seized in the 1898 Spanish-American War--the final wave of American territorial expansion--and experienced 50 years of dictatorship under the U.S. Navy, despite vigorous efforts by islanders to gain citizenship and basic rights. The post-war transformation of the island by the military came at the further expense of local land rights, and the park itself later got caught up in the struggle over federal land ownership. Disagreements within the park service and between the park service and the local people added to the contests. Finally and most importantly, the park-as-text presents a discourse of American military heroism against the Japanese, at the expense of recognition of Chamorro suffering, or of any historical marker tying the indigenous history of Guam into U.S. historical memory. The contradiction between U.S. expansionism and U.S. ideals is apparent in the way the park serves as a colonial tool in this remnant of the American empire. This paper examines the park as a narrative landscape within the fields of contestation that characterize U.S. rule on Guam.
Doi:
10.1016/j.polgeo.2008.07.003
Topic:
Native Americans
American Indians
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Kit Carson

view Kit Carson digital asset number 1
Artist:
Charles DeForest Fredricks, 11 Dec 1823 - 25 May 1894
Sitter:
Christopher Houston Carson, 24 Dec 1809 - 23 May 1868
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.3 x 5.6cm (3 1/4 x 2 3/16")
Mount: 10.3 x 6.1cm (4 1/16 x 2 3/8")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1863
Exhibition Label:
Christopher "Kit" Carson was a legendary yet controversial figure whose career as a mountain man and an army officer in the Southwest earned him national acclaim. Carson first gained notoriety working under explorer John C. Frémont. Serving on three Frémont-led expeditions during the 1840s, he distinguished himself for his skills as a hunter and a guide. Despite being illiterate, he was fluent in several languages and was able to communicate with many Native American tribes in the region. During the Civil War, Carson commanded a Union regiment, successfully defending New Mexico from Confederate invaders. Also at this time he was called upon to lead a campaign to relocate the Navajo to a reservation three hundred miles away on the Pecos River. The 1864 "Long Walk" to Bosque Redondo-during which more than two hundred died-represented one of the largest forced relocations in U.S. history.
Topic:
Photographic Format\Carte-de-visite
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Army\Officer\Colonel
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Soldier
Christopher Houston Carson: Business and Industry\Merchant\Trader\Fur trader
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Scout
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Guide
Christopher Houston Carson: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Hunter
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Trapper
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2005.115
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Our Pioneer Heroes and Their Daring Deeds

view Our Pioneer Heroes and Their Daring Deeds digital asset number 1
Artist:
Henry F. Farny, 1847 - 1916
Armand Welcker, active c. 1887
Printer:
Scammell & Company
Sitter:
John Smith, 1579/80 - Jun 1631
Sitting Bull, c. 1831 - 15 Dec 1890
Daniel Boone, 11 Feb 1734 - 26 Sep 1820
Christopher Houston Carson, 24 Dec 1809 - 23 May 1868
John Burwell Omohundro, 1846 - 1880
William Frederick Cody, 26 Feb 1846 - 10 Jan 1917
James Butler Hickok, 27 May 1837 - 2 Aug 1876
Robert Cavelier Lasale, 1643 - 1687
Geronimo, c. 1823 - 17 Feb 1909
Lewis Wetzel, 1764 - 1808
Medium:
Wood engraving on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 70 x 34cm (27 9/16 x 13 3/8")
Sheet: 73 x 36.8cm (28 3/4 x 14 1/2")
Type:
Print
Date:
1887
Topic:
Weapon\Gun
Weapon\Sword
Nature & Environment\Animal\Horse
Clothing & Apparel\Accouterment\Feather
Daniel Boone: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Virginia
Daniel Boone: Law and Law Enforcement\Police\Sheriff
Daniel Boone: Natural Resources\Pioneer
Daniel Boone: Natural Resources\Pioneer\Frontiersman
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Army\Officer\Colonel
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Soldier
Christopher Houston Carson: Business and Industry\Merchant\Trader\Fur trader
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Scout
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Guide
Christopher Houston Carson: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Hunter
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Trapper
William Frederick Cody: Natural Resources\Pioneer\Frontiersman
William Frederick Cody: Military\Scout
William Frederick Cody: Performing Arts\Performer\Showman
William Frederick Cody: Natural Resources\Hunter
James Butler Hickok: Military\Spy
James Butler Hickok: Military\Scout
James Butler Hickok: Military\Soldier\Civil War\Union
James Butler Hickok: Law and Law Enforcement\Marshal
John Smith: Literature\Writer
John Smith: Natural Resources\Explorer
John Smith: Science and Technology\Scientist\Cartographer
John Smith: Natural Resources\Pioneer\Colonizer
Geronimo: Native American\Warrior
Geronimo: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer
Geronimo: Native American\Leader
Sitting Bull: Native American\Warrior
Sitting Bull: Native American\Leader\Chief
Sitting Bull: Native American\Medicine man
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.89.10
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Red Cloud

view Red Cloud digital asset number 1
Artist:
Charles Milton Bell, 1848 - 1893
Sitter:
Red Cloud, 1822 - 10 Dec 1909
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 40.6 x 31.9cm (16 x 12 9/16")
Mount: 71.3 x 55.8cm (28 1/16 x 21 15/16")
Mat: 81.3 x 66cm (32 x 26")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\District of Columbia
Date:
1880
Exhibition Label:
"I have tried to get from my Great Father what is right and just," exclaimed Red Cloud to government officials at the conclusion of his first trip to the East in 1870. Two years earlier the celebrated Lakota leader had forced U.S. authorities to abandon a series of newly constructed forts meant to protect settlers moving across traditional Native lands. Beginning in 1870, however, Red Cloud would choose diplomacy, not warfare, to protect the Lakota's land base and to ensure the tribe's political and cultural independence. Although the westward migration of American settlers would continue largely unabated, Red Cloud remained dedicated to the future welfare of the Lakota, meeting with five different U.S. presidents over a period of thirty years. Washington photographer Charles M. Bell seated Red Cloud next to a papier-mâché rock and a painted seascape backdrop for this portrait taken during one of his many trips to the nation's capital.
Topic:
Interior
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane
Interior\Studio\Photography
Red Cloud: Native American\Warrior
Red Cloud: Native American\Leader\Chief
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2005.117
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Ted Kennedy

view Ted Kennedy digital asset: Photograph by Ken Regan, Senators Ted Kennedy and John Tunney at Indian sub-committee hearings in Nixon, NV, 1972
Depicted (sitter):
Kennedy, Edward M.
Photographer:
Regan, Ken
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
gelatin silver print
Place made:
United States: Nevada, Nixon
Date made:
1972-01
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Government
Government, Politics, and Reform
Politics
Presidential Candidates
Democratic Party
Native Americans
Cultures & Communities
Government
Photography
Ken Regan Collection
ID Number:
2014.0112.619
Catalog number:
2014.0112.619
Accession number:
2014.0112
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Photographic History
Ken Regan Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Ute Delegation

view Ute Delegation digital asset number 1
Artist:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894
Sitter:
Alexander Cameron Hunt, 1825 - 1894
Pe-Ah
Chief Ouray, c. 1833 - 27 Aug 1880
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 17.8 x 49.8cm (7 x 19 5/8")
Mount: 22.9 x 52.2cm (9 x 20 9/16")
Mat: 40.6 x 71.1cm (16 x 28")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1868
Exhibition Label:
This three-part photograph shows eight members of the 1868 Ute delegation to Washington, D.C., standing alongside nine government officials. Because of growing complaints about settlers trespassing on traditional Ute lands, this group came together ostensibly to establish a definable Ute reservation in Colorado. Fourth from the right is Ouray, the individual whom U.S. authorities regarded as the tribe's principal spokesman. Fluent in English and Spanish, Ouray was best able to communicate with federal officials. His close association with Kit Carson-who traveled with the delegation but is not pictured here-and his reputation for being cooperative also made him the person with whom negotiators most wanted to deal. Although he was an important leader, Ouray had no such negotiating authority. Nevertheless, a treaty was signed during the Utes' visit that secured a relatively generous land apportionment. For the remainder of his life, Ouray struggled, often unsuccessfully, to have U.S. authorities honor the terms of this treaty.
Topic:
Interior
Alexander Cameron Hunt: Politics and Government\Governor\Colorado
Chief Ouray: Native American\Leader\Chief
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.93.372
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Peter Perkins Pitchlynn

view Peter Perkins Pitchlynn digital asset number 1
Artist:
Charles Fenderich, 1805 - 1887
Lithographer:
Peter S. Duval, active mid 19th Century
Sitter:
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn, 30 Jan 1806 - 17 Jan 1881
Medium:
Lithograph
Dimensions:
Sheet: 53.7 x 38 cm (21 1/8 x 14 15/16")
Type:
Print
Date:
1842
Topic:
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Scarf
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn: Politics and Government\Diplomat
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn: Native American\Orator
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn: Native American\Leader\Chief
Peter Perkins Pitchlynn: Native American\Treaty Negotiator
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.72.64
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

New voyages to North-America : Containing an account of the several nations of that vast continent : their customs, commerce, and way of navigation upon the lakes and rivers : the several attempts of the English and French to dispossess one another : with the reasons of the miscarriage of the former : and the various adventures between the French, and the Iroquese confederates of England, from 1683 to 1694. A geographical description of Canada, and a natural history of the country, with remarks upon their government, and the interest of the English and French in their commerce. Also a dialogue between the author and a general of the savages, giving a full view of the religion and strange opinions of those people : with an account of the author's retreat to Portugal and Denmark and his remarks on those courts. To which is added, a dictionary of the Algonkine language, which is generally spoke in North-America : illustrated with twenty three mapps and cutts / Written in French by the Baron Lahontan, lord lievtenant of the French colony at Placentia in Newfoundland, now in England. Done into English, in two volumes. A great part of which never printed in the original

Some new voyages to North-America
view New voyages to North-America : Containing an account of the several nations of that vast continent : their customs, commerce, and way of navigation upon the lakes and rivers : the several attempts of the English and French to dispossess one another : with the reasons of the miscarriage of the former : and the various adventures between the French, and the Iroquese confederates of England, from 1683 to 1694. A geographical description of Canada, and a natural history of the country, with remarks upon their government, and the interest of the English and French in their commerce. Also a dialogue between the author and a general of the savages, giving a full view of the religion and strange opinions of those people : with an account of the author's retreat to Portugal and Denmark and his remarks on those courts. To which is added, a dictionary of the Algonkine language, which is generally spoke in North-America : illustrated with twenty three mapps and cutts / Written in French by the Baron Lahontan, lord lievtenant of the French colony at Placentia in Newfoundland, now in England. Done into English, in two volumes. A great part of which never printed in the original digital asset number 1
Author:
Lahontan, Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce baron de 1666-1716
Engraver:
Moll, Herman d. 1732
Physical description:
2 v., [23] leaves of plates (some folded) : ill., maps ; 20 cm. (8vo)
Type:
Early works to 1800
Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
Place:
Canada
Portugal
Denmark
Date:
1703
To 1763 (New France)
Notes:
Translation of: Nouveaux voyages de Mr. le baron de Lahontan dans l'Amerique septentrionale.
Vol. 2 has title: New voyages to North-America. Giving a full account of the customs, commerce, religion, and strange opinions of the savages of that country. With political remarks upon the courts of Portugal and Denmark, and the present state of the commerce of those countries ...
"The engravings are by H. Moll"--Sabin.
Title pages with double-rule borders.
Pagination of each v.: v. 1. [24], 280 p., [12] leaves of plates; v. 2. [2], 302, [16] p. (final p. is blank), [11] leaves of plates.
Includes index at end of v. 2.
Errata in v. 1, p. [24] (1st group).
Publisher's advertisement on p. [1] (3rd group) of v. 2.
Sabin 38644
Pilling, J.C. Bib. of the Algonquian languages, p. 290-291
Contents:
v. 1. Some new voyages to North-America (letters I-XXV). Memoirs of North-America. A table explaining some terms made use of in both volumes -- v. 2. A discourse of the habit, houses, complexion and temperament of the savages of North-America. A conference or dialogue between the author and Adario, a noted man among the savages. An appendix, containing some new voyages to Portugal and Denmark. A short dictionary of the most universal language of the savages. Index
Topic:
Algonquin language
Wyandot language
Description and travel
History
Call number:
F1030 .L1813 1703
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Seneca tradition of the League 1917

view Seneca tradition of the League 1917 digital asset number 1
Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B (John Napoleon Brinton) 1859-1937
Creator:
Buck, Joshua
Physical description:
13 pages
Culture:
Iroquois Onondaga
Indians of North America Northeast
Onondaga Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1917
Summary:
Marked by Mr Hewitt- "horribly mixed."
Cite as:
Manuscript 1427, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Government and politics--Iroquois--Onondaga
Local number:
NAA MS 1427
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

Teriananda papers, 1972-1999

view Teriananda papers, 1972-1999 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Teriananda 1947-
Subject:
Peltier, Leonard
Physical description:
.83 linear feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Navajo Indians
Hopi Indians
Type:
Letters
Collection descriptions
Reports
Clippings
Articles
Writings
Date:
1972
1972-1999
Notes:
Teriananda was born in Manhattan in 1947, where she grew up and has continued to live throughout her adult life. Teriananda's father, born in Brooklyn, became a financial officer and independent scholar; her mother, born in British Guiana (now Guyana), was a classical pianist who immigrated to the United States and later became an editorial assistant, working part-time during Teriananda's childhood. Her parents instilled in her a belief that she was "a citizen of the world." She studed ballet as a youngster, and as a teenager, immersed herself in the artistic and intellectual milieu of the Lower East Side and Greenwich Village. An improperly diagnosed back injury while she was a senior in high school resulted in severe back problems in the 1970s that have persisted throughout her life.
Teriananda became interested in indigenous struggles in the 1970s, following a "back crisis" that almost took her life yet proved to be psychically transformative. In seeking to know who she was, she realized she needed to know where she was, and this led her to ask who the original inhabitants of the continent were. She soon became involved in activist struggles for indigenous rights and worked with a number of Native American groups during the 1970s and 1980s, including the International Treaty Council's attempts to found the United Nations permanent Working Group on Indigenous People, support for Yvonne Wanrow and Leonard Peltier, the issue of uranium contamination from mining on Native American land, and the problem of the Joint Land Use Area near Big Mountain on the Hopi and Navajo reservations.
Teriananda also worked on issues surrounding the AIDS crisis after the death of several friends from the disease. She had become familiar with the possibilities of natural medicines, partly through contact with traditional Native teachers, and she became active promoting the benefits of nutritional, herbal and other natural therapies to sufferers of AIDS. As Teriananda's own health issues persisted and worsened, she turned to Tibetan Buddhism, and has devoted herself to artistic pursuits influenced by this spiritual path. Although she has cut back on her activism, due to health problems and family demands, Teriananda remains a committed political activist who stays informed of current issues and is determined to pass on the heritage of struggles for peace and justice to the next generation.
Summary:
This collection, from the 1970s to the 1990s, is comprised of published and unpublished writings by Teriananda, as well as letters, reports, newspaper and magazine articles, group newsletters, flyers and announcements of political events, and news releases. The issues represented here, including support work for "The Longest Walk" campaign for justice for Leonard Peltier and the Big Mountain relocation, are indicative of the concerns in parts of Indian country in the United States and elsewhere during these decades.
Series I, Writings (1978-1991) contains original writings by Teriananda, including an interview with Native American activist Bill Wahpepah, a report on the state of the natural world with an appendix of written materials Teriananda used to supplement the report, and a newsletter for the New York City Big Mountain Support group.
Series II, Political Activities (undated; 1972-1996) consists of a variety of writings over more than two decades, including newsletters, reports, flyers, newspaper and magazine articles, and news releases, all of it relating to the political activities with which Teriananda has been involved in support of indigenous peoples. These include support for Latin American indigenous struggles, rain forest initiatives, the Black Hills, Leonard Peltier, the Longest Walk, which was enacted to protest and lobby against eleven bills before Congress which Indians felt would alter treaties between the U.S. government and various Indian tribes, and issues surrounding the Navajo relocation from the Hopi-Navajo Joint Use Area around Big Mountain.
Cite as:
Teriananda papers, 1972-1999, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of Mexico
Indians of Central America
Indians of South America
Indians of North America--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Relocation
AIDS (Disease)
Naturopathy
Traditional medicine
Local number:
NMAI.AC.009
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection. Contact information below
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943

view Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Bohemian Circle in Washington
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthropology Division of Physical Anthropology
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
Correspondent:
Adams, W. I
Adler, Cyrus 1863-1940
Alderman, E.M
Alliot, Hector
Alvarez, Walter C
Ameghino, Florentino
Angell, James R
Abbott, William Louis 1860-1936
Absolon, Karel
Allyn, Harriet M
Lowie, Robert
Robinson, Edward G
Hemingway, Ernest
Ami, Henry
Anthony, R
Ashley-Montagu, Montague Francis
Atwood, Charles E
Avirette, John Allfred
Baer, John Leonard
Bell, Enoch
Martin, Fredericka I
Bingham, Hiram
Bingman, C.E
Blue, Ruppert
Bloomfield, Leonard 1887-1949
Bodding, P.C
Bogue, E.A
Bothwell, J.A
Bridges, Calvin B
Burlin, Natalie Curtis
Babcock, William H
Baldwin, Bird T
Barrus, Clara
Barry, J. Neilson
Bartashchell, A.W
Barton, James L
Bather, F.A
Bean, Robert Bennett
Benes, Edward
Betsche, Chris
Bell, Earl H
Bilgery, Conrad
Birket-Smith, Kaj
Bishop, Carl W
Black, Davidson
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Bogoras, Waldemar G
Borbolla, F. Rubin I
Bowman, Isaiah
Boyd, William C
Boyle, Mary Elizabeth
Breasted, James Henry
Breton, Adela C
Breuil Abbe
Briggs, H.H
Brockett, Paul 1872-1946
Brown, A.R
Barnum, Brown
Bunak, V
Bunnell, Charles E
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941
Cadbury, William W
Callendar, G.R
Campbell, W.W
Capitan, Louis
Castellanos, Abraham
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931
Celler, Emanuel
Chamberlain, Thomas C
Clark, G. Hardy
Clemens, James B
Colbert, L.O
Comas, Juan
Comer, George
Cameron, John
Candela, P.B
Carroll, Mitchell
Cattell, Jacque
Cattell, James McKeen
Chapman, John W Rev
Ciocco, Antonio
Cipriani, Lidio
United States Department of Agriculture
Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia
Alaskan Sportsman
American Anthropological Association
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born
American Geographical Society
Journal of the American Medical Association
American Philosophical Society
United States Department of Commerce
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Abbot, Charles Greeley
Subject:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Panama California Exposition physical anthropology exhibits
Peking Union Medical College
Royal Anthropological Society Huxley lecture
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
International Congress of Americanists
Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington, D.C.)
American Anthropological Association
Washington Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C.)
National Academy of Science
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Institute of Population
American School in France for Prehistoric Studies
Committee on Anthropological Affairs
Physical description:
133 linear feet
Culture:
American Indian tuberculosis among
Chippewa Leech Lake
Chippewa White Earth
Dakota Indians
Pachamac Peru archeology
Apache Indians
Dakota Oglala
Shawnee Indians
Menominee Indians
Pima Indians
Huichol
Mohave Indians
Hupa Indians
Tarahumara Indians
Quinailt
Indians of North America Northeast
Ojibwa Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Quinault Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Oglala Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1887
1887-1943
ca 1887-1943
Notes:
Ales Hrdlicka was born in Bohemia and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."
In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.
It was thus that Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.
In his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka's contributions to American physical anthropology were great. His travels and field studies alone were impressive and important in his growth as an authority on the migration of man to the New World, human evolution, and the variations of man's physical form. In 1905, he returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.
Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.
Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.
In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.
Summary:
Hrdlicka's papers comprise a wide variety of materials but consist largely of correspondence, manuscripts of writings, physical anthropological tables and notes, and photographs. The material reflects his many professional interests and activities except for the earliest, for which the documents were destroyed by fire. Since he apparently made little distinction between his official and private activities, the papers incorporate many official records of the of the Smithsonian's Division of Physical Anthropology. This and other material show his wide-range of contacts with anthroplogists, especially physical anthropologists, and with many scholars in related sciences. Yet other material is personal and includes such documents as those relating to Hrdlicka's private property and correspondence with members of his family. Notably present is correspondence with his first wife, Marie Strickler. There are also documents that concern Hrdlicka's continued ties with Czechoslovakia (much of it in Czech) and his interests in Czech-American organizations, scientific development of Czechoslovakia, and his concern for its political fate, especially during World War II.
Cite as:
Ales Hrdlicka Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Old Americans
Trenton skeletal material
Fossils--man
Human evolution
Children--physical anthropology
Tuberculosis--American Indians
Huntington collection
Forensic anthropology
Immigration law--and physical anthropology
Children who run on all fours
Anthropometry
My Journeys, by A. Hrdlicka
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

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