National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
National Congress of American Indians
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Trimble, Charles E
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
251 linear feet
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Lithograph of "Indian Antiquities" pottery artifacts
Wallis, O. J.
Richard, John H.
Stanley, John Mix
Dougal, William H.
Duval, Peter S.
Nicholson, A. O. P.
United States Navy
Baird, Spencer Fullerton
Gilliss, James Melville
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
overall: 30 cm x 24 cm; 11 13/16 in x 9 7/16 in
overall: 48 cm x 29.7 cm; 18 7/8 in x 11 11/16 in
Senate Book of U.S. Naval Astonomical Expedition
Book print location:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Print location of some prints:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
P.S. Duval and Company (c.1840s–1858) of Philadelphia printed this lithograph of “Indian Antiquities,” depicting South American woodenware, from an original sketch by John M. Stanley (1814–1872) of Detroit (1834–1840, 1864–1872) and Washington, D.C. (1850-1860). The illustration was published in 1855 by A.O.P. Nicholson in Washington, D.C. as Plate X in the “Indian remains” section of volume II of The United States Naval Astronomical Survey to the Southern Hemisphere, written by Thomas Ewbank (1792–1870).
National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
40 linear feet
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands.
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Indian interest groups
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office
Johnson, Troy R
Trafzer, Clifford E
Venables, Robert W
Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
This accession consists of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) publication, "American Indians/American Presidents: A History." The book, co-published with HarperCollins, was edited by Clifford E. Trafzer and includes essays by five scholars of Native American history, including Robert W. Venables, Donna Akers, Matthew Sakiestewa Gilbert, Duane Champagne, and Troy R. Johnson. "American Indians/American Presidents: A History" explores the relationship of tribal leaders and American presidents; covering what they said and felt about one another, and how their words and actions framed relations between Native nations and the United States. The book also shows how Native people advanced their own agenda for tribal sovereignty, from the 18th century to the present.
George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872
oil on canvas
29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 6 0.9 cm)
George Catlin painted Kee-o-kúk at the Sac and Fox village in 1835. He described the chief as a “vain man” who was very pleased with his portraits, including this version. He wears an elaborate costume of white buckskin leggings, a red blanket, and a bear-claw necklace. Two years later, in 1837, Catlin brought Kee-o-kúk to Washington, where the artist showed his portraits, hoping the government would buy his Indian Gallery. During this visit, a journalist for the New York Evening Herald described the chief as a “fine and noble looking man.” Kee-o-kúk thought it useless for his people to fight the United States government. Instead, he signed over lands in the states known today as Illinois, Missouri, and Wisconsin, for which his tribe received about seventy-five cents per acre. Catlin noted that the Sac and Fox “have sold so much of their land lately, that they have the luxuries of life to a considerable degree . . . they look elated and happy, carrying themselves much above the humbled manner of most of the semi-civilized tribes, whose heads are hanging and drooping in poverty and despair.” (Dippie, Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage, 1990)
Figure male\full length
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Political History
Smithsonian Institution Office of American Studies
United States Marine Corps Reserve
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
This accession consists of papers documenting aspects of the career of Wilcomb E. Washburn, historian and teacher of American political and cultural history. He held positions at the National Museum of American History, Division of Political History and later at the Smithsonian Institution, Office of American Studies. Much of the material deals with research on the Indians of North America. A small quantity of material deals with his service in the United States Marine Corps and the United States Marine Corps Reserve. Materials include correspondence, papers, course administrative materials, notes, and conference materials.
"I have tried to get from my Great Father what is right and just," exclaimed Red Cloud to government officials at the conclusion of his first trip to the East in 1870. Two years earlier the celebrated Lakota leader had forced U.S. authorities to abandon a series of newly constructed forts meant to protect settlers moving across traditional Native lands. Beginning in 1870, however, Red Cloud would choose diplomacy, not warfare, to protect the Lakota's land base and to ensure the tribe's political and cultural independence. Although the westward migration of American settlers would continue largely unabated, Red Cloud remained dedicated to the future welfare of the Lakota, meeting with five different U.S. presidents over a period of thirty years. Washington photographer Charles M. Bell seated Red Cloud next to a papier-mâché rock and a painted seascape backdrop for this portrait taken during one of his many trips to the nation's capital.
Red Cloud: Native American\Warrior
Red Cloud: Native American\Leader\Chief
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
This three-part photograph shows eight members of the 1868 Ute delegation to Washington, D.C., standing alongside nine government officials. Because of growing complaints about settlers trespassing on traditional Ute lands, this group came together ostensibly to establish a definable Ute reservation in Colorado. Fourth from the right is Ouray, the individual whom U.S. authorities regarded as the tribe's principal spokesman. Fluent in English and Spanish, Ouray was best able to communicate with federal officials. His close association with Kit Carson-who traveled with the delegation but is not pictured here-and his reputation for being cooperative also made him the person with whom negotiators most wanted to deal. Although he was an important leader, Ouray had no such negotiating authority. Nevertheless, a treaty was signed during the Utes' visit that secured a relatively generous land apportionment. For the remainder of his life, Ouray struggled, often unsuccessfully, to have U.S. authorities honor the terms of this treaty.
Alexander Cameron Hunt: Politics and Government\Governor\Colorado
Chief Ouray: Native American\Leader\Chief
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Inscribing empire: Guam and the War in the Pacific National Historical Park
Herman, R. Douglas K.
Smithsonian staff publication
National parks form an archipelago of government-run, on-site "museums," geographic sites of territorial and rhetorical nation-building. The War in the Pacific National Historical Park, which occupies seven parcels of land on the small island of Guam, celebrates the "freedom" that the U.S. brought to the region in World War II. But in fact, this landscape sits at the nexus of several contested territories. Guam was seized in the 1898 Spanish-American War--the final wave of American territorial expansion--and experienced 50 years of dictatorship under the U.S. Navy, despite vigorous efforts by islanders to gain citizenship and basic rights. The post-war transformation of the island by the military came at the further expense of local land rights, and the park itself later got caught up in the struggle over federal land ownership. Disagreements within the park service and between the park service and the local people added to the contests. Finally and most importantly, the park-as-text presents a discourse of American military heroism against the Japanese, at the expense of recognition of Chamorro suffering, or of any historical marker tying the indigenous history of Guam into U.S. historical memory. The contradiction between U.S. expansionism and U.S. ideals is apparent in the way the park serves as a colonial tool in this remnant of the American empire. This paper examines the park as a narrative landscape within the fields of contestation that characterize U.S. rule on Guam.
Herman, R. D. K. 2008. Inscribing empire: Guam and the War in the Pacific National Historical Park. Political Geography, 27(6): 630-651. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2008.07.003
Charles DeForest Fredricks, 11 Dec 1823 - 25 May 1894
Christopher Houston Carson, 24 Dec 1809 - 23 May 1868
Albumen silver print
Image/Sheet: 8.3 x 5.6cm (3 1/4 x 2 3/16")
Mount: 10.3 x 6.1cm (4 1/16 x 2 3/8")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Christopher "Kit" Carson was a legendary yet controversial figure whose career as a mountain man and an army officer in the Southwest earned him national acclaim. Carson first gained notoriety working under explorer John C. Frémont. Serving on three Frémont-led expeditions during the 1840s, he distinguished himself for his skills as a hunter and a guide. Despite being illiterate, he was fluent in several languages and was able to communicate with many Native American tribes in the region. During the Civil War, Carson commanded a Union regiment, successfully defending New Mexico from Confederate invaders. Also at this time he was called upon to lead a campaign to relocate the Navajo to a reservation three hundred miles away on the Pecos River. The 1864 "Long Walk" to Bosque Redondo-during which more than two hundred died-represented one of the largest forced relocations in U.S. history.
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Army\Officer\Colonel
Christopher Houston Carson: Military\Soldier
Christopher Houston Carson: Business and Industry\Merchant\Trader\Fur trader
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Scout
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Guide
Christopher Houston Carson: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Hunter
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Trapper
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Scrapbook of illustrations and sample engravings ca. 1814-30
Lewis, James Otto 1799-1858
Hary, John W
Lucas, Fielding, Jr
Clinton, De Witt
American Fur Company
Indians of North America Subarctic
Indians of North America Northeast
Castle Rock (Lake District, England)
Lucas was an owner of a printing and publishing firm in Baltimore. In 1827, it issued Thomas L. McKenney's A Sketch of a Tour to the Lakes, which was illustrated after drawings by James Otto Lewis.
Some of the original watercolor and wash drawings are included in the scrapbook, including: Indian canoes, page 200 in McKenney's Sketch; View of the Urn, Lake Superior page 361; Grave of a Chippewa Child on the Island Opposite Fond du Lac (Minnesota) page 305; Cave Rock, South Shore of Lake Superior, page 364; Oblique View of the Doric Rock of Lake Superior (unpublished): Front View of the Doric Rock, page 225; Castle Rock, South Shore, Lake Superior, page 363; View of the Urn, Lake Superior (and the Monument), page 362; Skeleton of a Chippewa Indian's Lodge, page 418; Chippewa Lodge, of poles, covered with birch bark, unpublished; Chippewa Widow, page 292; Key-way-wo-wut, or Going Cloud, page 327, O-Car-Gee-Wick, page 314; Chippewa Chief with His Calumet and Pouch, page 331; Indian Dog Train, page 196; another view of Doric Rock, unpublished; another view of the Urn, unpublished; Front view of American Fur Company's Building, Fond du Lac, Minnesota, page 276, and a view of the gathering for the Treaty of Fond du Lac, 1826, page 311.
Also a drawing by John W. Hary (?) showing how Eskimos at Hudson Bay caught fish. Other original, unidentified artwork, a certificate of membership in the Baltimore Beneficial Society, and samples of printing of bank papers are included. There are, in addition, engraved portraits and title pages and illustrations from publications. The portraits include De Witt Clinton, William Cobbett, James Thomson, Goliah Werner, and William Bainbridge. The materials from publications include items from The Chemist and National Recreations, or Holiday Amusements and Robert Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture and A Descriptive History of the Steam Engine (all printed by Knight and Lacy of London); Citizen of the World, Edwin and Anelina; The Works of Robert Bruns, The Works of Thomas Moore, Thackery's Vicar of Wakefield; and other unidentified publications.
Manuscript 7135, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
New voyages to North-America : Containing an account of the several nations of that vast continent : their customs, commerce, and way of navigation upon the lakes and rivers : the several attempts of the English and French to dispossess one another : with the reasons of the miscarriage of the former : and the various adventures between the French, and the Iroquese confederates of England, from 1683 to 1694. A geographical description of Canada, and a natural history of the country, with remarks upon their government, and the interest of the English and French in their commerce. Also a dialogue between the author and a general of the savages, giving a full view of the religion and strange opinions of those people : with an account of the author's retreat to Portugal and Denmark and his remarks on those courts. To which is added, a dictionary of the Algonkine language, which is generally spoke in North-America : illustrated with twenty three mapps and cutts / Written in French by the Baron Lahontan, lord lievtenant of the French colony at Placentia in Newfoundland, now in England. Done into English, in two volumes. A great part of which never printed in the original
Some new voyages to North-America
Lahontan, Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce baron de 1666-1716
Moll, Herman d. 1732
2 v.,  leaves of plates (some folded) : ill., maps ; 20 cm. (8vo)
Early works to 1800
Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
To 1763 (New France)
Translation of: Nouveaux voyages de Mr. le baron de Lahontan dans l'Amerique septentrionale.
Vol. 2 has title: New voyages to North-America. Giving a full account of the customs, commerce, religion, and strange opinions of the savages of that country. With political remarks upon the courts of Portugal and Denmark, and the present state of the commerce of those countries ...
"The engravings are by H. Moll"--Sabin.
Title pages with double-rule borders.
Pagination of each v.: v. 1. , 280 p.,  leaves of plates; v. 2. , 302,  p. (final p. is blank),  leaves of plates.
Includes index at end of v. 2.
Errata in v. 1, p.  (1st group).
Publisher's advertisement on p.  (3rd group) of v. 2.
Pilling, J.C. Bib. of the Algonquian languages, p. 290-291
v. 1. Some new voyages to North-America (letters I-XXV). Memoirs of North-America. A table explaining some terms made use of in both volumes -- v. 2. A discourse of the habit, houses, complexion and temperament of the savages of North-America. A conference or dialogue between the author and Adario, a noted man among the savages. An appendix, containing some new voyages to Portugal and Denmark. A short dictionary of the most universal language of the savages. Index