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National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978

Creator:
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
Youpee, William
Toda, Chinzu
Subject:
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
Physical description:
40 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Type:
Sound recordings
Letters
Printed material
Minutes
Lists
Date:
1971-1978
Topic:
Indian-government relations
Indian interest groups
Local number:
NMAI.AC.014
Notes:
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
Summary:
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands.
Cite as:
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Kee-o-kúk, The Watchful Fox, Chief of the Tribe

Artist:
George Catlin, born Wilkes-Barre, PA 1796-died Jersey City, NJ 1872
Sitter:
Keokuk
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 6 0.9 cm)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1835
Topic:
Dress\ethnic\Indian dress
Figure male\full length
Portrait male
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Ethnic\Indian\Sac and Fox
Object\weapon\spear
Dress\accessory\shield
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.
Object number:
1985.66.1
Description:
George Catlin painted Kee-o-kúk at the Sac and Fox village in 1835. He described the chief as a “vain man” who was very pleased with his portraits, including this version. He wears an elaborate costume of white buckskin leggings, a red blanket, and a bear-claw necklace. Two years later, in 1837, Catlin brought Kee-o-kúk to Washington, where the artist showed his portraits, hoping the government would buy his Indian Gallery. During this visit, a journalist for the New York Evening Herald described the chief as a “fine and noble looking man.” Kee-o-kúk thought it useless for his people to fight the United States government. Instead, he signed over lands in the states known today as Illinois, Missouri, and Wisconsin, for which his tribe received about seventy-five cents per acre. Catlin noted that the Sac and Fox “have sold so much of their land lately, that they have the luxuries of life to a considerable degree . . . they look elated and happy, carrying themselves much above the humbled manner of most of the semi-civilized tribes, whose heads are hanging and drooping in poverty and despair.” (Dippie, Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage, 1990)
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Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
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Inscribing empire: Guam and the War in the Pacific National Historical Park

Author:
Herman, R. Douglas K.
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2008
Topic:
Native Americans
American Indians
Citation:
Political Geography, 27(6): 630-651.
Abstract:
National parks form an archipelago of government-run, on-site "museums," geographic sites of territorial and rhetorical nation-building. The War in the Pacific National Historical Park, which occupies seven parcels of land on the small island of Guam, celebrates the "freedom" that the U.S. brought to the region in World War II. But in fact, this landscape sits at the nexus of several contested territories. Guam was seized in the 1898 Spanish-American War--the final wave of American territorial expansion--and experienced 50 years of dictatorship under the U.S. Navy, despite vigorous efforts by islanders to gain citizenship and basic rights. The post-war transformation of the island by the military came at the further expense of local land rights, and the park itself later got caught up in the struggle over federal land ownership. Disagreements within the park service and between the park service and the local people added to the contests. Finally and most importantly, the park-as-text presents a discourse of American military heroism against the Japanese, at the expense of recognition of Chamorro suffering, or of any historical marker tying the indigenous history of Guam into U.S. historical memory. The contradiction between U.S. expansionism and U.S. ideals is apparent in the way the park serves as a colonial tool in this remnant of the American empire. This paper examines the park as a narrative landscape within the fields of contestation that characterize U.S. rule on Guam.
Doi:
10.1016/j.polgeo.2008.07.003
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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Kit Carson

Artist:
Charles DeForest Fredricks, 11 Dec 1823 - 25 May 1894
Sitter:
Christopher Houston Carson, 24 Dec 1809 - 23 May 1868
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.3 x 5.6cm (3 1/4 x 2 3/16")
Mount: 10.3 x 6.1cm (4 1/16 x 2 3/8")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1863
Topic:
Photographic Format\Carte-de-visite
Christopher Houston Carson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel
Christopher Houston Carson: Military and Intelligence\Soldier
Christopher Houston Carson: Business and Industry\Merchant\Trader\Fur trader
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Scout
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Guide
Christopher Houston Carson: Politics and Government\Government Official\Indian agent
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Hunter
Christopher Houston Carson: Natural Resources\Trapper
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2005.115
Exhibition Label:
Christopher "Kit" Carson was a legendary yet controversial figure whose career as a mountain man and an army officer in the Southwest earned him national acclaim. Carson first gained notoriety working under explorer John C. Frémont. Serving on three Frémont-led expeditions during the 1840s, he distinguished himself for his skills as a hunter and a guide. Despite being illiterate, he was fluent in several languages and was able to communicate with many Native American tribes in the region. During the Civil War, Carson commanded a Union regiment, successfully defending New Mexico from Confederate invaders. Also at this time he was called upon to lead a campaign to relocate the Navajo to a reservation three hundred miles away on the Pecos River. The 1864 "Long Walk" to Bosque Redondo-during which more than two hundred died-represented one of the largest forced relocations in U.S. history.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Red Cloud

Artist:
Charles Milton Bell, 1848 - 1893
Sitter:
Red Cloud, 1822 - 1909
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 40.6 x 31.9cm (16 x 12 9/16")
Mount: 71.3 x 55.8cm (28 1/16 x 21 15/16")
Mat: 81.3 x 66cm (32 x 26")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\District of Columbia
Date:
1880
Topic:
Interior
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane
Interior\Studio\Photography
Red Cloud: Native American\Warrior
Red Cloud: Native American\Leader\Chief
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2005.117
Exhibition Label:
"I have tried to get from my Great Father what is right and just," exclaimed Red Cloud to government officials at the conclusion of his first trip to the East in 1870. Two years earlier the celebrated Lakota leader had forced U.S. authorities to abandon a series of newly constructed forts meant to protect settlers moving across traditional Native lands. Beginning in 1870, however, Red Cloud would choose diplomacy, not warfare, to protect the Lakota's land base and to ensure the tribe's political and cultural independence. Although the westward migration of American settlers would continue largely unabated, Red Cloud remained dedicated to the future welfare of the Lakota, meeting with five different U.S. presidents over a period of thirty years. Washington photographer Charles M. Bell seated Red Cloud next to a papier-mâché rock and a painted seascape backdrop for this portrait taken during one of his many trips to the nation's capital.
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National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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New voyages to North-America : Containing an account of the several nations of that vast continent : their customs, commerce, and way of navigation upon the lakes and rivers : the several attempts of the English and French to dispossess one another : with the reasons of the miscarriage of the former : and the various adventures between the French, and the Iroquese confederates of England, from 1683 to 1694. A geographical description of Canada, and a natural history of the country, with remarks upon their government, and the interest of the English and French in their commerce. Also a dialogue between the author and a general of the savages, giving a full view of the religion and strange opinions of those people : with an account of the author's retreat to Portugal and Denmark and his remarks on those courts. To which is added, a dictionary of the Algonkine language, which is generally spoke in North-America : illustrated with twenty three mapps and cutts / Written in French by the Baron Lahontan, lord lievtenant of the French colony at Placentia in Newfoundland, now in England. Done into English, in two volumes. A great part of which never printed in the original

Some new voyages to North-America
Author:
Lahontan, Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce baron de 1666-1716
Engraver:
Moll, Herman d. 1732
Physical description:
2 v., [23] leaves of plates (some folded) : ill., maps ; 20 cm. (8vo)
Type:
Early works to 1800
Glossaries, vocabularies, etc
Place:
Canada
Portugal
Denmark
Date:
1703
To 1763 (New France)
Topic:
Algonquin language
Wyandot language
Description and travel
History
Call number:
F1030 .L1813 1703
Notes:
Translation of: Nouveaux voyages de Mr. le baron de Lahontan dans l'Amerique septentrionale.
Vol. 2 has title: New voyages to North-America. Giving a full account of the customs, commerce, religion, and strange opinions of the savages of that country. With political remarks upon the courts of Portugal and Denmark, and the present state of the commerce of those countries ...
"The engravings are by H. Moll"--Sabin.
Title pages with double-rule borders.
Pagination of each v.: v. 1. [24], 280 p., [12] leaves of plates; v. 2. [2], 302, [16] p. (final p. is blank), [11] leaves of plates.
Includes index at end of v. 2.
Errata in v. 1, p. [24] (1st group).
Publisher's advertisement on p. [1] (3rd group) of v. 2.
Sabin 38644
Pilling, J.C. Bib. of the Algonquian languages, p. 290-291
Contents:
v. 1. Some new voyages to North-America (letters I-XXV). Memoirs of North-America. A table explaining some terms made use of in both volumes -- v. 2. A discourse of the habit, houses, complexion and temperament of the savages of North-America. A conference or dialogue between the author and Adario, a noted man among the savages. An appendix, containing some new voyages to Portugal and Denmark. A short dictionary of the most universal language of the savages. Index
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Bohemian Circle in Washington
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthropology Division of Physical Anthropology
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
Correspondent:
Adams, W. I
Adler, Cyrus 1863-1940
Alderman, E.M
Alliot, Hector
Alvarez, Walter C
Ameghino, Florentino
Angell, James R
Abbott, William Louis 1860-1936
Absolon, Karel
Allyn, Harriet M
Lowie, Robert
Robinson, Edward G
Hemingway, Ernest
Ami, Henry
Anthony, R
Ashley-Montagu, Montague Francis
Atwood, Charles E
Avirette, John Allfred
Baer, John Leonard
Bell, Enoch
Martin, Fredericka I
Bingham, Hiram
Bingman, C.E
Blue, Ruppert
Bloomfield, Leonard 1887-1949
Bodding, P.C
Bogue, E.A
Bothwell, J.A
Bridges, Calvin B
Burlin, Natalie Curtis
Babcock, William H
Baldwin, Bird T
Barrus, Clara
Barry, J. Neilson
Bartashchell, A.W
Barton, James L
Bather, F.A
Bean, Robert Bennett
Benes, Edward
Betsche, Chris
Bell, Earl H
Bilgery, Conrad
Birket-Smith, Kaj
Bishop, Carl W
Black, Davidson
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Bogoras, Waldemar G
Borbolla, F. Rubin I
Bowman, Isaiah
Boyd, William C
Boyle, Mary Elizabeth
Breasted, James Henry
Breton, Adela C
Breuil Abbe
Briggs, H.H
Brockett, Paul 1872-1946
Brown, A.R
Barnum, Brown
Bunak, V
Bunnell, Charles E
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941
Cadbury, William W
Callendar, G.R
Campbell, W.W
Capitan, Louis
Castellanos, Abraham
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931
Celler, Emanuel
Chamberlain, Thomas C
Clark, G. Hardy
Clemens, James B
Colbert, L.O
Comas, Juan
Comer, George
Cameron, John
Candela, P.B
Carroll, Mitchell
Cattell, Jacque
Cattell, James McKeen
Chapman, John W Rev
Ciocco, Antonio
Cipriani, Lidio
United States Department of Agriculture
Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia
Alaskan Sportsman
American Anthropological Association
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born
American Geographical Society
Journal of the American Medical Association
American Philosophical Society
United States Department of Commerce
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Abbot, Charles Greeley
Subject:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Panama California Exposition physical anthropology exhibits
Peking Union Medical College
Royal Anthropological Society Huxley lecture
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
International Congress of Americanists
Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington, D.C.)
American Anthropological Association
Washington Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C.)
National Academy of Science
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Institute of Population
American School in France for Prehistoric Studies
Committee on Anthropological Affairs
Physical description:
133 linear feet
Culture:
American Indian tuberculosis among
Chippewa Leech Lake
Chippewa White Earth
Dakota Indians
Pachamac Peru archeology
Apache Indians
Dakota Oglala
Shawnee Indians
Menominee Indians
Pima Indians
Huichol
Mohave Indians
Hupa Indians
Tarahumara Indians
Quinailt
Indians of North America Northeast
Ojibwa Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Quinault Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Oglala Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1887
1887-1943
ca 1887-1943
Topic:
Old Americans
Trenton skeletal material
Fossils--man
Human evolution
Children--physical anthropology
Tuberculosis--American Indians
Huntington collection
Forensic anthropology
Immigration law--and physical anthropology
Children who run on all fours
Anthropometry
My Journeys, by A. Hrdlicka
Notes:
Ales Hrdlicka was born in Bohemia and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."
In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.
It was thus that Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.
In his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka's contributions to American physical anthropology were great. His travels and field studies alone were impressive and important in his growth as an authority on the migration of man to the New World, human evolution, and the variations of man's physical form. In 1905, he returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.
Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.
Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.
In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.
Summary:
Hrdlicka's papers comprise a wide variety of materials but consist largely of correspondence, manuscripts of writings, physical anthropological tables and notes, and photographs. The material reflects his many professional interests and activities except for the earliest, for which the documents were destroyed by fire. Since he apparently made little distinction between his official and private activities, the papers incorporate many official records of the of the Smithsonian's Division of Physical Anthropology. This and other material show his wide-range of contacts with anthroplogists, especially physical anthropologists, and with many scholars in related sciences. Yet other material is personal and includes such documents as those relating to Hrdlicka's private property and correspondence with members of his family. Notably present is correspondence with his first wife, Marie Strickler. There are also documents that concern Hrdlicka's continued ties with Czechoslovakia (much of it in Czech) and his interests in Czech-American organizations, scientific development of Czechoslovakia, and his concern for its political fate, especially during World War II.
Cite as:
Ales Hrdlicka Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Indians of North America The Cherokee [published] 95.1.7 RV 1993

Creator:
Nevison, Henry Producer
Henry Nevison; Producer, Director
Marty Moss-Coane; Narration
John Douglas White; Editor
Dana Palermo, Rick Scott; Audio
Rich Wilson; script writer
Andrew Schlessinger, John Gerbec, Dana Palermo; producers
Physical description:
31 min sound color video
Culture:
Cherokee Indians
Indians of North America
Indians of North America Southern States
Type:
Projected media
Collection descriptions
Place:
Cherokee
North America
disintigration
United States, Kentucky, Oklahoma, North Carolina
Date:
1993
Topic:
Land--acquisition of
Land--as a source of wealth
Land--as property
Land--reclamation
Land--reservations
Settlement--patterns
Migration
Boundaries--territorial
Conflict
Warriors--status of
Territorial--boundaries--exploitation
Territory--annexed consolidation of
Government--activities--agencies, relief
Government--care of dependent ethnic groups
Government--education--public
Government--expeditions
Government--military
Government--policies
Government--constitutions
Military--armed forces
Education--curriculum
Education--teachers in--theories of
Education--attitudes toward
Literacy
Spiritualism
Missions--religious
Nature--ideas about
Descent--matrilineal
Assimilation--of ethnic groups
Bands--migratory
Hunting--buffalo
Horses
Gardens
Exploring--expeditions
Ownership--individual--collective
Culture--accomodation--adaptation
Culture--change
Culture--continuity
Culture
Culture--ideals
Treaties--peace--capitulation
Newspapers
Railways--construction
Rail--transport
Law--court--of law and justice
Imprisonment
Local number:
HSFA 95.1.7 RV
Summary:
Indians of North America Series: The Cherokee. Edited film documents the history of the Cherokee American Indians since the arrival of European settlers in North America. Emphasis is placed on the Cherokee language, literacy and education, effects of settlers on Cherokee culture and lifeways, life on the reservation, and conflicts with the Unites States government over land rights. Film follows the fissioning of the factions of Cherokee tribes into the western Cherokees of Oklahoma and the eastern Cherokees of North Carolina and Georgia until their ultimate unification and creation of the Cherokee Nation in 1839. Featured is Secoya, the inventor of the Cherokee written language which was disseminated throughout the tribe, insuring the literacy of most Cherokees within one generation. This began a tradition of education and literacy which would later establish the Cherokees as the first tribe to write a tribal newspaper, "The Cherokee Phoenix," and to establish two high schools in 1851, one of which was for women. Film addresses the impact of government land policies such as the 1887 Dawes Act, allotting land to individuals rather than to the tribe; the 1830 Indian Removal Act, forcing Indians to relocate and resettle on land west of the Mississippi, including the forced migration known as the Trail of Tears. Footage sequences include: Cherokee council houses; open plazas for social, political and religious events; homes made from a framework of wooden beams sealed with mud plaster; black and white government films recruiting Indian laborors to the city; interviews with Cherokee elders and youths.
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
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Indians of North America The Navajo [published] 95.1.7 RV 1993

Creator:
Nevison, Henry Producer
Henry Nevison; Producer, Director
Marty Moss-Coane; Narration
Harold Boihem; Editor
Dana Palermo, Rick Scott; Audio
Robin Buerki, Henry Nevison, Leon Skyharse Thomas; Video
Andrew Schlessinger, John Gerbec, Dana Palermo; producers
Physical description:
29 min sound color video
Culture:
Navajo Indians
Indians of North America
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Type:
Projected media
Collection descriptions
Place:
Navajo
North America
disintigration
United States, Texas, Mexico
Date:
1993
Topic:
Land--acquisition of
Land--as a source of wealth
Land--as property
Land--reclamation
Land--clearing for construction
Land--conservation policies
Land--reservations
Settlement--patterns
Exploitation
Warfare--surrender
Migration
World War II
Territorial--boundaries--exploitation
Territory--annexed consolidation of
Government--activities--agencies
Government--care of dependent ethnic groups
Government--education--public
Government--expeditions
Government--military
Government--policies
Political--authority
Political--reform
Political--system--philosopy
Military--armed forces
Military--posts--tactics
Education--curriculum
Education--teachers in--theories of
Education--attitudes toward
History--oral, as a method
Spiritualism
Missions--religious
Nature--ideas about
Descent--matrilineal
Assimilation--of ethnic groups
Trading--posts
Weaving--weavers
Weaving--looms--hand
Wool--production--blankets
Silversmiths
Dwellings--Hogans
Jewelry--manufacture
Hunting--buffalo
Animals--sheep
Animals--herding
Animals--cattle
Animals--grazing, round-ups of--ideas about--taming and domestication of
Agriculture--by-products--science--tools
Exploring--expeditions
Ownership--individual--collective
Culture--accomodation--adaptation
Culture--change
Culture--continuity
Culture
Culture--ideals
Local number:
HSFA 95.1.7 RV
Summary:
Indians of North America Series: The Navajo. Edited film documents the history of the Navajo with special emphasis on the transitions from a hunter gatherer society to farming and then to shepherding, the ever present conflict with the United States government and a discussion of the future of Navajo culture and traditions. Film addresses the issue of land seizure by the United States, The Republic of Texas and Mexico, focusing on the ultimate surrender of the Navajos to the U.S. Army in 1863, the forced "Long Walk" 250 miles to New Mexico, and their subsequent life on a reservation. Once on the reservation, film explores the educational policies for Navajo schoolchildren which included forbidding children to speak Navajo or openly discussing any aspect of tradition or culture, the effects of the Christian missionaries, the policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the marketing of Navajo blankets and jewelry for the outside world. Footage depicts "Hogans," Navajo homes made of a thick branch framework covered with mud and earth; Navajo beadwork, blankets and jewelry; 1934 black and white government film; World War II footage of Navajo men in the armed services; schoolchildren on reservations; the site of the Navajo surrender to the U.S. Army in 1863; Navajo youth today in public schools. Interviews with various Navajos reveal the use of Navajo language for codes during World War II, the importance of respect and kindness to animals and nature, and the necessity to instill a knowledge and appreciation of Navajo culture and traditions in Navajo youth today.
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
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Indians of North America The Yankton Sioux [published] 95.1.7 RV 1993

Creator:
Nevison, Henry Producer
Henry Nevison; Producer, Director
Marty Moss-Coane; Narration
Harold Boihem, John Gerbec, Meg Twomey; Editors
Henry Nevison, Dana Palermo; Audio
Rich Wilson; script writer
John Gerbec, Dana Palermo; producers
Physical description:
30 min sound color video
Culture:
Yankton Sioux
Indians of North America
Type:
Projected media
Collection descriptions
Place:
Sioux
North America
disintigration
United States
Date:
1993
Topic:
Land--acquisition of
Land--as a source of wealth
Land--as property
Land--reclamation
Land--territory--boundaries
Land--reservations
Settlement--patterns
Migration
Bands--migratory
Warriors--status of
Conflict
Territorial--boundaries--exploitation
Territory--annexed consolidation of
Government--activities--agencies
Government--care of dependent ethnic groups
Government--education--public
Government--expeditions
Government--military
Government--policies
Government--treaties
Government--legal system--courts--judge
Government--imprisonment
Political--authority
Military--armed forces
Education--curriculum
Education--teachers in--theories of
Education--attitudes toward
Education--literacy
History--oral, as a method
Spiritualism
Missions--religious
Nature--ideas about
Descent--matrilineal
Assimilation--of ethnic groups
Gifts--exchange--giving
Trade
Alcoholism
Gambling--casino
Trading--posts
Pipes--smoking
Dance--dancing--performers
Dance--Sun Dance
Drums--as musical instruments
Ceremony--Vision Quest--sweat lodges
Dwellings--teepees--cabins
Animals--buffalo--hunting
Animals--horses
Animals--cattle
Agriculture--gardens
Exploring--expeditions
Ownership--individual--collective
Culture--accomodation--adaptation
Culture--change
Culture--continuity
Culture
Culture--ideals
Syncretism
Local number:
HSFA 95.1.7 RV
Summary:
Indians of North America Series: The Yankton Sioux. Edited film documents the history of the Yankton Sioux American Indians since the arrival of European settlers in the plains around the Black Hills. Emphasized are the continual conflicts with the United States government over land rights and government policies of assimilation. Film explores the particular history of the Yankton, one of the 14 divisions of the Sioux tribe; explanations reveal both Yankton and general Sioux history. Themes featured include: the change from an agricultural and hunting existance to a trade existance by 1800; The Yankton relationship with non-Indians in the area; the effects of various government acts and policies such as the 1887 Dawes Act and the Indian Reorganization Act, the role of the casino on the reservation; the syncretic relationship between the Sioux religion and the Catholic church. Film documents various spiritual ceremonies and activities: the Sioux Sun Dance ceremony, use of the sacred pipe as part of the prayer ritual; the vision quest; the role of the sweat lodge; feasts where members exchange gifts. Footage depicts drumming and dancing at a powwow, Sioux cabins and teepees, buffalo hunting, casinos on tribal land, interviews with Yankton elders and youths.
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Indian wars of Mexico, Canada and the United States, 1812-1900 / Bruce Vandervort

Author:
Vandervort, Bruce
Physical description:
xvii, 337 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Canada
Mexico
Date:
2006
1812-1815
1815-1875
1866-1895
19th century
Topic:
Wars
Politics and government
Contents:
Introduction -- Worlds in motion -- The New World in a century of small wars -- Worldviews and fighting faiths -- Chiefs and warriors -- The great clearance, 1815-42 -- Indian wars in Mexico, 1821-76 -- War on the plains, 1848-77 -- Conquest of Apachería, 1860-86 -- War on the Canadian prairies, 1870-85 -- Indian wars of the Porfiriato, 1876-1900 -- Conclusion : long shadows
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

A survey of the contemporary Indians of Canada; a report on economic, political, educational needs and policies. Editor, H. B. Hawthorn

Author:
Hawthorn, Harry Bertram 1910-
Canada Indian Affairs Branch
Physical description:
2 v. 36 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Canada
Date:
1966
1966-67
Topic:
Social conditions
Government relations
Call number:
E78.C2 H39
E78.C2 H39
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Encyclopedia of United States Indian policy and law / edited by Paul Finkelman, Tim Alan Garrison

Author:
Finkelman, Paul 1949-
Garrison, Tim Alan 1961-
Physical description:
2 v. (932, 38 p.) : ill., maps ; 29 cm
Type:
Encyclopedias
Date:
2009
C2009
Topic:
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc--History
Indians of North America--Government relations--History
Politics and government
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Richard Mentor Johnson and Tecumseh

View of Col. Johnson's Engagement with the Savages
Artist:
Abel Bowen, 23 Dec 1790 - 11 Mar 1850
Sitter:
Richard Mentor Johnson, 17 Oct 1781 - 18 Nov 1850
Tecumseh, c. 1768 - 1813
Medium:
Hand-colored wood engraving on paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 21.5 × 37.5 cm (8 7/16 × 14 3/4")
Type:
Print
Date:
c. 1812
Topic:
Weapon
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree
Weapon\Sword
Exterior\Landscape\Battleground
Nature & Environment\Animal\Horse
Tool\Axe
Human Figures\Soldier
Human Figures
Tecumseh: Native American\Leader\Chief
Richard Mentor Johnson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Richard Mentor Johnson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US
Richard Mentor Johnson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\War of 1812
Richard Mentor Johnson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky
Richard Mentor Johnson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky
Richard Mentor Johnson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kentucky
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2012.92
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Folkloric poverty : neoliberal multiculturalism in Mexico / Rebecca Overmyer-Velázquez

Author:
Overmyer-Velázquez, Rebecca 1966-
Physical description:
xiii, 209 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Guerrero (State)
Guerrero (Mexico : State)
Date:
2010
C2010
Topic:
Indians of Mexico--Politics and government
Indians of Mexico--Government relations
Indians of Mexico--Ethnic identity
Indian activists
Protest movements
Ethnic relations
Social conditions
Politics and government
Summary:
"Analyzes the crisis indigenous political groups faced in Mexico at the turn of the twenty-first century. Focuses on an indigenous peoples movement in the state of Guerrero that gained unprecedented national and international prominence in the 1990s and yet was defunct by 2002"--Provided by publisher.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
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Negotiation within domination : New Spain's Indian pueblos confront the Spanish state / edited by Ethelia Ruiz Medrano and Susan Kellogg

New Spain's Indian pueblos confront the Spanish state
Author:
Ruiz Medrano, Ethelia
Kellogg, Susan
Physical description:
xvii, 264 p. : map ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Spain
America
Date:
2010
C2010
Spanish colony, 1540-1810
Topic:
Government relations--History
Indians, Treatment of--History
Government, Resistance to
Ethnic relations
History
Colonies
Administration
Contents:
Introduction: back to the future : law, politics, and culture in colonial Mexican ethnohistorical studies / Susan Kellogg -- Empire, Indians, and the negotiation for the status of city in Tlaxcala, 1521-1550 / R. Jovita Baber -- Fighting destiny : Nahua nobles and friars in the sixteenth-century revolt of the encomenderos against the king / Ethelia Ruiz Medrano -- Indigenous centurions and triumphal arches : negotiation in eighteenth-century Mexico City / Edward W. Osowski -- The power of the law : the construction of colonial power in an indigenous region / María de los Ángeles Romero Frizzi -- Costumbre : a language of negotiation in eighteenth-century Oaxaca / Yanna P. Yannakakis -- Peace agreements and war signals : negotiations with the Apaches and Comanches in the interior provinces of New Spain, 1784-1788 / Cuauhtémoc Velasco Ávila -- Waterways, legal ways, and ethnic interactions : the Ríos District of Tabasco during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries / José Manuel A. Chávez-Gómez -- Afterword: the consequences of negotiation / Susan Kellogg
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Aboriginal rights and self-government : the Canadian and Mexican experience in North American perspective / edited by Curtis Cook and Juan D. Lindau

Author:
Cook, Curtis 1937-
Lindau, Juan David
Physical description:
vi, 314 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
2000
C2000
1934-
Topic:
Government relations
Politics and government
Call number:
E91 .A26 2000
Notes:
Papers originally prepared for a colloquium at the Colorado College--Pref.
Contents:
One continent, contrasting styles : the Canadian experience in North American perspective / Juan D. Lindau and Curtis Cook -- A just relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples of Canada / James Tully -- Indigenous movements and politics in Mexico and Latin America / Rodolfo Stavenhagen -- Rights and self-government for Canada's Aboriginal peoples / C.E.S. Franks -- Liberalism's last stand : Aboriginal sovereignty and minority rights / Dale Turner -- First nations and the derivation of Canada's underlying title : comparing perspectives on legal ideology / Michael Asch --Quebec's conceptions of Aboriginal rights / Andrée Lajoie ... [et al.] -- The revolution of the new commons / Gustavo Esteva -- Indian policy : Canada and the United States compared / C.E.S. Franks
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Landscape and power in ancient Mesoamerica / [edited by] Rex Koontz, Kathryn Reese-Taylor, Annabeth Headrick

Author:
Koontz, Rex
Reese-Taylor, Kathryn
Headrick, Annabeth
Physical description:
xxvi, 383 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Date:
2001
Topic:
Indian architecture
Religion
Politics and government
Sacred space--History
City planning--History
Landscape assessment--History
Antiquities
Contents:
The cultural poetics of power and space in Ancient Mesoameria / Kathryn Reese-Taylor and Rex Koontz -- What the heck's Coatépec? The formative roots of an enduring mythology / Linda Schele and Julia Guernsey Kappelman -- Procession rituals and shrine sites: the politics of sacred space in the late formative valley of Oaxaca / Heather S. Orr -- Sacred geography at Izapa and the performance of rulership / Julia Guernsey Kappelman -- Dance performances at Quiriguá / Matthew G. Looper -- The poetics of power and knowledge at La Venta / Carolyn E. Tate -- Merging myth and politics: the three temple complex at Teotihuacan / Annabeth Headrick -- A model for late classic community structure at Copán, Honduras / Jeffrey A. Stomper -- The form of power: the architectural meaning of building A of El Tajín / Patricia Joan Sarro -- Political rhetoric and the unification of natural geography, cosmic space, and gender spheres / Linnea Wren, Kaylee Spencer, and Krysta Hochstetler -- Mountain of heaven, mountain of earth: the great pyramid of Cholula as sacred landscape / Geoffrey G. McCafferty -- A sense of place at Chichén Itzá / Cynthia Kristan-Graham
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Deloria, Vine
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Tonasket, Mel
Trimble, Charles E
Arrow, Inc
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
Physical description:
251 linear feet
Type:
Administrative records
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Clippings
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Videotapes
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
20th century
1934-
Topic:
Alaska Natives--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Indian termination policy
Radioactive wastes--Management
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010
Notes:
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
Summary:
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
Cite as:
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Indian and nation in revolutionary Mexico / Alexander S. Dawson

Author:
Dawson, Alexander S (Alexander Scott) 1967-
Physical description:
xxvi, 222 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Mexico
Date:
2004
C2004
1910-1946
Topic:
Government relations
Politics and government
Contents:
The Indian and the nation -- The problems and promise of the Internados Indigenas -- Science and state formation in the Departamento de Asuntos Indigenas -- Empowering the masses at the Congresos Regionales Indigenas -- Indigenismo in the shadow -- The Indigena Capacitado
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

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