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National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)

view National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989) digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Deloria, Vine
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Tonasket, Mel
Trimble, Charles E
Arrow, Inc
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
Physical description:
251 linear feet
Type:
Administrative records
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Clippings
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Videotapes
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
20th century
1934-
Notes:
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
Summary:
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
Cite as:
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Alaska Natives--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Indian termination policy
Radioactive wastes--Management
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu)
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

National Congress of American Indians audio and film recordings 1952-1997

view National Congress of American Indians audio and film recordings 1952-1997 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Harjo, Suzan Shown
Trimble, Charles E
Deloria, Vine
Tonasket, Mel
Delacruz, Joseph B
Physical description:
713 sound cassettes
442 sound tape reels 1/4 inch open reel
30 videocassettes (u-matic)
24 videoreels (1/2 inch)
10 videocassettes (vhs)
3 sound cartridges
1 videocassette (hi8)
1 dictaphone belt
Type:
Audio cassettes
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Date:
1952
1952-1997
20th century
Notes:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare. Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern. The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Summary:
This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The collection also contains smaller numbers of EIAJ open reel videotapes, U-Matic, VHS and Hi-8 videocassettes and well as dictaphone belts and audio cartridges. The first series in this collection contains audio recordings from NCAI annual and mid-year convetions held in different locations all over the United States. The second series includes events hosted by NCAI or attended by NCAI representatives. These include executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country. Several larger events include the Arizona Intertribal Institute (1955), The National Indian Policy Conference (1974), LEAA Conference (1978), Environmental Protection Hearings and Seminars (1988) and the Senate Indian Affairs Special Investigations Subcommittee meetings (1989). A conference held in 1993 also documents the early history of NCAI with speakers such as Helen Peterson, John Rainer and Erma Hicks Walz.
Cite as:
National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Congresses and conventions
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Open reel
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010.001
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978

view National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
Youpee, William
Toda, Chinzu
Subject:
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
Physical description:
40 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Type:
Sound recordings
Letters
Printed material
Minutes
Lists
Date:
1971-1978
Notes:
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
Summary:
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands.
Cite as:
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Topic:
Indian-government relations
Indian interest groups
Local number:
NMAI.AC.014
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Engraved woodblock of the "Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597"

view Engraved woodblock of the "Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of the earliest map showing location of the Cherokees, 1597
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Royce, Charles C.
Block maker:
J. J. & Co.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 15.1 cm x 19 cm x 2.3 cm; 5 15/16 in x 7 1/2 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
map
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York
Date made:
1887
Description:
This engraved woodblock of the “Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C.; the image was published as Plate VII (p.128) in an article by Charles Royce (1845-1923) entitled “The Cherokee Nation of Indians: a narrative of their official relations with the colonial and federal governments” in the Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian, 1883-84.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Native Americans
Art
Measuring & Mapping
Communications
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.1531
Catalog number:
1980.0219.1531
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendants"

view Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendants" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of a basket with pendants of beads and bits of shell work
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Holmes, William Henry
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 2.1 cm x 5.2 cm x 2 cm; 13/16 in x 2 1/16 in x 13/16 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Date made:
1888
Description:
This engraved woodblock of “Basket with pendants” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C; the print was published as Figure 313 (p.213) in an article by William H. Holmes (1846-1933) entitled “A Study of the Textile Art in its Relation to the Development of Form and Ornament” in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian,1884-85.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Native Americans
Communications
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Art
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.0504
Accession number:
1980.0219
Catalog number:
1980.0219.0504
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendant buckskin"

view Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendant buckskin" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of a basket with pendant buckskin strands tipped with tin
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Holmes, William Henry
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 6.2 cm x 5 cm x 2.3 cm; 2 7/16 in x 1 15/16 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Date made:
1888
Description:
This engraved woodblock of a “Basket with pendant buckskin” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C.; the image was published as Figure 312 (p.213) in an article by William H. Holmes (1846-1933) entitled “A Study of the Textile Art in its Relation to the Development of Form and Ornament” in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian, 1884-85.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Art
Native Americans
Cultures & Communities
Communications
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.0850
Catalog number:
1980.0219.0850
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of hand signs for the letters 'S' through 'Y'

view Engraved woodblock of hand signs for the letters 'S' through 'Y' digital asset: Engraved woodblock of hand signs for letters S through Z
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Mallery, Garrick
Block maker:
Grottenthaler, V.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 17.9 cm x 10.2 cm x 2.3 cm; 7 1/16 in x 4 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Associated Place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Date made:
ca 1880
Description:
This engraved woodblock shows hand signs for the letters "S" through "Y." The illustration was used in a publication relating to the gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians by Garrick Mallery; it was prepared and printed by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C. for the Bureau of American Ethnology in about 1880.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Communications
Art
Native Americans
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.1368
Catalog number:
1980.0219.1368
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946

view George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Subject:
Clay, Henry
Seward, William Henry
Sully, Thomas
Place of publication, production, or execution:
Other
Physical Description:
2.3 linear feet
Access Note / Rights:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Summary:
The collection comprises 2.3 feet of papers concerning George Catlin's creation and promotion of his famed "Indian Gallery" of paintings, drawings, and artifacts of North American Indians. Dating from 1821 through 1904, with one item dated 1946, the papers the papers include letters, notebooks and journals, receipt books and loose receipts, printed materials, and other documentation. The bulk of the collection focuses on Catlin's efforts to promote the sale of his gallery to the United States government through tours, including London and Paris, and petitions to various governments to purchase the Gallery. Among the rare printed catalogs and petitions in the collection are exhibition catalogs for the U.S., London, and Paris tours, the earliest dating from 1837. Letters and other documents include letters dating from the 1830s from Henry Clay, Thomas Sully, and William Henry Seward commending Catlin's work, as well as Catlin family correspondence and papers dating from 1821 through the 1870s.
Of particular interest in the collection are letters to and from Catlin, including two written by Catlin during his early travels to the west in the 1830s. Other letters include ones from Henry Clay, John Adams Dix, Ralph Randolph Gurley, James Hall, William Henry Seward, Thomas Sully (illustrated), and Baron Friederich von Humbolt, among others. Most wish Catlin well and offer support in his endeavors to sell his collection.
Also found within the collection are several notebooks and notes describing Native American ceremonies, name translations, customs, and other information pertinent to Catlin's catalog, two volume book, and exhibitions of the "Indian Gallery." There are also numerous loose receipts and account and receipt books documenting the 1840s London and Paris venues of the "Indian Gallery" exhibition. The collection also houses printed catalogs for the exhibitions, including a rare 1837 catalog for the first show in New York.
Additional materials include certificates of authenticity testifying to the authenticity of Catlin's paintings from life of Native American sitters, announcements relating to exhibition openings, printed memorials and petitions to Congress, printed letters of support, envelopes and name cards, and handwritten tickets to Catlin lectures. Also found are a handwritten journal of Theodore B. Catlin, photogravures of Catlin, obituaries for Catlin, and printed reviews of the exhibitions.
Citation:
George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Additional Forms:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Funding:
The microfilm for this collection was fully digitized in 2005 as part of the Terra Foundation for American Art Digitization Grant.
Related Materials:
The Archives holds several related collections of differing provenances related to George Catlin, including a small collection of manuscripts and drawings microfilmed on reel 1191 related to Catlin's work in marine art and documentation. A microfilmed loan of circa 500 items is also available on reel 3277 of letters between Catlin and Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1840-1860, writings by Catlin and material on Catlin's Indian Gallery, including clippings, catalogs, handbills, invitations, drawings and portrait sketches of native Americans, and printed material; a watercolor sketchbook; a list of paintings; and miscellany. Also found within the Archives is one undated letter microfilmed on reel D8 from Catlin, and a collection of art historian William Truettner's research papers on George Catlin.
Biography Note:
George Catlin (1796-1872) was a portrait painter, miniature painter, and ethnographer, best known for his paintings of the American Indian.
Provenance:
Deposited at the Archives of American Art 1981 by Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.
Digitization Note:
The papers of George Catlin in the Archives of American Art were digitized in 2005 from 2 reels of microfilm. The papers have been scanned in their entirety, and total 2,360 images.
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Location Note:
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 750 9th St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20001
Topic:
Art and race
Ethnological illustrators
Ethnological painters
Illustrators
Indians of North America
Miniature painters
Painters
Photogravures
Portrait painters
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5435
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209512
AAA_collcode_catlgeor
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
Additional Online Media:

Ute Delegation

view Ute Delegation digital asset number 1
Artist:
Mathew Brady Studio, active 1844 - 1894
Sitter:
Alexander Cameron Hunt, 1825 - 1894
Pe-Ah
Chief Ouray, c. 1833 - 27 Aug 1880
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 17.8 x 49.8cm (7 x 19 5/8")
Mount: 22.9 x 52.2cm (9 x 20 9/16")
Mat: 40.6 x 71.1cm (16 x 28")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1868
Exhibition Label:
This three-part photograph shows eight members of the 1868 Ute delegation to Washington, D.C., standing alongside nine government officials. Because of growing complaints about settlers trespassing on traditional Ute lands, this group came together ostensibly to establish a definable Ute reservation in Colorado. Fourth from the right is Ouray, the individual whom U.S. authorities regarded as the tribe's principal spokesman. Fluent in English and Spanish, Ouray was best able to communicate with federal officials. His close association with Kit Carson-who traveled with the delegation but is not pictured here-and his reputation for being cooperative also made him the person with whom negotiators most wanted to deal. Although he was an important leader, Ouray had no such negotiating authority. Nevertheless, a treaty was signed during the Utes' visit that secured a relatively generous land apportionment. For the remainder of his life, Ouray struggled, often unsuccessfully, to have U.S. authorities honor the terms of this treaty.
Topic:
Interior
Alexander Cameron Hunt: Politics and Government\Governor\Colorado
Chief Ouray: Native American\Leader\Chief
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.93.372
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery

Publications, 2014-2015

view Publications, 2014-2015 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office
Subject:
Harjo, Suzan Shown
Matos Mendieta, Ramiro
Dubin, Lois Sherr
Barreiro, José
Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations (Exhibition) (2014-2018: Washington, D.C.)
Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family (Exhibition) (2014-2016: New York, N.Y.)
The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire (Exhibition) (2015-2018: Washington, D.C.)
Physical description:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Books
Collection descriptions
Treaties
Place:
United States
Date:
2014
2014-2015
Summary:
This accession consists of the following publications that accompanied exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian: "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between United States and American Indian Nations," edited by Suzan Shown Harjo; "Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family," edited by Lois Sherr Dubin; "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire," edited by Ramiro Matos Mendieta and José Barreiro; and "The Great Inka Road: Activity Guide." "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between United States and American Indian Nations" explores the diplomacy, promises, and betrayals involved in two hundred years of treaties and treaty making between the United State government and Native Nations. "Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family" presents a story of Navajo jewelry framed by the work of the Yazzies, a family of gifted jewelers. "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire" delves into the historical, structural, and cultural significance of a road network that linked Cusco, the administrative capital and spiritual center of the Inka world, to the farthest reaches of the vast empire. "The Great Inka Road: Activity Guide" was designed for children under 10 and accompanied the exhibition, "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire." It allows children to explore the Inka Empire and its legacy through STEAM-focused activities: science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics.
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Government relations
Treaty-making power
Museum exhibits
Museum publications
Navajo Indians
Jewelry
Inca roads
Incas
Museums--Educational aspects
Local number:
SIA Acc. 15-031
See more items in:
Publications 1994, 2003-2015 [National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, circa 1850-1900

view Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, circa 1850-1900 digital asset number 1
Photographer:
Fly, C. S (Camillus Sidney) 1849-1901
Jackson, William Henry 1843-1942
Parker, Joseph C
Taber, I. W (Isaiah West) 1830-1912
Tibbitts, H. C
Hook, W. E (William Edward) 1833-1908
Artist:
Moran, Thomas 1837-1926
Rogers, W. A (William Allen) 1854-1931
Physical description:
37 prints : albumen
5 prints : halftone
3 engravings
Culture:
Isleta Indians
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
California
Shoshone Falls (Idaho)
Yellowstone National Park
Snake River (Idaho)
Arizona
Colorado
Date:
1850
circa 1850-1900
Summary:
Scenic views of California, Colorado, Idaho, and Arizona. California images include Mount Shasta, San Francisco, Tehachapi Mountains, Coronado, San Isabell, San Jacinto, Toquich Canyon, and a government school in Agua Caliente. Additional photographs depict Yellowstone National Park and Yellowstone River; Shoshone Falls and Snake River, Idaho; Dragoon Mountains, Arizona; Garden of the Gods, Colorado; and an Isleta wine press.
Photographers include Camillus S. Fly, W. E. Hook, William Henry Jackson, Francis Parker, Rheas Brothers (San Diego View Company), Rifenburg and Murphy, I. W. Taber, and H. C. Tibbets. Additionally, there are photographs of Thomas Moran paintings, a William A. Rogers engraving of a Pueblo wind press, an engraving of Portsmouth Square in San Francisco in 1850, and a few other illustrations from publications.
Cite as:
Photo Lot 29, Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA Photo Lot 29
See more items in:
Photograph collection related to California and views of the west circa 1850-1900
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Frank and Dolores Becker papers 1943-1968

view Frank and Dolores Becker papers 1943-1968 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Becker, Frank E
Becker, Dolores
Indian Association of America
Subject:
United States Army Air Corps
Physical description:
3 linear feet
9 photographic prints
9 sound discs
1 sound cassette
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)
Type:
Membership lists
Collection descriptions
Phonograph records
Photographs
Periodicals
Date:
1943
1943-1968
Notes:
Frank Becker was born in New York City on April 24, 1907 to Frank and Thora Bregartner Becker. A Graduate from Stuyvesant High School and the New York Training School for teachers, Becker received a B.S. from NYU in 1942 and was awarded his degree the same year he was inducted into the Army Air Corps. Becker taught at P.S. 17 before and after WWII and later received a Masters of Arts Degree. Though he started as a mechanic in the Army Air Corps in 1942, Becker was soon transferred to the 704th training group in Atlantic City, New Jersey to help organize a school for illiterate soldiers. Becker was tasked to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to a mixed group of students that included Greeks, Chinese, Navajo, Pima and Papago soldiers. The largest group of Native American soldiers Becker taught were Navajo. Because many of the Navajo soldiers could not speak English, Roger Davis, an elected leader to the Navajo Tribal Council and Presbyterian missionary, was sent to Atlantic City to act as an interpreter. Together, Becker and Davis made phonographic recordings of the Army Handbook in both English and Navajo. Davis assisted Becker for five weeks staying as a guest of the Presbyterian Hospitality House. Becker later wrote a book on his experiences working with the group of Navajo soldiers titled Navajo Way (1956). The experience also sparked a lifelong interested in the Navajo culture as well as awareness of many of the problems facing the Navajo community in regards to education and health. Following the war, Becker visited Arizona and New Mexico with his family in in the fall on 1947.
Frank had Frank met Dolores in the early 1940's through mutual friends and the two were married December 27, 1944. Dolores, born August 6, 1913, had passed the New Jersey bar in 1936 and had been practicing law in the juvenile court system. After meeting Frank she also took an active interest in Native American culture. The family visited Gallup, Window Rock and Indian Wells, where they visited with Roger Davis, making particular note of the schools they visited. On the return from this trip, Becker wrote passionately on the failing of the U.S. government to fulfill its obligations to the Navajo people, particularly in the area of education. Frank and Dolores both joined several organizations, most notably the Indian Association of America, dedicated to helping Native Americans advocating especially for WWII Veterans returning home and education. Additionally, Frank wrote many columns, letters to the editor and speeches on both his experiences teaching Navajo soldiers during the war as well current issues facing Native American communities. Dolores appeared on several TV shows in the 1950's directed towards younger audiences explaining Native American cultures. Frank Becker died November 11, 1979 in Shokan, NY and Dolores died on March 6, 2010 leaving behind a daughter and a son.
According to its constitution and by-laws, The Indian Association of America was originally founded in Denver, Colorado by Dr. Vincent "Red Fox" St. James and Dr. George C. Stagg in 1924. Red Fox, who claimed to be Blackfoot but whose origins are undetermined, had previously been a founder of the Tipi (Tepee) Order of America, an organization that blended ritual aspects closely related to Freemasonry with the pan-Indian movement dedicated to advocacy work for the welfare of Native Americans. The Indian Association of America mimicked this model with some of its stated objectives being; to promote better understanding between the races, to study the Indian cultures of America, to foster education for American Indians, to provide direct help in emergencies faced by American Indian communities, to protest laws detrimental to American Indians and to promote the observance of American Indian Day. Though previously active, the Indian Association of America was officially incorporated in the state of New York in 1950 as a non-profit organization. Frank Becker took over as "Great Sachem," or President, in October of 1950 and led the organization until its dissolution in 1968. Its magazine, Smoke Signals, began publishing bi-monthly in June of 1949 with Dolores Becker serving as editor for the entirety of its run between 1949 and 1961. Frank Becker acted as a contributing editor and later as an advisory editor. The Indian Association of America formally dissolved in March of 1968.
Summary:
The bulk of the Frank and Dolores Becker papers come from their years working for the Indian Association of America between 1949 and 1968 as president (Frank) and secretary (Dolores). This includes administrative materials such as articles of incorporation and dissolution, the constitution and by-laws, member lists, as well as meeting reports and notes. There is also a full run of Smoke Signals (1949-1961), the association's bi-monthly magazine edited by Dolores Becker. In addition to materials regarding the Indian Association of America there are two copies of Frank Becker's book, Navajo Way and background information on his work at the Presbyterian Hospitality house during WWII teaching English and reading to Navajo soldiers. There are several photos of Becker and the Navajo soldiers he taught as well as an audio cassette of the recording in the Navajo language used in the classroom. The recording features Frank Becker in English and Roger Davis in Navajo and includes several prayers as well as general army instructions and general orders for interior guard duty. There are also two scrapbooks in the collection. One was created by Dolores which includes drawings, poems and research she conducted on Native American culture. The second is a scrapbook of newspaper articles and clippings, many of them written by Frank Becker, on the Becker's activities with the Indian Association of America and other related Native American issues. Many notices of Frank Becker's speaking engagements are included in this scrapbook. Also included is the Becker's collection of phonographic records. These nine records, 10 inch (78rm) were produced by Tom Tom records, Canyon records and one by Victor and include a variety of Native American songs.
Cite as:
Frank and Dolores Becker papers, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of North America--Education
Navajo language
Local number:
NMAI.AC.075
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Lawrence "Larry" James Beck papers, 1938-1994

view Lawrence "Larry" James Beck papers, 1938-1994 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Beck, Larry 1938-1994
Physical description:
6 linear feet (13 boxes, 1 half-sized box, 2 oversized boxes)
Culture:
Yupik Eskimos
Type:
Correspondence
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Negatives
Newsletters
Notes
Pamphlets
Photographs
Portfolios (groups of works)
Sketches
Slides (photographs)
Place:
North America
Washington (State)
Date:
1938
1938-1994
Notes:
Lawrence "Larry" James Beck (1938-1994) was sculptor and mixed-media artist of Yup'ik descent. Born in Seattle, Washington to a non-Indian father and a Norwegian/Yup'ik mother, Beck originally studied engineering at the University of Washington before turning his attention to art. In 1964 he earned a B.A. in painting, followed by an M.F.A. in 1965.
During the late 1960s and 1970s, Beck's work focused on his large scale, abstract pieces and established his reputation as a sculptor. His early works were comprised of found metals and objects assembled in a lyrical but humorous manner. During 1975-1980, he installed projects for Golden Gardens Park in Seattle, Highline Community College and Boeing (King County Airport). He also worked on a piece for the Occidental Park site in Seattle, but due to circumstances of the city it was never installed.
In the early 1970s Beck visited the his ancestral homelands on the Alaskan coast and established a connection to Yup'ik culture. In 1973 he started to produce a new series of pieces called "Inukshuk", which is Inuit for sculpture presence. This term was also used for three major commissions that later followed and Beck continued to use Inuit terminology in his work. After the 1980 install of the Boeing sculpture, Beck experienced what he would call his sculpture career crisis. He became disappointed with public art and abandoned sculpture to focus on creating abstract Inuit Inua (spirit) masks. On March 27, 1994, Beck died of a heart attack in his home in Washington.
Summary:
The Lawrence James Beck papers contain biographical materials, sculpture portfolios, art shows, notes, sketches and drawings, publications, correspondence and visual material including photos, slides and negatives of Beck's art.
Series 1: Biographical and Personal, (undated, 1938-1994), contains resumes, personal articles and articles by Larry's friends, articles of interest to him, notes on his dreams, video tape transcription and notes on 'The Bank', the studio/home that he purchased in 1970 in Conway, Washington. Series 2: Correspondence, (undated, 1966-1994), contains correspondence pertaining to his artwork or shows, correspondence between Larry and family, also includes correspondence with the United States Government, as well as miscellaneous correspondence. Organized alphabetically and then chronologically.
Series 3: Sculptures and shows, (undated, 1966-1994), contains art show information and art projects that Larry participated in. Series 4: Sketches, drawings, notes and ideas, (undated), contains handwritten notes on artwork, or ideas of what to produce, drawings of sculptures and various ideas about sculptures. Series 5: Publications, (undated, 1966-1995), contains pamphlets, newsletters, journals and non art related publications that were of interest to Larry.
Series 6: Miscellaneous material, (undated), contains invoices of materials and non-art related purchases, shipping material receipts of artwork, resumes from other people and literature on producing sculpture. Series 7: Visual material, contains photographs, negatives and slides. All visual material is organized by influences to Larry's work, his sculptures, Larry's Native American art, family and people, and vacations and travel.
Cite as:
Lawrence James Beck papers, 1938-1994, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Indian art
Inuit masks
Public sculpture, American
Sculptors
Local number:
NMAI.AC.017
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection. Contact information below
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Anne Pearse Hocker negatives, photographs, and other materials, 1970-1973

view Anne Pearse Hocker negatives, photographs, and other materials, 1970-1973 digital asset number 1
Subject:
Banks, Dennis
Bellecourt, Clyde H (Clyde Howard) 1936-
Bellecourt, Vernon
Means, Russell 1939-
Aquash, Anna Mae 1945-1976
Black Elk, Wallace H
Frizzell, Kent 1929-
American Indian Movement
Physical description:
ca. 2200 photographic negatives : black and white ; 8 x 10 in. 35 mm
54 contact sheets : black and white
Type:
Black-and-white negatives
Collection descriptions
Contact sheets
Place:
Wounded Knee (S.D.)
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Pine Ridge (S.D.)
Date:
1970
1970-1973
Indian occupation, 1973
Notes:
Anne Pearce Hocker is a photojournalist who received her degree in journalism from the University of Kansas. Her photographs, whether purposefully or serendipitously, document some very important moments in the history of the American Indian Movement (AIM). As a journalism student, Hocker was scheduled to interview the area director of the BIA in Minneapolis in 1970 as part of an academic project, and ended up in the middle of the AIM siege of the building, which she captured in film. She also used this opportunity to develop contacts with AIM leaders Clyde Bellecourt and Dennis Banks. Her connection with Banks come in handy to her in 1973 during the Siege of Wounded Knee. Hocker snuck into the compound with a CBS news crew and was the only individual allowed to remain within the compound due to her acquaintance with Banks, who remembered her from Minneapolis. She had strategically arrived the evening before the standoff was supposed to end, but instead, after she had entered the compound, the standoff lasted another two weeks. She was the only photojournalist allowed to remain amongst the Native contingent during the final two weeks of the standoff. She returned to Wounded Knee in 1998 to revisit the site on its 25th anniversary, and documented the experience in the journal 'Native Americas' (Spring 1998 issue) with new photographs of some of the survivors of the event.
Summary:
The majority of Hocker's momentous negatives give eyewitness account to two weeks of both the mundane and brutal reality of daily life during the 1973 siege of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The takeover of the town and the conflict between about 200 members of AIM (American Indian Movement, the Native American civil rights activist organization begun in the 1968) and the United States Marshals Service began on February 27 and lasted for 71 days, resulting in tragedy on both sides of the conflict. Members of AIM along with some local Oglala (Lakota) Sioux from the local reservation took over the town in protest against the United States Government's history of broken treaties with various Native groups, the poverty and maltreatment of Native populations, as well as in defiance against the corruption and paternalism within the local subsidiary of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The siege finally came to an end on May 5 when members of AIM and the assistant attorney general for the Civil Division of the US Justice Department Harlington Wood Jr. settled on a ceasefire. Kent Frizzell served as Chief Government Negotiator in the capacity of Assistant Attorney General (Land and Natural Resources Division, U. S. Department of Justice) and later as Solicitor, U. S. Department of the Interior. Among those pictured both during and post-conflict are AIM activists Dennis Banks, Clyde and Vernon Bellecourt, Ted and Russell Means, Frank Clearwater, Wallace Black Elk and Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. A small number of negatives also document AIM's takeover of the BIA building and the AIM Powwow both in Minneapolis in 1970.
Topic:
Oglala Indians
Teton Indians
Indians of North America--Government relations
Oglala Indians--Government relations
History
Local number:
NMAI.AC.028
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the Archive Center to make an appointment
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Rock Island Arsenal photograph collection related to the Wounded Knee Massacre, Battle of Little Big Horn, Sauk and Fox Indians undated

view Rock Island Arsenal photograph collection related to the Wounded Knee Massacre, Battle of Little Big Horn, Sauk and Fox Indians undated digital asset number 1
Collector:
Rock Island Arsenal (Ill.)
Photographer:
Northwestern Photographic Company
Subject:
United States Army
Physical description:
11 copy prints
Culture:
Sauk Indians
Fox Indians
Teton Indians
Indians of North America Northeast
Indians of North America Great Plains
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Date:
undated
Notes:
Rock Island Arsenal is located on an island in the Mississippi River between the cities of Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island, Illinois. With the construction of Fort Armstrong in 1816, it was established as a government site. Fort Armstrong, located just a few miles from the principal Sac and Fox village, was one of a series of western frontier defenses built by the army. The treaty ending the Black Hawk war was signed at Fort Armstrong in 1832, and the fort was garrisoned until 1836.
Summary:
Images include gathering of the dead after the Massacre at Wounded Knee, January 1, 1891; a portrait of the wife of Chief Montana and captured Sioux warriors and United States Army soldiers after the Battle of Little Big Horn. A large portion of the collection represents Rock Island County history and includes images of Keokuk, chief of the Sacs Indians; Black Hawk, a war chief of the Sacs Indians; Logan Ka-ka-que, grandson of Black Hawk; Se-us-kuk, son of Black Hawk; Mary Ka-ka-que, great-great-granddaughter of Black Hawk; Jesse Ka-ka-que, great-grandson of Black Hawk; part of a Fox Indian memorial post placed at the grave of Colonel George Davenport; and summer and winter homes for Sac and Fox Indians.
Cite as:
Photo lot R82-57, Rock Island Arsenal photograph collection related to the Wounded Knee Massacre, Battle of Little Big Horn, Sauk and Fox Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Little Bighorn, Battle of the, Mont., 1876
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890
Local number:
NAA Photo Lot R82-57
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Lantern slides of Ferdinand Pettrich sculptures related to American Indians 1927

view Lantern slides of Ferdinand Pettrich sculptures related to American Indians 1927 digital asset number 1
Collector:
Nuttall, Zelia 1858-1933
Cooper, John M (John Montgomery) 1881-1949
Subject:
Pettrich, Ferdinand 1798-1872
Tecumseh Shawnee Chief 1768-1813
Black Hawk approximately 1832-approximately 1890
Keokuk Sauk chief 1780?-1848
Museo missionario etnologico
Physical description:
28 lantern slides
Culture:
Dakota Indians
Fox Indians
Creek Indians
Sauk Indians
Shawnee Indians
Winnebago Indians
Indians of North America Northeast
Indians of North America Great Plains
Indians of North America Southern States
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1927
Notes:
Ferdinand Pettrich (1798-1872) was born in Dresden, Germany, and first learned sculpting practices from his father, a court sculptor for the King of Saxony. After moving to Rome at age 21, he studied under the Danish sculptor and teacher Albert B. Thorvaldsen. Following this education, Pettrich traveled to America with his wife in 1835, and opened a studio in Washington, D.C. There, he sculpted busts for politicians and visiting American Indian delegates and may have made sketches depicting facets of the life and history of various tribes. Some of those sketches were later used to compose his statues. In 1942, Pettrich was stabbed, and moved to recuperate in Brazil, where he worked as court sculptor for Emperor Dom Pedro II. He later returned to Rome, where he presented his sculptures of American Indian subjects to the Museum of St. John Lateran in the Vatican.
Summary:
Photographs of statues, busts, and reliefs in the Vatican's Museo Missionario Etnologico. Included are portraits of Creek, Dakota, Fox, Sauk, Shawnee, and Winnebago Indians, as well as scenes of scalping, hunting, and a council between Indians and United States government officials.
Cite as:
Photo lot 20, Lantern slides of Ferdinand Pettrich sculptures related to American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA Photo Lot 20
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Teriananda papers, 1972-1999

view Teriananda papers, 1972-1999 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Teriananda 1947-
Subject:
Peltier, Leonard
Physical description:
.83 linear feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Navajo Indians
Hopi Indians
Type:
Letters
Collection descriptions
Reports
Clippings
Articles
Writings
Date:
1972
1972-1999
Notes:
Teriananda was born in Manhattan in 1947, where she grew up and has continued to live throughout her adult life. Teriananda's father, born in Brooklyn, became a financial officer and independent scholar; her mother, born in British Guiana (now Guyana), was a classical pianist who immigrated to the United States and later became an editorial assistant, working part-time during Teriananda's childhood. Her parents instilled in her a belief that she was "a citizen of the world." She studed ballet as a youngster, and as a teenager, immersed herself in the artistic and intellectual milieu of the Lower East Side and Greenwich Village. An improperly diagnosed back injury while she was a senior in high school resulted in severe back problems in the 1970s that have persisted throughout her life.
Teriananda became interested in indigenous struggles in the 1970s, following a "back crisis" that almost took her life yet proved to be psychically transformative. In seeking to know who she was, she realized she needed to know where she was, and this led her to ask who the original inhabitants of the continent were. She soon became involved in activist struggles for indigenous rights and worked with a number of Native American groups during the 1970s and 1980s, including the International Treaty Council's attempts to found the United Nations permanent Working Group on Indigenous People, support for Yvonne Wanrow and Leonard Peltier, the issue of uranium contamination from mining on Native American land, and the problem of the Joint Land Use Area near Big Mountain on the Hopi and Navajo reservations.
Teriananda also worked on issues surrounding the AIDS crisis after the death of several friends from the disease. She had become familiar with the possibilities of natural medicines, partly through contact with traditional Native teachers, and she became active promoting the benefits of nutritional, herbal and other natural therapies to sufferers of AIDS. As Teriananda's own health issues persisted and worsened, she turned to Tibetan Buddhism, and has devoted herself to artistic pursuits influenced by this spiritual path. Although she has cut back on her activism, due to health problems and family demands, Teriananda remains a committed political activist who stays informed of current issues and is determined to pass on the heritage of struggles for peace and justice to the next generation.
Summary:
This collection, from the 1970s to the 1990s, is comprised of published and unpublished writings by Teriananda, as well as letters, reports, newspaper and magazine articles, group newsletters, flyers and announcements of political events, and news releases. The issues represented here, including support work for "The Longest Walk" campaign for justice for Leonard Peltier and the Big Mountain relocation, are indicative of the concerns in parts of Indian country in the United States and elsewhere during these decades.
Series I, Writings (1978-1991) contains original writings by Teriananda, including an interview with Native American activist Bill Wahpepah, a report on the state of the natural world with an appendix of written materials Teriananda used to supplement the report, and a newsletter for the New York City Big Mountain Support group.
Series II, Political Activities (undated; 1972-1996) consists of a variety of writings over more than two decades, including newsletters, reports, flyers, newspaper and magazine articles, and news releases, all of it relating to the political activities with which Teriananda has been involved in support of indigenous peoples. These include support for Latin American indigenous struggles, rain forest initiatives, the Black Hills, Leonard Peltier, the Longest Walk, which was enacted to protest and lobby against eleven bills before Congress which Indians felt would alter treaties between the U.S. government and various Indian tribes, and issues surrounding the Navajo relocation from the Hopi-Navajo Joint Use Area around Big Mountain.
Cite as:
Teriananda papers, 1972-1999, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of Mexico
Indians of Central America
Indians of South America
Indians of North America--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Relocation
AIDS (Disease)
Naturopathy
Traditional medicine
Local number:
NMAI.AC.009
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection. Contact information below
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943

view Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Bohemian Circle in Washington
Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthropology Division of Physical Anthropology
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
Correspondent:
Adams, W. I
Adler, Cyrus 1863-1940
Alderman, E.M
Alliot, Hector
Alvarez, Walter C
Ameghino, Florentino
Angell, James R
Abbott, William Louis 1860-1936
Absolon, Karel
Allyn, Harriet M
Lowie, Robert
Robinson, Edward G
Hemingway, Ernest
Ami, Henry
Anthony, R
Ashley-Montagu, Montague Francis
Atwood, Charles E
Avirette, John Allfred
Baer, John Leonard
Bell, Enoch
Martin, Fredericka I
Bingham, Hiram
Bingman, C.E
Blue, Ruppert
Bloomfield, Leonard 1887-1949
Bodding, P.C
Bogue, E.A
Bothwell, J.A
Bridges, Calvin B
Burlin, Natalie Curtis
Babcock, William H
Baldwin, Bird T
Barrus, Clara
Barry, J. Neilson
Bartashchell, A.W
Barton, James L
Bather, F.A
Bean, Robert Bennett
Benes, Edward
Betsche, Chris
Bell, Earl H
Bilgery, Conrad
Birket-Smith, Kaj
Bishop, Carl W
Black, Davidson
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Bogoras, Waldemar G
Borbolla, F. Rubin I
Bowman, Isaiah
Boyd, William C
Boyle, Mary Elizabeth
Breasted, James Henry
Breton, Adela C
Breuil Abbe
Briggs, H.H
Brockett, Paul 1872-1946
Brown, A.R
Barnum, Brown
Bunak, V
Bunnell, Charles E
Bushnell, David Ives Jr 1875-1941
Cadbury, William W
Callendar, G.R
Campbell, W.W
Capitan, Louis
Castellanos, Abraham
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931
Celler, Emanuel
Chamberlain, Thomas C
Clark, G. Hardy
Clemens, James B
Colbert, L.O
Comas, Juan
Comer, George
Cameron, John
Candela, P.B
Carroll, Mitchell
Cattell, Jacque
Cattell, James McKeen
Chapman, John W Rev
Ciocco, Antonio
Cipriani, Lidio
United States Department of Agriculture
Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia
Alaskan Sportsman
American Anthropological Association
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born
American Geographical Society
Journal of the American Medical Association
American Philosophical Society
United States Department of Commerce
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Abbot, Charles Greeley
Subject:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Panama California Exposition physical anthropology exhibits
Peking Union Medical College
Royal Anthropological Society Huxley lecture
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)
American Association of Physical Anthropologists
International Congress of Americanists
Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington, D.C.)
American Anthropological Association
Washington Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C.)
National Academy of Science
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Institute of Population
American School in France for Prehistoric Studies
Committee on Anthropological Affairs
Physical description:
133 linear feet
Culture:
American Indian tuberculosis among
Chippewa Leech Lake
Chippewa White Earth
Dakota Indians
Pachamac Peru archeology
Apache Indians
Dakota Oglala
Shawnee Indians
Menominee Indians
Pima Indians
Huichol
Mohave Indians
Hupa Indians
Tarahumara Indians
Quinailt
Indians of North America Northeast
Ojibwa Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Quinault Indians
Indians of North America Great Plains
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Oglala Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1887
1887-1943
ca 1887-1943
Notes:
Ales Hrdlicka was born in Bohemia and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."
In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.
It was thus that Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.
In his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka's contributions to American physical anthropology were great. His travels and field studies alone were impressive and important in his growth as an authority on the migration of man to the New World, human evolution, and the variations of man's physical form. In 1905, he returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.
Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.
Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.
In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.
Summary:
Hrdlicka's papers comprise a wide variety of materials but consist largely of correspondence, manuscripts of writings, physical anthropological tables and notes, and photographs. The material reflects his many professional interests and activities except for the earliest, for which the documents were destroyed by fire. Since he apparently made little distinction between his official and private activities, the papers incorporate many official records of the of the Smithsonian's Division of Physical Anthropology. This and other material show his wide-range of contacts with anthroplogists, especially physical anthropologists, and with many scholars in related sciences. Yet other material is personal and includes such documents as those relating to Hrdlicka's private property and correspondence with members of his family. Notably present is correspondence with his first wife, Marie Strickler. There are also documents that concern Hrdlicka's continued ties with Czechoslovakia (much of it in Czech) and his interests in Czech-American organizations, scientific development of Czechoslovakia, and his concern for its political fate, especially during World War II.
Cite as:
Ales Hrdlicka Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Old Americans
Trenton skeletal material
Fossils--man
Human evolution
Children--physical anthropology
Tuberculosis--American Indians
Huntington collection
Forensic anthropology
Immigration law--and physical anthropology
Children who run on all fours
Anthropometry
My Journeys, by A. Hrdlicka
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Irving Goldman Papers, 1935-1986

view Irving Goldman Papers, 1935-1986 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Goldman, Irving 1911-2002
Correspondent:
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Mead, Margaret 1901-1978
Physical description:
9.3 linear feet (26 boxes); 27 sound recordings
Culture:
Cubeo Indians
Kwakiutl Indians
Carrier Indians
Modoc Indians
Bella Coola Indians
Shuswap Indians
Tzotzil Indians
Polynesians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Indians of North America Plateau
Indians of South America
Type:
Field notes
Collection descriptions
Sound recordings
Photographs
Color slides
Place:
British Columbia
Chiapas (Mexico)
Vaupés (Colombia)
Date:
1935
1935-1986
1960-1990
Notes:
Irving Goldman (1911-2002) was born in Brooklyn, New York, and completed his B.S. from Brooklyn College in 1933 and his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1941, where he focused his work on the Ulkcatcho Carrier of British Columbia. While at Columbia, Goldman was one of the last students of Frank Boas. Goldman was a member of the Communist party from 1936 - 1942. After graduating from Columbia, he served from 1942 - 1947 in various departments of the United States Government, primarily as a researcher. He was released in 1947 as a security risk. Goldman taught at Sarah Lawrence College, in Bronxville, NY from 1947-1981, where he also served on many faculty committees, as well as their Board of Trustees. During this time, Goldman continued his anthropological research. He spent 1955 in Chiapas, Mexico, studying the Tzotzil of Chamula Indians. He also did a library project on Polynesia, which led to his book "Ancient Polynesian Society" (1970), a key work in anthropological thought. During his time at Sarah Lawrence College, Goldman also published two other significant books: "The Cubeo: Indians of the Northwest Amazon" (1963) and "The Mouth of Heaven: An Introduction to Kwakiutl Religious Thought" (1975). In 1968, he returned to Vaupes to study the Cubeo, continuing his research there into the early 1980s. From 1980 - 1987, Goldman taught at the New School for Social Research in New York City. During the McCarthy Era, in 1953, Goldman was forced to testify before the Jenner Senate Committee, which investigated connections between academics and communism. He took his First Amendment right, which was a risky tactic, however Sarah Lawrence College decided not to fire him as he had admitted to being a party of the party, but avoided naming others who he knew had been members. Goldman died April 7, 2002. His final manuscript was published posthumously as "Cubeo Henewa Religious Thought: Metaphysics of a Northwestern Amazonian People" (2004).
Summary:
The focus of the collection is Irving Goldman's field research on the Cubeo Indians of Vaupes, Colombia. In addition to documentation from multiple trips to Cubeo, the collection also includes some materials relating to his work on the Modoc, the Ulkatcho Carrier, Polynesians, and Tzotzil of Chamula Indians of Chiapas, Mexico. The Cubeo materials include field notes, research notes, questionnaires and photographs that Goldman used in his publications, which include The Cubeo: Indians of the Northwest Amazon and Hehenewa of the Cuduiari: An Introduction to Cubean Religious Thought, which was published posthumously as Cubeo Hehenewa Religious Thought: Metaphysics of a Northwestern Amazonian People. Additional materials from his Cubeo research are 26 field recordings of music, interviews, and dances. Also in the collection is a sound recording relating to the Kwakiutl Indians. The work on Polynesia for his publication "Ancient Polynesian Society" consist of his reading notes. His Ulkatcho Carrier notes contain language material from his field research among the Ulkatcho, Nazko, and Quesnel, three Carrier bands in the Blackwater dialect group. His notes from his research in Chiapas contain ethnographic and linguistic notes on what appears to be Tzotzil. The Modoc materials also contain ethnographic and linguistic notes. The correspondence in the collection is a mix of professional and personal. This includes correspondence from former students and recommendations he wrote for them. In the writing series are notes and edits of chapters and manuscripts for his books, as well as articles that Goldman wrote and a couple of speeches he gave. The collection includes many photographs, most of which do not have descriptions of locations. The identified photographs include images from Vaupes and Chiapas, Mexico. There is one folder that includes some photographs of the Modoc, and another that contains pictures from the British Columbia Ulkatcho. nother important part of this collection is from his personal materials. Goldman was a Communist from 1936-1942, and in 1953 was brought before the Jenner Committee. The file Goldman kept of this investigation includes a transcript of his appearance in front of the Committee, as well as many newspaper clippings.
Cite as:
Irving Goldman Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Cubeo language
Carrier language
Bella Coola language
Modoc language
Shuswap language
Tzotzil language
Linguistics
Language and languages--Documentation
Communism
Ethnology
See more items in:
Irving Goldman Papers 1935-1986
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

Philip Drucker Papers 1933- ca. 1954

view Philip Drucker Papers 1933- ca. 1954 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Drucker, Philip 1911
Kroeber, A. L (Alfred Louis) 1876-1960
Beynon, William
Garfield, Viola Edmundson 1899-1983
Fast, Edward G
Beardsley, Richard King
Albert, John
Uyeharan, Harry K
Tobin, J.E
Thompson, George E
Heizer, Robert Fleming 1915-1979
Correspondent:
Caso y Andrade, Alfonso
Comas, Juan
Duff, William
Dávalos Hurtado, Eusebio
Kidder, Alfred II
McCall, Walter
Noguera, Eduardo
Opler, Morris Edward
Paul, William Lewis Sr
Rubin de la Borbolla, Daniel F
Scow, William
Sorenson, John
Stirling, Matthew Williams 1896-1975
Physical description:
17 boxes
Culture:
American Indian Northwest Coast
American Indian Oregon Coast
American Indian Southwest
Micronesians
Bellabella
Xaihais
Karok Indians
Papago
Likiep
Jaliut
Angaur
Haida Indians
Bellacoola
Yaqui Indians
Chinook
Yurok Indians
Alsea Indians
Coos Indians
Kwakiutl Indians
Nootka Indians
Tolowa
Tsimshian Indians
Diegueño Indians
Luiseño Indians
Clackamas Indians
American Indian California
Bikini
Wikeno
Haisla
Heiltsuk Indians
Karuk
Akwa'ala
Kili
Ebon
Samoan
Samoans
Indians of North America California
Paipai Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Bella Coola Indians
Oowekeeno Indians
Indians of North America Plateau
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Tohono O'Odham Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Meso-America
Mexico
Kili (Marshall Islands)
Date:
1933- ca 1954
Summary:
Microfilm record includes: (2) Volumes II, VI; Negative microfilm on file (6/63). 320 frames for both. (44) Massett Haida tales, 12 pages on Negative reel number 29. (75) Negative microfilm on file. Approximately 125 frames. (76) Negative microfilm on file. Approximately 64 frames. (98) 6 pages typed only on negative reel number 29. Other material: a 1943 manuscript, Archeological Reconnaissance in the Tres Zapotes Region. 61 pages, 32 plates. Note with plates states that maps etc. (Figures 1-6) turned over to Cassedy October 9, 1942. Delivered by M.C.B. to Dr Stirling, December 13, 1957, to be sent on loan to Dr Robert J. Squier, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley 4, California.
Also found: Sketch of bird's-head mask (?) with handwritten caption, "A-waht-tok-sim." No date. 1 page. W. C. Sturtevant discovered sketch 12/26/68 between pages 96-97 (P-R section of Nootka vocabulary) in copy of Joseph Mariano Mozino Suarez de Figueroa, Nocticias de Nutka, Mexico, 1913; copy donated to Bureau of American Ethnology Library, January, 1956 and inscribed inside cover: "Phil Drucker 6/14/37." Filed with Drucker papers, pending identification. (No comparable material found 3/69 in Drucker file; secs. 2, 28, 32, 38 only checked.)
The processed material in this collection concerns work before 1955. Inlcuded are field notebooks, printed material, drafts of manuscripts, notes, catographic material, drawings, photograhs, writings, historical documents, and copies of United States government documents. Incorporated are notes (often comments and suggestion regarding Drucker's work) by Alfred Louis Kroeber, photographs of Nootka by R. Maynard, copies of papers by William Beynon and Viola Garfield, a catalog of an Alaskan Collection of Edward G. Fast, a field notebook relating to the British Columbia coast archeology survey by Richard King Beardsley, notes on Alsea by John Albert, and miscellaneous papers of various authors concerning Micronesia. The latter includes material by Harry K. Uyeharan on Angaur clan organization, J.E. Tobin on the Bikini, and George E. Thompson on education in American Samoa.
Cite as:
Manuscript 4516, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Archeology
Native Brotherhood, Northwest Coast Indians
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 4516
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

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