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National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)

view National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989) digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Deloria, Vine
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Tonasket, Mel
Trimble, Charles E
Arrow, Inc
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
Physical description:
251 linear feet
Type:
Administrative records
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Clippings
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Videotapes
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
20th century
1934-
Notes:
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues.
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service.
Summary:
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings.
Cite as:
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Alaska Natives--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Indian termination policy
Radioactive wastes--Management
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

National Congress of American Indians audio and film recordings 1952-1997

view National Congress of American Indians audio and film recordings 1952-1997 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Harjo, Suzan Shown
Trimble, Charles E
Deloria, Vine
Tonasket, Mel
Delacruz, Joseph B
Physical description:
713 sound cassettes
442 sound tape reels 1/4 inch open reel
30 videocassettes (u-matic)
24 videoreels (1/2 inch)
10 videocassettes (vhs)
3 sound cartridges
1 videocassette (hi8)
1 dictaphone belt
Type:
Audio cassettes
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Audiovisual materials
Date:
1952
1952-1997
20th century
Notes:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare. Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern. The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Summary:
This collection of National Congress of America Indians Audio and Film Recordings contains materials created by and for NCAI to maintain a record of organizational proceedings and events between 1952 and 1997. Recorded in various formats, the bulk of this collection is on 1/4" open reel to reel tapes and sound cassettes. The collection also contains smaller numbers of EIAJ open reel videotapes, U-Matic, VHS and Hi-8 videocassettes and well as dictaphone belts and audio cartridges. The first series in this collection contains audio recordings from NCAI annual and mid-year convetions held in different locations all over the United States. The second series includes events hosted by NCAI or attended by NCAI representatives. These include executive council meetings, congressional hearings, intertribal institutes and a variety of workshops and meetings regarding economic, civil and educational issues facing indian country. Several larger events include the Arizona Intertribal Institute (1955), The National Indian Policy Conference (1974), LEAA Conference (1978), Environmental Protection Hearings and Seminars (1988) and the Senate Indian Affairs Special Investigations Subcommittee meetings (1989). A conference held in 1993 also documents the early history of NCAI with speakers such as Helen Peterson, John Rainer and Erma Hicks Walz.
Cite as:
National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Congresses and conventions
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Open reel
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010.001
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978

view National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
Youpee, William
Toda, Chinzu
Subject:
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
Physical description:
40 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Type:
Sound recordings
Letters
Printed material
Minutes
Lists
Date:
1971-1978
Notes:
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
Summary:
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands.
Cite as:
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Topic:
Indian-government relations
Indian interest groups
Local number:
NMAI.AC.014
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Engraved woodblock of the "Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597"

view Engraved woodblock of the "Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of the earliest map showing location of the Cherokees, 1597
Publisher:
Government Printing Office
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Royce, Charles C.
Block maker:
J. J. & Co.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 15.1 cm x 19 cm x 2.3 cm; 5 15/16 in x 7 1/2 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
map
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York
Date made:
1887
Description:
This engraved woodblock of the “Earliest map showing [the] location of the Cherokees, 1597” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C.; the image was published as Plate VII (p.128) in an article by Charles Royce (1845-1923) entitled “The Cherokee Nation of Indians: a narrative of their official relations with the colonial and federal governments” in the Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian, 1883-84.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Native Americans
Art
Measuring & Mapping
Communications
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.1531
Catalog number:
1980.0219.1531
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendants"

view Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendants" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of a basket with pendants of beads and bits of shell work
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Holmes, William Henry
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 2.1 cm x 5.2 cm x 2 cm; 13/16 in x 2 1/16 in x 13/16 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Date made:
1888
Description:
This engraved woodblock of “Basket with pendants” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C; the print was published as Figure 313 (p.213) in an article by William H. Holmes (1846-1933) entitled “A Study of the Textile Art in its Relation to the Development of Form and Ornament” in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian,1884-85.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Native Americans
Communications
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Art
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.0504
Accession number:
1980.0219
Catalog number:
1980.0219.0504
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendant buckskin"

view Engraved woodblock of a "Basket with pendant buckskin" digital asset: Engraved woodblock of a basket with pendant buckskin strands tipped with tin
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Holmes, William Henry
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 6.2 cm x 5 cm x 2.3 cm; 2 7/16 in x 1 15/16 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Date made:
1888
Description:
This engraved woodblock of a “Basket with pendant buckskin” was prepared by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C.; the image was published as Figure 312 (p.213) in an article by William H. Holmes (1846-1933) entitled “A Study of the Textile Art in its Relation to the Development of Form and Ornament” in the Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian, 1884-85.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Art
Native Americans
Cultures & Communities
Communications
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.0850
Catalog number:
1980.0219.0850
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Engraved woodblock of hand signs for the letters 'S' through 'Y'

view Engraved woodblock of hand signs for the letters 'S' through 'Y' digital asset: Engraved woodblock of hand signs for letters S through Z
Publisher:
Bureau of American Ethnology
Printer:
Government Printing Office
Author:
Mallery, Garrick
Block maker:
Grottenthaler, V.
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
engraving (overall production method/technique)
Measurements:
overall: 17.9 cm x 10.2 cm x 2.3 cm; 7 1/16 in x 4 in x 7/8 in
Object Name:
block
Object Type:
Wood Engraving
Place made:
United States: District of Columbia, Washington
Associated Place:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Date made:
ca 1880
Description:
This engraved woodblock shows hand signs for the letters "S" through "Y." The illustration was used in a publication relating to the gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians by Garrick Mallery; it was prepared and printed by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C. for the Bureau of American Ethnology in about 1880.
Location:
Currently not on view
Subject:
Communications
Art
Native Americans
Cultures & Communities
Science & Mathematics
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
ID Number:
1980.0219.1368
Catalog number:
1980.0219.1368
Accession number:
1980.0219
See more items in:
Culture and the Arts: Graphic Arts
Wood Blocks for early Bureau of American Ethnology Publications, Graphic Arts Collection
Wood Engravings, Graphic Arts Collection
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

Records, 1985-1995

view Records, 1985-1995 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Office of Government Relations
Subject:
Adams, Robert McC (Robert McCormick) 1926-
West, W. Richard
Abeyta, Pablita
Mims, A. Bradley
Rodgers, Mark W
Alexander Hamilton United States Custom House (New York, N.Y.)
Dulles International Airport
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)
United States Congress
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)
Smithsonian Institution Office of Governmental Relations
All Roads Are Good: Native Voices on Life and Culture (Exhibition) (1994-2000: New York, N.Y.)
Pathways of Tradition: Indian Insights into Indian Worlds (Exhibition) (1992-1993: New York, N.Y.)
This Path We Travel: Celebrations of Contemporary Native American Creativity (Exhibition) (1994-1995: New York, N.Y.)
Physical description:
3 cu. ft. (3 record storage boxes)
Type:
Books
Collection descriptions
Brochures
Clippings
Manuscripts
Maps
Posters
Place:
Mall, The (Washington, D.C.)
National Mall (Washington, D.C.)
Date:
1985
1985-1995
Summary:
These records consist of correspondence between Secretary Robert McC. Adams and various leaders of the United States Congress on matters such as funding for the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian, the repatriation of Native American Indian artifacts at the National Mall, acquisition of the United States Customs House in New York City for its conversion to a museum, and constructing of new facilities for the National Air and Space Museum near Dulles International Airport. There are also copies of the Secretary's testimony before congressional committees; memoranda between the Secretary and Mark W. Rodgers, Director, Office of Government Relations; memoranda and notes between the Director and his staff, Senior Government Relations Officers, Pablita Abeyta and A. Bradley Mims; and correspondence between the Secretary and Richard West, Director, National Museum of the American Indian. Other records include bound volumes of budget justifications for fiscal years 1992 through 1996, posters and a map showing historical territories of Native Americans, national historical landmarks and parks in the United States, brochures, and newspaper and magazine articles.
Topic:
Budget process
Budget
Exhibitions
Indians of North America
Legislation
Museum buildings
Museum finance
Local number:
SIA Acc. 95-080
See more items in:
National Museum of the American Indian Records 1985-1994 [Smithsonian Institution Office of Government Relations]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

External Affairs Files, 1990-2004

view External Affairs Files, 1990-2004 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of the Director
Subject:
West, W. Richard
Physical description:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Brochures
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Manuscripts
Date:
1990
1990-2004
Summary:
This accession consists of records documenting the tenure of W. Richard West, Director, 1990-2007. Materials pertain to communications and meetings with external organizations, societies, and museums; government bureaus, agencies, and bodies; and media. Materials include correspondence, memoranda, reports, brochures, and clippings.
Topic:
Indians of North America--Museums
Museum directors
Museums--Public relations
Local number:
SIA Acc. 12-080
See more items in:
External Affairs Files 1983-2010 [National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of the Director]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Publications, 2009

view Publications, 2009 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office
Subject:
Akers, Donna
Champagne, Duane
Johnson, Troy R
Trafzer, Clifford E
Venables, Robert W
Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa
HarperCollins (Firm)
Physical description:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Books
Collection descriptions
Place:
United States
Date:
2009
Summary:
This accession consists of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) publication, "American Indians/American Presidents: A History." The book, co-published with HarperCollins, was edited by Clifford E. Trafzer and includes essays by five scholars of Native American history, including Robert W. Venables, Donna Akers, Matthew Sakiestewa Gilbert, Duane Champagne, and Troy R. Johnson. "American Indians/American Presidents: A History" explores the relationship of tribal leaders and American presidents; covering what they said and felt about one another, and how their words and actions framed relations between Native nations and the United States. The book also shows how Native people advanced their own agenda for tribal sovereignty, from the 18th century to the present.
Topic:
Indian leadership
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Museum publications
Self-determination, National
Presidents--History
Presidents--Racial attitudes
Local number:
SIA Acc. 10-009
See more items in:
Publications 1994, 2003-2016 [National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946

view George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Catlin, George, 1796-1872
Subject:
Clay, Henry
Seward, William Henry
Sully, Thomas
Place of publication, production, or execution:
Other
Physical Description:
2.3 linear feet
Access Note / Rights:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Summary:
The collection comprises 2.3 feet of papers concerning George Catlin's creation and promotion of his famed "Indian Gallery" of paintings, drawings, and artifacts of North American Indians. Dating from 1821 through 1904, with one item dated 1946, the papers the papers include letters, notebooks and journals, receipt books and loose receipts, printed materials, and other documentation. The bulk of the collection focuses on Catlin's efforts to promote the sale of his gallery to the United States government through tours, including London and Paris, and petitions to various governments to purchase the Gallery. Among the rare printed catalogs and petitions in the collection are exhibition catalogs for the U.S., London, and Paris tours, the earliest dating from 1837. Letters and other documents include letters dating from the 1830s from Henry Clay, Thomas Sully, and William Henry Seward commending Catlin's work, as well as Catlin family correspondence and papers dating from 1821 through the 1870s.
Of particular interest in the collection are letters to and from Catlin, including two written by Catlin during his early travels to the west in the 1830s. Other letters include ones from Henry Clay, John Adams Dix, Ralph Randolph Gurley, James Hall, William Henry Seward, Thomas Sully (illustrated), and Baron Friederich von Humbolt, among others. Most wish Catlin well and offer support in his endeavors to sell his collection.
Also found within the collection are several notebooks and notes describing Native American ceremonies, name translations, customs, and other information pertinent to Catlin's catalog, two volume book, and exhibitions of the "Indian Gallery." There are also numerous loose receipts and account and receipt books documenting the 1840s London and Paris venues of the "Indian Gallery" exhibition. The collection also houses printed catalogs for the exhibitions, including a rare 1837 catalog for the first show in New York.
Additional materials include certificates of authenticity testifying to the authenticity of Catlin's paintings from life of Native American sitters, announcements relating to exhibition openings, printed memorials and petitions to Congress, printed letters of support, envelopes and name cards, and handwritten tickets to Catlin lectures. Also found are a handwritten journal of Theodore B. Catlin, photogravures of Catlin, obituaries for Catlin, and printed reviews of the exhibitions.
Citation:
George Catlin papers, 1821-1904, 1946. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Additional Forms:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Funding:
The microfilm for this collection was fully digitized in 2005 as part of the Terra Foundation for American Art Digitization Grant.
Related Materials:
The Archives holds several related collections of differing provenances related to George Catlin, including a small collection of manuscripts and drawings microfilmed on reel 1191 related to Catlin's work in marine art and documentation. A microfilmed loan of circa 500 items is also available on reel 3277 of letters between Catlin and Sir Thomas Phillipps, 1840-1860, writings by Catlin and material on Catlin's Indian Gallery, including clippings, catalogs, handbills, invitations, drawings and portrait sketches of native Americans, and printed material; a watercolor sketchbook; a list of paintings; and miscellany. Also found within the Archives is one undated letter microfilmed on reel D8 from Catlin, and a collection of art historian William Truettner's research papers on George Catlin.
Biography Note:
George Catlin (1796-1872) was a portrait painter, miniature painter, and ethnographer, best known for his paintings of the American Indian.
Provenance:
Deposited at the Archives of American Art 1981 by Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.
Digitization Note:
The papers of George Catlin in the Archives of American Art were digitized in 2005 from 2 reels of microfilm. The papers have been scanned in their entirety, and total 2,360 images.
Location Note:
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 750 9th St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20001
Topic:
Art and race
Ethnological illustrators
Ethnological painters
Illustrators
Indians of North America
Miniature painters
Painters
Photogravures
Portrait painters
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5435
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209512
AAA_collcode_catlgeor
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
Additional Online Media:

Correspondence on the subject of teaching the vernacular in Indian schools : 1887-'88 / United States Indian Office

Teaching the vernacular in Indian schools
view Correspondence on the subject of teaching the vernacular in Indian schools : 1887-'88 / United States Indian Office digital asset number 1
Author:
United States Office of Indian Affairs
Physical description:
27 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
United States
Date:
1888
Topic:
Education
Native language and education
Government relations
Languages
Call number:
E97.5 .U55 1888
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Scrapbook of illustrations and sample engravings ca. 1814-30

view Scrapbook of illustrations and sample engravings ca. 1814-30 digital asset number 1
Artist:
Lewis, James Otto 1799-1858
Hary, John W
Publisher:
Lucas, Fielding, Jr
Subject:
Key-way-wo-wut
Going Cloud
O-Car-Gee-Wick
Clinton, De Witt
Cobbett, William
Thomson, James
Werner, Goliah
Bainbridge, William
American Fur Company
Physical description:
33 pages
Culture:
Chippewa
Eskimos
Arctic peoples
Indians of North America Subarctic
Indians of North America Northeast
Ojibwa Indians
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Castle Rock (Lake District, England)
Date:
ca 1814-30
Notes:
Lucas was an owner of a printing and publishing firm in Baltimore. In 1827, it issued Thomas L. McKenney's A Sketch of a Tour to the Lakes, which was illustrated after drawings by James Otto Lewis.
Summary:
Some of the original watercolor and wash drawings are included in the scrapbook, including: Indian canoes, page 200 in McKenney's Sketch; View of the Urn, Lake Superior page 361; Grave of a Chippewa Child on the Island Opposite Fond du Lac (Minnesota) page 305; Cave Rock, South Shore of Lake Superior, page 364; Oblique View of the Doric Rock of Lake Superior (unpublished): Front View of the Doric Rock, page 225; Castle Rock, South Shore, Lake Superior, page 363; View of the Urn, Lake Superior (and the Monument), page 362; Skeleton of a Chippewa Indian's Lodge, page 418; Chippewa Lodge, of poles, covered with birch bark, unpublished; Chippewa Widow, page 292; Key-way-wo-wut, or Going Cloud, page 327, O-Car-Gee-Wick, page 314; Chippewa Chief with His Calumet and Pouch, page 331; Indian Dog Train, page 196; another view of Doric Rock, unpublished; another view of the Urn, unpublished; Front view of American Fur Company's Building, Fond du Lac, Minnesota, page 276, and a view of the gathering for the Treaty of Fond du Lac, 1826, page 311.
Also a drawing by John W. Hary (?) showing how Eskimos at Hudson Bay caught fish. Other original, unidentified artwork, a certificate of membership in the Baltimore Beneficial Society, and samples of printing of bank papers are included. There are, in addition, engraved portraits and title pages and illustrations from publications. The portraits include De Witt Clinton, William Cobbett, James Thomson, Goliah Werner, and William Bainbridge. The materials from publications include items from The Chemist and National Recreations, or Holiday Amusements and Robert Stuart's Dictionary of Architecture and A Descriptive History of the Steam Engine (all printed by Knight and Lacy of London); Citizen of the World, Edwin and Anelina; The Works of Robert Bruns, The Works of Thomas Moore, Thackery's Vicar of Wakefield; and other unidentified publications.
Cite as:
Manuscript 7135, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Doric Rock
Urn burial
Cave Rock
Chippewa
Mortuary customs
Habitations and other structures
American Indian
Pipe
Transportation
Bark preparation
Government and politics
Federal-Indian relations
Art, miscellaneous
Eskimos
Fishing
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 7135
See more items in:
Scrapbook of illustrations and sample engravings ca. 1814-30 [Lewis, James Otto 1799-1858]
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Indians at work

view Indians at work digital asset number 1
Author:
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Office of Indian Affairs
Subject:
United States Office of Indian Affairs
Physical description:
13 v. : ill. ; 26-28 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1945
[1933-1945]
Notes:
"An emergency conservation news sheet for ourselves" (subtitle varies).
Title from cover.
Topic:
Industries
Indians, Treatment of
Government relations
Legal status, laws, etc
Call number:
E98.I5 I39
E98.I5I39
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

American Indian Chicago Conference Records 1960-1966

view American Indian Chicago Conference Records 1960-1966 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Tax, Sol 1907-
Blatchford, Herbert
Talking Eagle, Lightfoot
Cherokee Printing Project
Field Foundation
National Congress of American Indians
United States Department of the Interior
Correspondent:
Ablon, Joan
Bahti, Tom
Barrett, S. A (Samuel Alfred) 1879-1965
Bearskin, Ben
Berry, J. Brewton
Brough, Zara Ciscoe
Brown, John J
Burkhart, John N
Cameron, Herman E
Chafe, Wallace L
Chance, Norman A
Chandler, Henry P
Connolly, Thomas E
Cook, Dibben J
Couture, James W
Dailey, Dewey W
Davis, B. W
Debo, Angie
Deer, Ada
Deloria, Vine
Fischer, Ann
Forbes, Jack D
Frederiksen, Svend
Gaffney, Richard M
Getty, Harry T
Goetting, C
Gandy, Al
Hadley, J. Nixon
Hall, Robert L
Halseth, Odd Sigurd
Hilger, Marie Inez Sister 1891-1977
Holder, Preston
Hetzel, Theodore Brinton
Josephy, Alvin M
Keeler, W. W
Le Hurreau, Howard L
La Planat, Ed
Len-Portilla, Miguel
Lesser, Alexander
Levy, Jerrold E
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich
Mack, Irene
Madigan, La Verne
Malouf, Carling
Menninger, Karl
Merrill, Robert S
Midgett, Helen Parker
McNickle, D'Arcy
Nash, Philleo 1909-1987
Nader, Ralph
Ossinach, Kirkland
Paul, William L Sr
Pierce, Earl Boyd
Powell, Peter John Father
Providencia Sister F.C.S.P
Petersen, Helen
Dillon, Wilton Sterling
Rachlin, Carol K
Rainer, John C
Roessel, Robert A
Robinson, Georgeann 1917-1986
Rupp, Reynold J
McGhee, Calvin W
Rickard, William
Rietz, Robert W
Seller, Mary
Stewart, Omer C
Sturtevant, William C
Taylor, Walter W. Jr
Takes Gun, Frank
Talachy, Pat
Thomas, Robert K
Tom-pee-saw, Frank
Ervin, Sam J Jr
Wax, Murray
Welch, Earl
Welch, Rachel
Wesley, Clarence
Whistler, Rachel
White, Robert A
Yellowtail, Bob
Phelps-Stokes Fund
Schwartzhaupt Foundation
United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
Orrespondent:
La Farge, Oliver
Contributor:
Stanley, Sam
Mc, Lachlan, Bruce
Subject:
Tax, Sol 1907-
University of Chicago American Indian Chicago Conference
Physical description:
8 linear feet
Culture:
Cherokee language
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1960-1966
Notes:
The American Indian Chicago Conference (originally called the American Indian Charter Convention) was organized by University of Chicago anthropologist Sol Tax. Tax's idea, announced at the 1960 National Congress of American Indians convention, was to bring representatives of American Indian groups together to prepare statements about the conditions and needs of their people. Tax took the role of coordinator to initiate developments, assure that all Indian groups were represented, serve as or find expert advisers, and publicize results to the public and to those who formulate Indian policy. The University of Chicago was the sponsor for the meeting. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, of the University of Michigan, served as assistant coordinator.
Tax, assisted by the National Congress of American Indians, formulated and circulated a proposed statement that served as a point from which discussions could take place. Tax also invited to Chicago a relatively small group of Indian leaders who then served as a steering committee. This preliminary meeting arranged several regional conferences where discussions could take place in preparation for a large meeting in Chicago in June 1961.
Representatives at the large conference presented a cross section of the American Indian community and included urban Indian, traditional Indians, modern Indians, and Indians from both recognized and nonrecognized tribes. Several hundred people attended the meeting and 439 of these registered. These registered attendees represented 79 tribes.
The outcome of the American Indian Chicago Conference was the Declaration of Indian Purpose, a lengthy document that dealt with problems and proposed approaches to solutions of the problems. In general, the declaration asked for a redirection of "the responsibility of the United States toward the Indian people in terms of a positive national obligation to modify or remove the conditions which produce the poverty and lack of social justice, as these prevail as the outstanding attributes of Indian life today." The declaration was presented to President John F. Kennedy by representatives of American Indian tribes in September 1962.
Summary:
The records include a diary, announcements, minutes, correspondence, financial papers, registration materials, clippings, photographs, tape recordings, and printed and processed materials. Also included are a number of papers that were prepared for the use of members of the conference. Correspondents include Joan Ablon, Tom Bahti, Samuel Alfred Barrett, Ben Bearskin, Brewton Berry, Herbert Blatchford, Zara Ciscoe Brough, John J. Brown, John N. Burkhart, Herman E. Cameron, Wallace L. Chafe, Norman A. Chance, Henry P. Chandler, Thomas E. Connolly, Dibben J. Cook, James W. Couture, Cherokee Printing Project (with booklets in Cherokee), Dewey W. Dailey, B. W. Davis, Angie Debo, Ada Deer, Vine Deloria, Field Foundation, Ann Fischer,
Jack D. Forbes, Svend Fredericksen, Richard M. Gaffney, Harry T. Getty, Ray C. Goetting, Al Gandy, J. Nixon Hadley, Robert L. Hall, Odd Sigurd Halseth, Marie Inez Hilger, Preston Holder, Theodore Brinton Hetzel, Alvin M. Josephy, W. W. Keeler, Oliver La Farge, Howard L. Le Hurreau, Ed La Planat, Miguel Len-Portilla, Alexander Lesser, Jerrold E. Levy, Lightfoot Talking Eagle, Nancy Oestreich Lurie, Irene Mack, La Verne Madigan, Carling Malouf, Karl Menninger, Robert S. Merrill, Helen Parker Midgett, D'Arcy McNickle, Philleo Nash, Ralph Nader, National Congress of American Indians, Kirkland Ossinach, William L. Paul, Sr., Earl Boyd Pierce, Peter John Powell, Sister Providencia, F.C.S.P., Helen Petersen,
Phelps-Stokes Fund (Wilton Sterling Dillon), Carol K. Rachlin, John C. Rainer, Robert A. Roessel, Georgeann Robinson, Reynold J. Ruppe, Calvin W. McGhee, William Rickard, Robert W. Rietz, Schwartzhaupt Foundation, Mary Sellers, Omer C. Stewart, William Curtis Sturtevant, Walter Taylor, Frank Takes Gun, Pat Talachy, Robert K. Thomas, Frank Tom-pee-saw, United States Government (Congressmen, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, including Sam J. Ervin, Jr.), Murray Wax, Earl Welch, Rachel Whistler, Robert A. White, and Bob Yellowtail.
Among the records are materials that relate to the compilation by Tax, Bruce McLachlan, and Sam Stanley of the map "The North American Indian: The present Day Distribution of Indians in the United States." Included are population figures and narratives by Tax.
Cite as:
Manuscript 4806, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations
American Indians--federal relations--population
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 4806
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Publications of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, January, 1879

view Publications of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, January, 1879 digital asset number 1
Author:
Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions (U.S.)
Brouillet, J. B. A (Jean Baptiste Abraham) 1813-1884
Seghers, Charles John 1839-1886
Subject:
Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions (U.S.)
Catholic Church Missions
Physical description:
1 v. (various pagings) ; 23 cm
Type:
Sources
Place:
United States
North America
Date:
1879
Notes:
English and German.
Title from cover.
Spine title: Publications, 1873-1879.
A collection of pamphlets issued by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions from 1873 to 1879.
(cont.) [8.] Annals of the Catholic Indian missions of America [v. 1, no. 1-2; v. 2, no. 1-3 (1877-1879)] -- [9.] Management of the Catholic Indian Bureau of Washington / J.B.A. Brouillet [1878] -- [10.] [An important letter from the Bishop of Vancouver's Island to the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions] / C.J. Seghers [1877] -- [11.] Statuten der zum Besten der Indianer errichteten katholischen Missions-Gesellschaft [1875?]
Contents:
[1.] Circular of the Catholic Commissioner for Indian Missions to the Catholics of the United States [1874] -- [2.] Petition of the Catholic Church for the agency of the Chippewas of Lake Superior [1873] -- [3.] Manual of Catholic Indian missionary associations [1875] -- [4.] Catholic Indian schools and churches, missionaries and teachers, their number and cost of their support [1875?] -- [5.] [Manual of Catholic Indian Missionary Associations] [1875] -- [6.] Official construction of President Grant's Indian Peace Policy [1875?] -- [7.] Report of the Treasurer of the Catholic Indian Mission Fund, from January, 1873, to December 1, 1876 / J.B.A. Brouillet [1876]
Topic:
Catholic schools
Missions
Government relations
Indians, Treatment of--History
Call number:
E98.M6 B95p 1879
E98.M6B95p 1879
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries

Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, circa 1850-1900

view Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, circa 1850-1900 digital asset number 1
Photographer:
Fly, C. S (Camillus Sidney) 1849-1901
Jackson, William Henry 1843-1942
Parker, Joseph C
Taber, I. W (Isaiah West) 1830-1912
Tibbitts, H. C
Hook, W. E (William Edward) 1833-1908
Artist:
Moran, Thomas 1837-1926
Rogers, W. A (William Allen) 1854-1931
Physical description:
37 prints : albumen
5 prints : halftone
3 engravings
Culture:
Isleta Indians
Indians of North America Southwest, New
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
California
Shoshone Falls (Idaho)
Yellowstone National Park
Snake River (Idaho)
Arizona
Colorado
Date:
1850
circa 1850-1900
Summary:
Scenic views of California, Colorado, Idaho, and Arizona. California images include Mount Shasta, San Francisco, Tehachapi Mountains, Coronado, San Isabell, San Jacinto, Toquich Canyon, and a government school in Agua Caliente. Additional photographs depict Yellowstone National Park and Yellowstone River; Shoshone Falls and Snake River, Idaho; Dragoon Mountains, Arizona; Garden of the Gods, Colorado; and an Isleta wine press.
Photographers include Camillus S. Fly, W. E. Hook, William Henry Jackson, Francis Parker, Rheas Brothers (San Diego View Company), Rifenburg and Murphy, I. W. Taber, and H. C. Tibbets. Additionally, there are photographs of Thomas Moran paintings, a William A. Rogers engraving of a Pueblo wind press, an engraving of Portsmouth Square in San Francisco in 1850, and a few other illustrations from publications.
Cite as:
Photo Lot 29, Photograph collection relating to California and views of the west, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA Photo Lot 29
See more items in:
Photograph collection related to California and views of the west circa 1850-1900
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Publications, 2014-2015

view Publications, 2014-2015 digital asset number 1
Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office
Subject:
Harjo, Suzan Shown
Matos Mendieta, Ramiro
Dubin, Lois Sherr
Barreiro, José
Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations (Exhibition) (2014-2018: Washington, D.C.)
Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family (Exhibition) (2014-2016: New York, N.Y.)
The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire (Exhibition) (2015-2018: Washington, D.C.)
Physical description:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Books
Collection descriptions
Treaties
Place:
United States
Date:
2014
2014-2015
Summary:
This accession consists of the following publications that accompanied exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian: "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between United States and American Indian Nations," edited by Suzan Shown Harjo; "Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family," edited by Lois Sherr Dubin; "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire," edited by Ramiro Matos Mendieta and José Barreiro; and "The Great Inka Road: Activity Guide." "Nation to Nation: Treaties Between United States and American Indian Nations" explores the diplomacy, promises, and betrayals involved in two hundred years of treaties and treaty making between the United State government and Native Nations. "Glittering World: Navajo Jewelry of the Yazzie Family" presents a story of Navajo jewelry framed by the work of the Yazzies, a family of gifted jewelers. "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire" delves into the historical, structural, and cultural significance of a road network that linked Cusco, the administrative capital and spiritual center of the Inka world, to the farthest reaches of the vast empire. "The Great Inka Road: Activity Guide" was designed for children under 10 and accompanied the exhibition, "The Great Inka Road: Engineering an Empire." It allows children to explore the Inka Empire and its legacy through STEAM-focused activities: science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics.
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Government relations
Treaty-making power
Museum exhibits
Museum publications
Navajo Indians
Jewelry
Inca roads
Incas
Museums--Educational aspects
Local number:
SIA Acc. 15-031
See more items in:
Publications 1994, 2003-2016 [National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.) Office of Education and Museum Programs Publications Office]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives

Frank and Dolores Becker papers 1943-1968

view Frank and Dolores Becker papers 1943-1968 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Becker, Frank E
Becker, Dolores
Indian Association of America
Subject:
United States Army Air Corps
Physical description:
3 linear feet
9 photographic prints
9 sound discs
1 sound cassette
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)
Type:
Membership lists
Collection descriptions
Phonograph records
Photographs
Periodicals
Date:
1943
1943-1968
Notes:
Frank Becker was born in New York City on April 24, 1907 to Frank and Thora Bregartner Becker. A Graduate from Stuyvesant High School and the New York Training School for teachers, Becker received a B.S. from NYU in 1942 and was awarded his degree the same year he was inducted into the Army Air Corps. Becker taught at P.S. 17 before and after WWII and later received a Masters of Arts Degree. Though he started as a mechanic in the Army Air Corps in 1942, Becker was soon transferred to the 704th training group in Atlantic City, New Jersey to help organize a school for illiterate soldiers. Becker was tasked to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to a mixed group of students that included Greeks, Chinese, Navajo, Pima and Papago soldiers. The largest group of Native American soldiers Becker taught were Navajo. Because many of the Navajo soldiers could not speak English, Roger Davis, an elected leader to the Navajo Tribal Council and Presbyterian missionary, was sent to Atlantic City to act as an interpreter. Together, Becker and Davis made phonographic recordings of the Army Handbook in both English and Navajo. Davis assisted Becker for five weeks staying as a guest of the Presbyterian Hospitality House. Becker later wrote a book on his experiences working with the group of Navajo soldiers titled Navajo Way (1956). The experience also sparked a lifelong interested in the Navajo culture as well as awareness of many of the problems facing the Navajo community in regards to education and health. Following the war, Becker visited Arizona and New Mexico with his family in in the fall on 1947.
Frank had Frank met Dolores in the early 1940's through mutual friends and the two were married December 27, 1944. Dolores, born August 6, 1913, had passed the New Jersey bar in 1936 and had been practicing law in the juvenile court system. After meeting Frank she also took an active interest in Native American culture. The family visited Gallup, Window Rock and Indian Wells, where they visited with Roger Davis, making particular note of the schools they visited. On the return from this trip, Becker wrote passionately on the failing of the U.S. government to fulfill its obligations to the Navajo people, particularly in the area of education. Frank and Dolores both joined several organizations, most notably the Indian Association of America, dedicated to helping Native Americans advocating especially for WWII Veterans returning home and education. Additionally, Frank wrote many columns, letters to the editor and speeches on both his experiences teaching Navajo soldiers during the war as well current issues facing Native American communities. Dolores appeared on several TV shows in the 1950's directed towards younger audiences explaining Native American cultures. Frank Becker died November 11, 1979 in Shokan, NY and Dolores died on March 6, 2010 leaving behind a daughter and a son.
According to its constitution and by-laws, The Indian Association of America was originally founded in Denver, Colorado by Dr. Vincent "Red Fox" St. James and Dr. George C. Stagg in 1924. Red Fox, who claimed to be Blackfoot but whose origins are undetermined, had previously been a founder of the Tipi (Tepee) Order of America, an organization that blended ritual aspects closely related to Freemasonry with the pan-Indian movement dedicated to advocacy work for the welfare of Native Americans. The Indian Association of America mimicked this model with some of its stated objectives being; to promote better understanding between the races, to study the Indian cultures of America, to foster education for American Indians, to provide direct help in emergencies faced by American Indian communities, to protest laws detrimental to American Indians and to promote the observance of American Indian Day. Though previously active, the Indian Association of America was officially incorporated in the state of New York in 1950 as a non-profit organization. Frank Becker took over as "Great Sachem," or President, in October of 1950 and led the organization until its dissolution in 1968. Its magazine, Smoke Signals, began publishing bi-monthly in June of 1949 with Dolores Becker serving as editor for the entirety of its run between 1949 and 1961. Frank Becker acted as a contributing editor and later as an advisory editor. The Indian Association of America formally dissolved in March of 1968.
Summary:
The bulk of the Frank and Dolores Becker papers come from their years working for the Indian Association of America between 1949 and 1968 as president (Frank) and secretary (Dolores). This includes administrative materials such as articles of incorporation and dissolution, the constitution and by-laws, member lists, as well as meeting reports and notes. There is also a full run of Smoke Signals (1949-1961), the association's bi-monthly magazine edited by Dolores Becker. In addition to materials regarding the Indian Association of America there are two copies of Frank Becker's book, Navajo Way and background information on his work at the Presbyterian Hospitality house during WWII teaching English and reading to Navajo soldiers. There are several photos of Becker and the Navajo soldiers he taught as well as an audio cassette of the recording in the Navajo language used in the classroom. The recording features Frank Becker in English and Roger Davis in Navajo and includes several prayers as well as general army instructions and general orders for interior guard duty. There are also two scrapbooks in the collection. One was created by Dolores which includes drawings, poems and research she conducted on Native American culture. The second is a scrapbook of newspaper articles and clippings, many of them written by Frank Becker, on the Becker's activities with the Indian Association of America and other related Native American issues. Many notices of Frank Becker's speaking engagements are included in this scrapbook. Also included is the Becker's collection of phonographic records. These nine records, 10 inch (78rm) were produced by Tom Tom records, Canyon records and one by Victor and include a variety of Native American songs.
Cite as:
Frank and Dolores Becker papers, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of North America--Education
Navajo language
Local number:
NMAI.AC.075
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

Anne Pearse Hocker negatives, photographs, and other materials, 1970-1973

view Anne Pearse Hocker negatives, photographs, and other materials, 1970-1973 digital asset number 1
Subject:
Banks, Dennis
Bellecourt, Clyde H (Clyde Howard) 1936-
Bellecourt, Vernon
Means, Russell 1939-
Aquash, Anna Mae 1945-1976
Black Elk, Wallace H
Frizzell, Kent 1929-
American Indian Movement
Physical description:
ca. 2200 photographic negatives : black and white ; 8 x 10 in. 35 mm
54 contact sheets : black and white
Type:
Black-and-white negatives
Collection descriptions
Contact sheets
Place:
Wounded Knee (S.D.)
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Pine Ridge (S.D.)
Date:
1970
1970-1973
Indian occupation, 1973
Notes:
Anne Pearce Hocker is a photojournalist who received her degree in journalism from the University of Kansas. Her photographs, whether purposefully or serendipitously, document some very important moments in the history of the American Indian Movement (AIM). As a journalism student, Hocker was scheduled to interview the area director of the BIA in Minneapolis in 1970 as part of an academic project, and ended up in the middle of the AIM siege of the building, which she captured in film. She also used this opportunity to develop contacts with AIM leaders Clyde Bellecourt and Dennis Banks. Her connection with Banks come in handy to her in 1973 during the Siege of Wounded Knee. Hocker snuck into the compound with a CBS news crew and was the only individual allowed to remain within the compound due to her acquaintance with Banks, who remembered her from Minneapolis. She had strategically arrived the evening before the standoff was supposed to end, but instead, after she had entered the compound, the standoff lasted another two weeks. She was the only photojournalist allowed to remain amongst the Native contingent during the final two weeks of the standoff. She returned to Wounded Knee in 1998 to revisit the site on its 25th anniversary, and documented the experience in the journal 'Native Americas' (Spring 1998 issue) with new photographs of some of the survivors of the event.
Summary:
The majority of Hocker's momentous negatives give eyewitness account to two weeks of both the mundane and brutal reality of daily life during the 1973 siege of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The takeover of the town and the conflict between about 200 members of AIM (American Indian Movement, the Native American civil rights activist organization begun in the 1968) and the United States Marshals Service began on February 27 and lasted for 71 days, resulting in tragedy on both sides of the conflict. Members of AIM along with some local Oglala (Lakota) Sioux from the local reservation took over the town in protest against the United States Government's history of broken treaties with various Native groups, the poverty and maltreatment of Native populations, as well as in defiance against the corruption and paternalism within the local subsidiary of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The siege finally came to an end on May 5 when members of AIM and the assistant attorney general for the Civil Division of the US Justice Department Harlington Wood Jr. settled on a ceasefire. Kent Frizzell served as Chief Government Negotiator in the capacity of Assistant Attorney General (Land and Natural Resources Division, U. S. Department of Justice) and later as Solicitor, U. S. Department of the Interior. Among those pictured both during and post-conflict are AIM activists Dennis Banks, Clyde and Vernon Bellecourt, Ted and Russell Means, Frank Clearwater, Wallace Black Elk and Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. A small number of negatives also document AIM's takeover of the BIA building and the AIM Powwow both in Minneapolis in 1970.
Topic:
Oglala Indians
Teton Indians
Indians of North America--Government relations
Oglala Indians--Government relations
History
Local number:
NMAI.AC.028
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives

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