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Hupa vocabulary of 33 words

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Creator:
Powers, Stephen
Physical description:
1 page
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Cite as:
Manuscript 82-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 82-a
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Hupa woman and baskets before 1903

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Creator:
Carpenter
Collector:
Tilton, Willis G
Photographer ?:
Hudson, J. W
Physical description:
1 photographic negative
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1903
before 1903
Summary:
Several finished baskets lie off to the side.
Cite as:
Photo Lot 89-8, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
OPPS NEG T9548
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Willis G. Tilton photograph collection of American Indians circa 1880-1930 (bulk 1899-1904)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Hupa vocabulary December 1888-January 1889

view Hupa vocabulary December 1888-January 1889 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Curtin, Jeremiah
Physical description:
107 pages
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
December 1888-January 1889
Summary:
In schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages. This is apparently a neat copy by a scribe from Number 2063, an original in Curtin's hand which has many words crossed out and is very difficult to read.
Cite as:
Manuscript 1442, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 1442
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Hupa boat tied up shore before 1903

view Hupa boat tied up shore before 1903 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Carpenter
Collector:
Tilton, Willis G
Photographer ?:
Hudson, J. W
Physical description:
1 photographic negative
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1903
before 1903
Cite as:
Photo Lot 89-8, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
OPPS NEG T9517
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Willis G. Tilton photograph collection of American Indians circa 1880-1930 (bulk 1899-1904)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

North American Indian and baskets, Hupa, Calif. before 1903

view North American Indian and baskets, Hupa, Calif. before 1903 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Carpenter
Collector:
Tilton, Willis G
Photographer ?:
Hudson, J. W
Physical description:
1 photographic negative
Culture:
California Indian
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1903
before 1903
Summary:
Indian woman holds up small basket; surrounded by baskets of varying sizes. Appears to be copied from a painting by G. Hudson. Pomo, not Hupa, Nichloson (Hudson) painted Pomos.
Cite as:
Photo Lot 89-8, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
OPPS NEG T16536
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Willis G. Tilton photograph collection of American Indians circa 1880-1930 (bulk 1899-1904)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

View of Village Showing Habitations and Sweat Houses 1891

view View of Village Showing Habitations and Sweat Houses 1891 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Woodruff, Charles E. Dr
Physical description:
1 photoprint 008 in x 006 in mounted on 010 in x 008 in
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1891
Cite as:
Photo Lot 24 SPC Oregon Seaboard Hupa NM 25158 01126200, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA INV 01126200
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Photographs of American Indians and Other Subjects 1840s-1960s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Woman in Native Dress with Ornaments Near Wood House 1908

view Woman in Native Dress with Ornaments Near Wood House 1908 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš 1869-1943
Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1908
Cite as:
BAE GN 02606 06412200, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA INV 06412200
OPPS NEG 02606
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Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Woman in Partial Native Dress with Ornaments 1907

view Woman in Partial Native Dress with Ornaments 1907 digital asset number 1
Physical description:
1 photograph 008 in x 010 in
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1907
Cite as:
BAE GN 02607 06412300, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA INV 06412300
OPPS NEG 02607
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Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Weitspek (Pohlik Klamath) and Hopah dictionaries and ethnographic notes 1852

view Weitspek (Pohlik Klamath) and Hopah dictionaries and ethnographic notes 1852 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Gibbs, George
Physical description:
41 pages
Culture:
Yurok Indians
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1852
Summary:
With copy of the Hopah vocabulary. Trinity River, Calif. 1852. Autograph document. 5 pages. Includes a few notes on the "Redwood Indians" [Chilula] and "Mad River Indians and Bay Indians" [Wiyot] and a house count for Yurok and Hupa villages. Manuscript notes by A. R. Pilling, 1 slip, filed with the Manuscript, 8/1970.
Cite as:
Manuscript 954, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 954
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Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

John Peabody Harrington papers: Chimariko/Hupa, 1921-1930

view John Peabody Harrington papers: Chimariko/Hupa, 1921-1930 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Physical description:
16 boxes
Culture:
Chimariko Indians
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Field notes
Nomenclature
Vocabulary
Place:
California
Date:
1921
1921-1930
Notes:
John P. Harrington's study of Chimariko began when he spent between four and five months working with Sally Noble at her ranch on New River in Trinity County, California. Noble, a speaker of the "Trinity River" dialect of Chimariko, had previously worked with C. Hart Merriam, and joint work with her had been planned by the two anthropologists for the summer of 1921. Due to confusion concerning Harrington's whereabouts at the time the trip was scheduled, Merriam went to northern California alone in the summer. In early September, after Merriam had completed his own field work and had departed, Harrington arrived at the region, arranged to take meals with the neighboring Dailey family, and proceeded to work regularly with Noble. After amassing several thousand pages of notes, Harrington left Burnt Ranch in mid-to-Iate January 1922, intending to continue the work with Noble in May. He later learned that she had died some twenty days after his departure.
The data he gained from Noble were supplemented by a little linguistic information given by her half sister, Martha Ziegler. Nonlinguistic information was provided by Noble's son, Frank; the Daileys; Mr. and Mrs. Zack Bussell; and Mr. and Mrs. Jim Chesbro.
In the spring of 1926, during or just following his work on Wiyot and Karok, Harrington scheduled an initial interview with another Chimariko woman, Lucy Montgomery. A cousin of Sally Noble, Montgomery was then residing on the coast at Stone Lagoon. Although, by her own admission, she had stopped speaking Chimariko at age eleven, she did attempt to assist Harrington in compiling a basic vocabulary list.
Harrington's interest in Chimariko was renewed in April 1927 when he learned of Edward Sapir's efforts to locate native speakers for that language. In August and September of the same year he employed his long-time friend George W. Bayley to collect plant specimens and ethnobotanical data from Lucy Montgomery. Contact with her having been reestablished, Harrington joined Bayley in 1928 to pursue further linguistic work with her. It was on this occasion that they reheard the notes which he had obtained earlier from Noble. Montgomery's data are not highly reliable as she basically had only a passive knowledge of the language. A small section of ethnographic notes also appears to have been collected at this time.
Mrs. Zack Bussell evidently took Harrington to interview Saxy Kidd, who, according to reports, was said to speak quite a bit of Chimariko. Harrington had heard of Kidd from Sally Noble during his work in 1921-1922 and again from Edward Sapir in 1927. Sapir had discovered that what little Chimariko Kidd knew was "distorted by his Hupa phonetics." Harrington likewise obtained only a few Chimariko terms from him.
Summary:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains Harrington's research on Chimariko and Hupa.
A large portion of the subseries consists of field notes on Chimariko vocabulary and sentences provided by Sally Noble. Much of the information was elicited from a reading of Roland Dixon's "The Chimarika Indians and Language," (1910) and includes anatomical terms, names for plants and animals, material culture vocabulary, tribenames, and placenames. A small number of Hupa lexical terms were also obtained, evidently with reference to the work of Pliny Earle Goddard "Athapascan (Hupa)" (1911). There is a mixture of ethnographic and biographical data provided by Noble and several nonlinguistic sources.
The subseries also contains Harrington's grammatical analysis of Chimariko. Many of these notes feature examples excerpted from the linguistic notes; the page numbers in brackets refer to numbered pages of the section of "original" field notes. There are also summaries of various grammatical principles in the form of charts. These sketches are followed by a short "general dictionary" of vocabulary and phrases.
As a supplement to his linguistic and grammatical notes, Harrington collected extensive textual material from Noble. Noble provided mythological texts; accounts of historical events, such as the Indian wars and encounters with whites; descriptions of an ethnological nature on various subjects, such as doctoring, tattooing, and hairdressing; and personal reminiscences. The texts were recorded in Chimariko and some have fairly detailed interlinear translations. In several instances, a synopsis in English has been filed with the text. Some notes from Martha Ziegler appear in this section.
There are also notes obtained by Harrington during his first meeting with Lucy Montgomery. Chimariko and some Hupa lexical terms were recorded for plant and animal names, age, sex, and relationship terms, material culture vocabulary, and numbers. At least a portion of the information was elicited through a rehearing of a word list furnished by C. Hart Merriam and another published by Roland B. Dixon. An unidentified publication (possibly by Parmenter) was utilized to prompt responses on bird names. Montgomery also commented on the names of several native objects that Harrington had recently collected in Karok territory.
The section on Chimariko vocabulary consists of notes presumably collected during Harrington's second stint of work with Montgomery. Harrington made frequent notes on the phonetics of Chimariko and included several Wintu equivalences, as well as scattered references of ethnographic, historical, or biographical interest.
Another section of notes obtained from Montgomery represent a fairly systematic rehearing of the linguistic data Harrington had collected from Sally Noble in 1921-1922.
The block of ethnographic notes were also obtained from Montgomery. The notes cover a wide variety of subjects: food preparation, the collection of firewood, doctoring, the medicinal use of plants, menstruation, child care, clothing, hairdressing, burial, and the manufacture and use of tools, implements, and baskets. A few pages also concern songs and vocabulary. In addition, information is provided on the Montgomery's relatives, the Round Valley Removal, and gold mining. Some data were obtained from Mrs. Ramazzena and I. N. Hamilton. A little ethnographic information pertinent to Coast Yurok was collected from Mrs. Frye.
There are also notes from an interview with Saxy Kidd. The notes consist in large part of ethnographic data from the New River and Trinity River areas. In addition, there is some plant and animal vocabulary. Most Hupa terms are given, with selected Chimariko equivalents.
Cite as:
Northern and Central California: Chimariko/Hupa, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Chimariko language
Hupa language
Wintu language
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Ethnology
Names, Ethnological
Names, Geographical
Zoology
History
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
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John Peabody Harrington papers: Northern and Central California, 1912-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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Mrs Freddie with Tattoo on Chin and Wearing Basket Cap, Pouring Water from Basket Cup Into Acorn Meal Being Leached in Sand Hollow; Acorn Collecting Basket and Carrying Basket Nearby 1902

view Mrs Freddie with Tattoo on Chin and Wearing Basket Cap, Pouring Water from Basket Cup Into Acorn Meal Being Leached in Sand Hollow; Acorn Collecting Basket and Carrying Basket Nearby 1902 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Goddard, Pliny Earle
Physical description:
1 photoprint 004 in x 003 in mounted on 008 in x 011 in
Culture:
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1902
Cite as:
Photo Lot 24 SPC Calif Yuki NM No # 01526301, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA INV 01526301
OPPS NEG 81-2010
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Photographs of American Indians and Other Subjects 1840s-1960s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

Object n.d

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Subject:
NMNH
Physical description:
1 photomechanical print 010 in x 006 in
Culture:
Japanese
Chinese
Hupa Indians
Spain
Fijians
Indians of North America California
Type:
Photographs
Place:
India
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Date:
nd
Summary:
Rattle Collection, Wrought Iron: Iron Bell: Cloth: Deer Hoof: Beads: Hawk Bell: Bone: Wood: Skin: Cement: Bronze
Cite as:
Photo Lot 97 DOE North America:United States:Music 04417000, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Local number:
NAA INV 04417000
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Photograph collection ca. 1860s-1960s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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John Peabody Harrington papers: Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole, 1926, 1942

view John Peabody Harrington papers: Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole, 1926, 1942 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Subject:
Reichard, Gladys Amanda 1893-1955
Voegelin, C. F (Charles Frederick) 1906-1986
Physical description:
1.04 linear feet (3 boxes)
Culture:
Wiyot Indians
Yurok Indians
Hupa Indians
Mattole
Indians of North America California
Type:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Maps
Place:
California
Date:
1926
1926-1942
1926, 1942
Notes:
During his work on Karok in the spring of 1926, John P. Harrington recorded a brief vocabulary in Wiyot from Amos Riley of Indianola, California. It was not until sixteen years later that he returned to the area to make a more thorough study of that language and the related Yurok. He simultaneously recorded a lesser amount of Mattole data for comparison with other languages of the Northwest Coast and California which he had been recording.
Summary:
This subseries of the Northern and Central California series contains John P. Harrington's research on Wiyot, Yurok, and Mattole. Throughout his notes, Wiyot is abbreviated Sul. for Sulaatlak and, rarely, Wiy. Yurok is abbreviated Yur. or Trin[idad] lang[uage], and Mattole is abbreviated M. or B[ear] R[iver] Mat.
The Wiyot vocabulary consists of thirteen pages of numbers and terms for counting obtained during an interview with Amos Riley at Indianola on March 5, 1926. The name for Eel River is given and there are several references to two other Wiyot speakers, Jerry and Birdie James.
The comparative vocabulary section consists of lexical items semantically arranged. The majority of the terms are Wiyot forms given by Birdie James and Amos Riley, although some equivalences in Yurok from James and in Mattole from Theodore Prince are interspersed. A variety of vocabulary is given, with tribenames and placenames being the most numerous. The data in these last two categories are particularly detailed and include etymologies, references to Indian trails, a few rough sketch maps, and comments on names excerpted from several secondary sources (Reichard 1925; Nomland and Kroeber 1936).
Another set of files is composed of comments from Yurok and Wiyot speakers on published placename data from T. T. Waterman (1920) and Llewellyn L. Loud (1918). The first section, labeled "C. W. on Wat.," contains comments by Charlie Williams on tribenames and placenames given in the text and on associated maps (Rectangles A, B, H. I, J, K) in Waterman's "Yurok Geography." While most of the locations discussed are in the region of the Klamath River mouth, places in Tolowa, Wiyot, and Hupa territory are also mentioned. Unmarked forms are presumably Yurok names from Williams. His data were partially checked over with Birdie James, who gave both Yurok and Wiyot terms. A few comments were added by Orick Bob. The second section of rehearings is keyed to Rectangles H, I, J, and K in Waterman. Many of the placenames treated are in the Redwood Creek area near the home of Yurok speaker Orick Bob. Bob also volunteered a few terms for animals and tribes. The third section features comments of Birdie James on placenames given by Waterman, and by Loud in his "Ethnogeography and Archaeology of the Wiyot Territory." Harrington also utilized a number of maps (Belcher 1921; U. S. C. & G. S. 1940) in his work. A brief compilation of miscellaneous vocabulary found with the placename data appears at the end.
To serve as a questionnaire for his work with Isaac Duncan and Johnny Jackson, Harrington gleaned placenames from Goddard's "The Bear River Dialect of Athapascan" and Nomland's "Sinkyone Notes" and "Bear River Ethnography." Many of the Mattole terms he obtained are unlabeled, making it difficult at times to determine who provided the data. Most of the placenames are from the Bear River and Mattole River regions; in addition there are a limited number from the Eel River area and beyond. Stories, miscellaneous vocabulary, and biographical notes are also included.
A small section of miscellaneous notes appears at the end of the field data. Included are biographical notes on the informants and others, notes from the Hupa speaker, Dusky, a few observations by Harrington on the phonetics of the languages, general information on Gladys A. Reichard's work, and notes from a conversation with C. F. Voegelin regarding Yurok, Nootka, and Algonquian.
Cite as:
Northern and Central California: Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Wiyot language
Yurok language
Mattole language
Nootka language
Algonquian languages
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Phonetics
Names, Geographical
Toponymy
Names, Ethnological
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
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John Peabody Harrington papers: Northern and Central California, 1912-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

Concordance of the Athapascan languages; Chipwyan, Tacully, Klaskani, Willopah [Kwalhioqua ?], Upper Umpqua, Tootooten, Applegate Creek, Hopah, Haynarger

view Concordance of the Athapascan languages; Chipwyan, Tacully, Klaskani, Willopah [Kwalhioqua ?], Upper Umpqua, Tootooten, Applegate Creek, Hopah, Haynarger digital asset number 1
Creator:
Anderson, A.C
Physical description:
20 pages
Culture:
Athapascan Indians
Athapaskan
Arctic peoples
Indians of North America Subarctic
Chipewyan Indians
Montagnais Indians
Kwalhioqua
Clatskanie
Applegate Creek
Tututni Indians
Umpqua Indians
Hupa Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Notes:
Place and date of record not on manuscript; recorded at Cathlamet, Washington Territory, February 24, 1858, according to Pilling, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 14.
Summary:
Consists of Comparative vocabulary, 4 double leaves; Appendix, 8 pages.
Cite as:
Manuscript 123, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Chipewyan language
Hupa language
Athapascan languages
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 123
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

John Peabody Harrington papers: Supplemental material on Northern and Central California, circa 1907-circa 1957

view John Peabody Harrington papers: Supplemental material on Northern and Central California, circa 1907-circa 1957 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Kroeber, A. L (Alfred Louis) 1876-1960
Underhill, Ruth 1883-1984
Subject:
Drake, Francis 1540?-1596
Morton, C. V (Conrad Vernon) 1905-1972
Du Bois, Cora Alice 1903-1991
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart) 1855-1942
Voegelin, C. F (Charles Frederick) 1906-1986
Waterman, T. T (Thomas Talbot) b. 1885
Uldall, Hans Jørgen 1907-1957
Physical description:
5 boxes
Culture:
Wiyot Indians
Yurok Indians
Mattole
Nisenan Indians
Miwok Indians
Pomo Indians
Karok Indians
Chimariko Indians
Shasta Indians
Wailaki Indians
Achomawi Indians
Atsugewi Indians
Wintu Indians
Yana Indians
Ohlone Indians
Esselen Indians
Salinan Indians
Yokuts Indians
Maidu Indians
Type:
Vocabulary
Field notes
Manuscripts
Place:
California
Date:
1907
1907-1957
circa 1907-circa 1957
Summary:
This subseries of the Notes and writings on special linguistic studies series contains material that supplement Harrington's Northern and Central California field notes. There are materials on Wiyot/Yurok/Mattole; Nisenan/Northern Sierra Miwok; Southern Pomo/Central Sierra Miwok; Plains Miwok; Karok/Shasta/Konomihu; Chimariko/Hupa; Wailaki; Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana; Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko; Costanoan; Esselen; Salinan; and Yokuts. The files include notes Harrington collected from the field, covering linguistic, botanical, biographical, geographical, and ethnographic topics; notes from rehearings; notes and drafts from his papers; notes on his travels and activities; and notes from secondary sources, including field notes from Alfred Kroeber and other colleagues and notes on Sir Francis Drake's travels in California. Some of his botanical notes include scientific identifications and comments by botanist C. V. Morton of the National Herbarium. The Karok section contains labels for Karok baskets housed in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology.
There are also some general and miscellaneous materials, notes relating to collections of artifacts, notes relating to mission records, notes from conversations, notes from secondary sources, and notes and writings collected from others. Miscellaneous material includes lists of possible informants for a number of California languages, bibliographic references, notes on boats, a list of captions for Harrington's paper "Chainfern and Maidenhair, Adornment Materials of Northwestern California Basketry," a tracing of a map labeled "Plano de la Mision San Jose, 1824," additional references to that mission, and a text. The papers contain references to the Hupa, Maidu, and Yurok tribes. Notes on artifacts pertain to collections held by others, including the George Heye collection of artifacts for the Modoc, Klamath, Pomo, Tolowa, Hupa, and Yurok tribes. Notes from conversations includes interviews with Cora DuBois, C. Hart Merriam, Carl F. Voegelin, and T.T. Waterman. Notes from his meeting with Dr. J.W. Hudson are the most extensive. The last file in the subseries consists of notes from a meeting with Ruth Underhill on January 10, 1941, and a notebook which Harrington evidently obtained from her at that time. The notebook contains class notes from a course on Maidu which Underhill had taken at Columbia University in 1932 with Hans Jorgen Uldall. Included are information on phonetics and grammar and a number of texts.
Cite as:
Notes and writings on special linguistic studies: Supplemental material on Northern and Central California, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Ethnology
Grammar, Comparative and general
Names, Geographical
Names, Ethnological
Indians of North America
Wiyot language
Yurok language
Mattole language
Nisenan language
Miwok languages
Karok language
Shasta language
Konomihu language
Chimariko language
Hupa language
Achomawi language
Atsugewi language
Wintu language
Yana language
Ohlone language
Esselen language
Salinan language
Yokuts language
Discovery and exploration
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers: Notes and writings on special linguistic studies, 1907-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

John Peabody Harrington papers: "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai", 1939-circa 1942

view John Peabody Harrington papers: "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai", 1939-circa 1942 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Physical description:
0.63 linear feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Athapascan Indians
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Type:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Place:
Oregon
Washington (State)
Date:
1939
1939-1942
1939-circa 1942
Notes:
John P. Harrington first became interested in Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai in the fall of 1939 when he used a photostat of Boas and Goddard's (1924) "Vocabulary of an Athapascan Dialect of the State of Washington" and a hand-copy of Alexander Caulfield Anderson's (1857) "Klatskanai" vocabulary as parts of a "questionnaire" for obtaining the northern Athapascan languages of British Columbia and Alberta. He soon realized that the study of these isolated languages of the Willapa and Chehalis Rivers region would be significant in his continuing survey of Athapascan along the Pacific coast. As he expressed it later in a letter to B.A.E. chief Matthew W. Stirling: "This Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanay language is vital to connecting the Chilcos [Chilcotins] with the Hupas, is the only half-way link.."
Therefore, after his return to the United States he began a serious investigation of the extinct languages and even attempted to locate individuals who might have heard the languages spoken as children. He used a variety of Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai vocabularies in manuscript and published form as a basis for elicitation. In January 1940 while staying in Seattle with Melville and Elizabeth Langdon Jacobs, he questioned Tlingit speaker Thomas Skeek, a native of Kake, Alaska, regarding Tlatskanai. A month later he asked Upper Umpqua (UU) speaker John Warren (J.W.) of Grand Ronde for his impressions of the two more northerly situated languages.
This aspect of Harrington's work on the Northwest Coast was continued upon his return to the area in 1942. Those from whom he hoped for the greatest results were Lizzie Johnson and Minnie Case, two Upper Chehalis speakers he worked with at Oakville, Washington. Lizzie Johnson (Liz.) was the daughter of Mary Judson who had been an informant for James Wickersham and Leo J. Frachtenberg around 1900 and June 1910 respectively. Minnie Case (Min.) was a niece of Mrs. Judson and had been married to Willie Andrew of Tahola whose father was reportedly "pure Tlatskanai." She also claimed to have spoken Kwalhioqua as a very young child, although Harrington felt the language must have been Tlatskanai due to the location of her home in Clatsop County, Oregon.
Another Washington state resident interviewed in the matter was Emma Luscier (Em.).
He also interviewed a number of speakers of Oregon languages, including Clara Pearson, Wolverton Orton (Wolv.), Lucy Smith, and Coquille Thompson (Thomp.).
Summary:
This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series consists of field notes labeled "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai" by Harrington, but they do not represent reliable original data for these related neighboring languages. They are, rather, attempts by speakers of other Washington and Oregon languages to recall or suggest the appropriate Athapascan forms. Materials include notes from rehearings of Boas and Goddard's "Vocabulary of an Athapascan Dialect of the State of Washington"; L.J. Frachtenberg's "Willapa" vocabulary; J. Wickersham's "Qwal-ow-its" or "Kwil-low-its" vocabulary; E.S. Curtis' article "The Willapa"; Curtis' Willapa vocabulary; and A.C. Anderson's "Klatskanai" vocabulary. There are also a few miscellaneous notes on the names, ancestry, and location of Washington and Oregon residents capable of commenting on Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai. In addition, these files contain Harrington's rought outlines for articles and an abstract of a story regarding the origin of the Kwalhioqua and their relationship with other tribes.
Cite as:
Alaska/Northwest Coast: "Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai", John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Athapascan languages
Chastacosta language
Coquille language
Quinault language
Cowlitz language
Alsea language
Chinook jargon
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Languages
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers: Alaska/Northwest Coast, 1910, 1933-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives

John Peabody Harrington papers: General and miscellaneous materials (Alaska/Northwest Coast), 1933, 1938-1943

view John Peabody Harrington papers: General and miscellaneous materials (Alaska/Northwest Coast), 1933, 1938-1943 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Waterman, T. T (Thomas Talbot) b. 1885
Greiner, Ruth H
Marr, John Paul
Garfield, Viola Edmundson 1899-1983
Gunther, Erna 1896-1982
Young, Robert W. 1912-2007
Subject:
Bloomfield, Leonard 1887-1949
Boas, Franz 1858-1942
Angulo, Jaime de
Frachtenberg, Leo Joachim 1883-1930
Hoijer, Harry 1904-1976
Jacobs, Melville 1902-1971
Ray, Verne Frederick 1905-2003
Swadesh, Morris 1909-1967
Voegelin, C. F (Charles Frederick) 1906-1986
Physical description:
1.83 linear feet (6 boxes)
Culture:
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Indians of North America Subarctic
Indians of North America Plateau
Coos Indians
Type:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Vocabulary
Maps
Place:
Olympic Peninsula (Wash.)
Wishram (Wash.)
Northwest Coast of North America
Oregon
Puget Sound (Wash.)
Date:
1933
1933-1943
1933, 1938-1943
Summary:
This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series consists of materials pertaining to the area Alaska / Northwest Coast as a whole and those which are too limited in scope to constitute a full subseries in themselves. Included are writings by Harrington, notes from his conversations with others, notes from secondary sources, and field notes and writings he collected from others. Some items date as early as 1933; most are from the period 1938 to 1943.
The writings represent Harrington's attempt to synthesize the results of his years of work in the Northwest--particularly with regard to his Athapascan studies. There are several typed drafts of an untitled paper [former B.A.E. ms. 4360] dated April 4, 1943 on the tribal distribution along the Oregon coast. This work, accompanied by a map, describes tribal boundaries in detail and makes reference to the geographical and cultural setting. There follow notes, outlines, rough and final drafts of three papers of varying length relating to Harrington's theories on the origin and relationship of the Athapascan languages. Two of these were published (1940, 1943). Illustrations sent to the printer are also included here. The section of writings also contains several pages of notes and very rough drafts of short articles on the etymology of the term "Athapascan."
The notes from conversations vary in length and content. Information from Franz Boas consists of two undated pages concerning phonetics in Coast Salish and Chinook. From a March 1933 discussion with Joe Maloney, Harrington obtained data on tribes of southwestern Oregon, predominently on the Coos. W. O. Thorniley of the Puget Sound Navigation Company provided biographical and general information of the Olympic Peninsula, with special attention to the Ozette and Queets areas. Thomas Yallup spoke on Wishram, the tribal boundaries and practices of neighboring tribes, and possible informants.
Most significant are records of Harrington's meetings with Melville Jacobs in December 1939. Those discussions referred to Jacobs' own studies and included comments on the work of other linguists and anthropologists such as Jaime de Angulo, Leonard Bloomfield, Franz Boas, Leo J. Frachtenberg, Harry Hoijer, Verne F. Ray, Morris Swadesh, and C. F. Voegelin. The notes also reflect a mutual interest in orthographies, the relationship of Athapascan languages (particularly Kwalhioqua and Tlatskanai), and the theory of the Siberian origin and migration of the North American Indian. This section includes a few interspersed notes from Erna Gunther and Viola Garfield.
Notes from secondary sources consists of a few pages on each of several miscellaneous topics. The notes reflect Harrington's attempt to locate a speaker of Cayuse, and his interest in the early voyages to the Northwest Coast. Also included are comparative data on Athapascan languages compiled into a chart from a variety of manuscript and published sources.
Notes and writings from others include a small set of sketch maps and field data collected for Harrington by his assistant John Paul Marr. These notes were obtained while Harrington was in Washington, D.C. and unable to get to the field himself. There is also a section of original field notes on Puget Sound ethnogeography obtained from Thomas Talbot Waterman. They cover his collection of placename data in Clallam and in the Shoalwater Bay area in the period 1919-1921 and are supplemented by original notes from Ruth H. Greiner dated 1920-1921. Her records consist of lists of numbered placenames in a variety of Puget Sound Salish languages, with translations, etymologies, and brief commentaries. These field data were part of the basis for a manuscript Waterman prepared for the Bureau of American Ethnology (Waterman 1922) and are keyed to a number of large maps contained therein. Harrington also collected a short typed paper by his co-worker Robert W. Young dated 1938. This article, relevant to their study of Navaho, puts forward a theory on the origin and dispersion of a branch of Athapascan languages. It contains charts and numbered examples of linguistic features in Navaho, Carrier, Sekani, Chipewyan, Hare, and Hupa, among other languages.
Cite as:
Alaska/Northwest Coast: General and Miscellaneous Materials, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Athapascan languages
Chinook language
Puget Sound Salish languages
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Names, Geographical
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers: Alaska/Northwest Coast, 1910, 1933-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

John Peabody Harrington papers: Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko, 1928-1932

view John Peabody Harrington papers: Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko, 1928-1932 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
Physical description:
20 boxes
Culture:
Indians of North America California
Achomawi Indians
Chimariko Indians
Wintu Indians
Yana Indians
Type:
Field notes
Vocabulary
Maps
Narratives
Date:
1928
1928-1932
Notes:
John P. Harrington's involvement in the area of north-central California began in September 1921 when he undertook five months of fieldwork on Chimariko with Sally Noble, who was then residing in Denny on New River. The emphasis of his work at that time was recording the phonetics and grammatical structure of the language. Shortly afterwards he worked with a number of Achomawi, Atsugewi, Wintu, and Yana speakers, recording brief vocabularies, extensive placename notes, and some myths.
Through correspondence with Edward Sapir in the fall of 1927, Harrington learned of Billy George (alias Hayfork Bill), a Wintu and Chimariko speaker. Harrington had occasion to conduct a lengthy interview with him at Hayfork during the summer of 1928. Harrington also had the opportunity to work briefly with Ann McKay, an elderly Wintu speaker, and with Abe Bush, who had previously provided linguistic information to C. Hart Merriam and Edward Sapir. Some of Harrington's time in 1928 was also spent at Stone Lagoon reviewing with Lucy Montgomery the notes he had compiled with Sally Noble.
In mid-May 1931 Harrington returned to Hayfork and Hyampom to resume his field studies with George and Bush. For a virtually uninterrupted period from then until January 1932, he worked with these consultants and with numerous other speakers of Wintu, as well as with members of the neighboring Yana and Achomawi tribes. As this was a linguistically complex region, many of those he worked with were bi-or multilingual. Harrington evidently arranged his elicitation sessions to include speakers of different languages.
Harrington had multiple aims in conducting fieldwork in the region. Initially he wished to add to the already existing files of linguistic data which he had accumulated some ten years before. (See subseries "Chimariko/Hupa" and "Achomawi/Atsugewi/Wintu/Yana.") He was also interested in pursuing his botanical studies of the area, which had begun in 1928 and 1930 when his field assistant George W. Bayley had made collections of spring plants with Montgomery. The primary focus of his work, however, was the ethnogeography of the region. He was keenly interested in collecting a network of placenames throughout Shasta and Trinity counties and in determining the location of borders between the tribal territories.
Summary:
The bulk of this subseries of the Northern and Central California series consists of Harrington's research on Yana, Achomawi, Wintu, and Chimariko in 1931-1932 in Hayfork and Hyampom Valley. Materials include comparative vocabularies; notes from rehearings of secondary sources by Edward Sapir, T.T. Waterman, and Alfred Kroeber; placename data; brief texts; and ethnographic, historical, and biographical notes.
There are two sections of vocabulary in the subseries. The Yana, Achomawi, and Wintu section begins with two short Yana word lists from Grapevine Tom. Much of the earlier data from Tom was incorrect-probably because he was being evasive or uncooperative. Thus, in succeeding sessions, Harrington worked with him in the presence of a second or third Yana speaker. In this later work, the abbreviation "Grt." was adopted for Tom. His earlier data was labeled "Grpt." The major portion of the section is arranged semantically. The sections on plants and animals are particularly extensive. Names of plants were elicited for the most part from specimens collected on numerous trips. There are occasional references to cultural practices and myths throughout the notes. The Wintu-Chimariko vocabulary section is arranged for the most part by terms in the Hayfork dialect of Wintu. Equivalents are provided in the McCloud dialect and, in some cases, in Chimariko. The section on plant names includes data obtained by Harrington as early as 1928. There are numerous references to botanical specimens collected for him by his field assistant George W. Bayley.
The rehearings are mostly of Yana papers by Edward Sapir and T.T. Waterman as well as Roland Dixon's "The Chimariko Indians and Language." As part of a continuing effort to determine the relationship of Esselen to other California languages, Harrington also reheard Esselen vocabulary in Alfred Kroeber's "The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco.
His records relating to Yana, Achomawi, Wintu, and Chimariko placenames are extensive. There are two types of notes: those recorded during "armchair interviews" with informants and those made during trips with them. Usually individual names were recorded one to a page and were accompanied by data regarding the translation of the Indian name, the location, and the cultural or historical significance of the site. To elaborate upon the data gathered in these initial interviews, Harrington frequently made automobile and walking trips with his consultants, asking them to name the places they encountered. These notes were recorded in journals or logs, which contain, in addition to the above-described data, mileage from starting points, hand-drawn maps, and descriptions of neighboring topographical features.
The subseries also contains textual data Harrington collected. Several texts were recorded in Wintu, including one with a translation from Jim Feder. English summaries of the Flood Myth and the story of Coyote's Daughter were obtained from Billy George and Grapevine Tom. Joe Charles contributed a Redding myth. Miscellaneous notes on storytelling and on song texts were recorded from Billy Wright, Tom, and Rosa and Joe Charles.
There are also notes on the history and culture of the northern California tribes. Information was recorded throughout the summer and fall of 1931 from virtually all of his major linguistic consultants. Subjects covered in the notes include battles, baskets, games, clothing, customs, and herbal cures. Also filed here is a copy of a speech given to young men.
Additional materials include biographical notes as well as notes on vocabulary, placenames, and tribenames from Sarah Kloochoo, Billy Stone, and Mr. Radcliffe.
Cite as:
Northern and Central California: Yana/Achomawi/Wintu/Chimariko, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Yana language
Achomawi language
Wintu language
Chimariko language
Atsugewi language
Esselen language
Language and languages--Documentation
Linguistics
Names, Ethnological
Names, Geographical
Toponymy
Ethnobotany
Ethnology
Local number:
Accession #1976-95
See more items in:
John Peabody Harrington papers: Northern and Central California, 1912-1957
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
Additional Online Media:

English-Alabama and Alabama-English dictionary 1906-1913

view English-Alabama and Alabama-English dictionary 1906-1913 digital asset number 1
Creator:
Swanton, John Reed
Sylestine, Harden
Physical description:
5400 cards
4 boxes
Culture:
Alibamu
Koasati Indians
Alabama Indians
Indians of North America Southern States
Type:
Dictionaries
Collection descriptions
Date:
1906-1913
Notes:
The note by Swanton preceding Alabama-English section reads? "The material marked (H) was furnished by an Alabama Indian, Harden Sylestine, who translated in his own way. His translation is usually preserved lest a mistake be made in altering; the material is to be corrected later. This includes all of my Alabama material except 12 pages of text by native informants and a vocabulary which for the most part duplicates what has been given."
Summary:
Alabama-English, 2433 typed cards in 2 boxes; English-Alabama, approximately 3000 typed and autograph A. cards in 2 boxes. Includes terms written in pencil and marked "(K)," which may be terms in Koasati. Informants are Harden Sylestine and others.
Swanton's arrangement of the Alabama-English section is generally alphabetical, with many terms grouped together by stesm. The cards have been stamped with consecutive numbers 1-2433, and Swanton's order has been preserved. Cards that had been clipped together now have a second number, beginning with 1 for the first in a clipped group (e.g., if cards 25-27 were found clipped together, they would now be numbered 25-1, 26-2, 27-3).
The Alabama-English section (with sequentially numbered cards) contains utterances identifiable by a following number in parentheses. If the number does not begin with zero, apparently if refers to Swanton's page numbers in his rough field notes (M 4151 "second set"). Numbers beginning with zero seem to refer to the"first set," MS 4151-- Karen Lupardus, August 18, 1978.
Cite as:
Manuscript 2435, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Topic:
Language and languages--Documentation
Local number:
NAA MS 2435
See more items in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
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