A comparative study of the appendicular musculature of penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes) / Donald O. Schreiweis
Schreiweis, Donald O
iii, 46 p. : ill. ; 27 cm
The gross anatomy of all the appendicular muscles is compared in 14 species, representing the 6 living genera of Sphenisciformes. Particular emphasis is placed on the interrelationships indicated by variations in the taxa. Eudyptes pachyrhynchus is used as a type for which all the appendicular muscles are described and most are illustrated. The salient features of other taxa, as they differ from the condition found in E. pachyrhynchus, are given. Similarities and differences are compared quantitatively in respect to 47 items in the wing and 41 in the leg, using the method of Hudson et al. (1966:9-11). The results are given in the form of cumulative scores of differences and correlation coefficients.The results of the comparison of the wing musculature support those for the leg. The cumulative scores and correlation coefficients given closely parallel results.The Sphenisciformes constitute a rather uniform group of birds. The results of this study support the present classification of the order, in which 14 species are grouped into 6 genera. A tentative phylogeny of penguins is projected on the basis of variations in the wing and leg muscles.