Map maker, greeting card designer, greeting card company executive, author of an early history of the greeting card.
A collection of greeting cards given by artist Ernest Dudley Chase to Clara Holland during their courtship and later marriage. The cards were hand painted by Chase in watercolor with cut-paper details. Many of the cards include romantic letters or poems composed by Chase. The 2010 addendum includes six pictorial maps designed and signed by Chase, and nine bound travel diaries. The 2011 addendum consists of twenty one pictorial maps designed and signed by Chase.
Ernest Dudley Chase Papers, 1930s-1940s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Frederic and Frances Holland
2005.3066 (NMAH Acc.)
2010.3046 (NMAH Acc.)
2011.3064 (NMAH Acc.)
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment
Arthur D. Norcross (d. 1968) founded the Norcross Greeting Card Company in New York City in the 1920s. In 1974 the company relocated to West Chester and Exton, Pennsylvania, where in 1981 Norcross and the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company merged to form divisions of a parent company. The Rust Craft Greeting Card Company, some of whose records are in this collection, was begun as a little bookshop by Fred Rust (1877?-1949) in Kansas City, Missouri, 1906. He consolidated his business in Boston in 1914. In the 1950s the company relocated to Dedham, Massachusetts and in 1981 merged with the Norcross Company. Both the Norcross and Rust Craft companies collected antique greeting cards.
Cards and a few records of the Norcross and Rust Craft Greeting Card Companies, ca. 1920-1980; antique greeting cards, ca. 1800-1930 (bulk 1880-1900) collected by these companies and their executives; and a small number of modern cards by other manufacturers, ca. 1930-1980. According to Norcross Company officials in 1977, this collection represents "not only a history of the development of the greeting card industry but also a history of social trends in the United States" and gives "an indication of the quality and technology of the [printing] industry from 1924 through 1978."
Norcross Greeting Card Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Greeting card industry
1980.0816 (NMAH Acc.)
Approx. 1000 cubic feet of materials of the Norcross and Rust Craft Companies--"permanent" or record files of cards manufactured--are located at an off-site storage facility and are inaccessible and awaiting processing
The romance of greeting cards; an historical account of the origin, evolution, and development of Christmas card, valentine, and other forms of engraved or printed greetings from the earliest days to the present time. By Ernest Dudley Chase, with an introduction by Harry W. Brown. Cover design by Marjorie Wallingford and hand lettering by William P. Havican
The romance of greeting cards; an historical account of the origin, evolution, and development of the Christmas card, valentine, and other forms of engraved or printed greetings from the earliest days to the present time. With an introd. by Harry W. Brown. Cover design by Marjorie Wallingford and hand lettering by William P. Havican. Cambridge, Mass., Printed by University Press, 1926
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice-President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the Cabinet; the Mayor of Washington; and the Commissioner of the Patent Office. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877; and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice-President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives; two citizens of the District of Columbia; and nine citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of citizen-Regents not residents of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice-President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead; and the office has always been filled by the Chief Justice since that time.
These records are the official, edited minutes of the Board, compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board. Manuscript minutes exist for the period from 1846 to 1856, and after 1891. Only printed versions exist for the years from 1857 to 1891.
Printed versions of minutes for the years 1857-1890 are available in the Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution for those years
Joseph Nelson Rose field notes from the Department of Botany
1 field book
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Main Library
This field book consists of four sections of greenhouse notes on cacti by Joseph Nelson Rose. Locations include: Mexico, California, Arizona, Wyoming, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Texas, Alabama, Colorado, Panama, Belgium, Germany, Cuba, England, Chile, and South Carolina. The first section is a list of cacti in the United States National Museum, Division of Plants, 1912. Entries list: numbers (12.1 through 12.427); scientific name; location; date; name (possibly of collector). Some entries also list a separate set of numbers, possibly collector numbers, not in order. The second section is a list of plants, 1918 to 1921. Entries list: numbers (18.3 through 21.553); scientific name; location; and date. The third section is a list of plants, 1922 to 1924. Entries list: numbers (22.1 through 24.536); scientific name; location; and date. The fourth section is a list of plants, 1925 to 1929. Entries list: numbers (25.1 through 29.1); scientific name; location; and date.
SIA Acc. 12-052
At least 24 hours advance notice is recommended to consult this collection. Contact the Department of Botany at 202-633-0920 to make an appointment.
Number of Images: 149; Color: Color; Size: 10w x 12h; Type of Image: Book; Medium: Paper
1850s - 1870s
Historic Images of the Smithsonian
Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), ornithologist, was the first director of the United States National Museum (USNM) and second Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1878-1887).
A book filled with lists of the names of correspondents interleaved with atlas pages. The names are broken up geographically and were correspondents of Spencer F. Baird, second Smithsonian Secretary. Many of the correspondents listed in the book collected and donated natural history specimens to the Smithsonian.
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
This collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 38 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M843. These digital surrogates reproduced the previously un-filmed records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-70. The records consist of 32 volumes and approximately 20 linear feet of unbound records. The volumes include letters and endorsements sent; registers of letters received; telegrams sent and received; special orders, general orders, and circulars; register of persons recommended as inspectors of elections; a register of apprentices indentured; and index books. The unbound series consist mainly of letters received, orders, reports, and freedmen’s labor contracts. These documents were created or received by the Assistant Commissioner, the Acting Assistant Commissioner, or either of two staff officers who acted for the Assistant Commissioner.
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, often referred to as the Freedmen’s Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). Congress assigned to the Bureau responsibilities that previously had been shared by military commanders and by agents of the Treasury Department. The duties included supervision of all affairs relating to refugees, freedmen, and the custody of abandoned lands and property. Under provisions of the initial legislation, the Bureau was to have been terminated 1 year after the close of the Civil War. It was twice extended by laws of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), effective January 1869. Remaining Bureau functions were terminated following the discontinuance of the Bureau in 1872, in accordance with a law of June 10 of that year (17 Stat. 366).
In May 1865 the President appointed by Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard Commissioner of the Bureau. Howard, who served until the Bureau was discontinued, maintained his headquarters at Washington, D.C. Assistant commissioners supervised the work of the Bureau in the States.
Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey, the first Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina, established his headquarters at Raleigh in June 1865. Although the size and organization of the staff of the Assistant Commissioner varied from time to time, it usually included an Assistant Adjutant General, an Assistant Inspector General, a Surgeon in Chief, a Superintendent of Education, and a Disbursing Officer.
The policies and programs of the Freedmen’s Bureau in North Carolina were established by the Assistant Commissioner and administered through his subordinate officers. Bureau officials, often in cooperation with benevolent societies, established schools for freedmen and issued food, clothing, and medical supplies to refugees and freedmen. They also approved or disapproved freedmen’s labor contracts and indentures, investigated freedmen’s complaints, and helped black soldiers and sailors to file and collect claims for bounties, pensions, and pay arrearages. The Assistant Commissioner maintained several freedmen’s hospitals and colonies for the destitute, and provided transportation to return refugees to their homes or to convey freedmen to distant jobs.
During 1865 and 1866 much of the work of the Assistant Commissioner related to the custody of abandoned property of former supporters of the Confederacy. Officers of the Bureau leased much of the abandoned property and used the proceeds to finance Bureau activities. Sometimes buildings were utilized as Bureau offices and several abandoned plantations were used by the Assistant Commissioner as freedmen’s camps or colonies. However, the Assistant Commissioner restored most of the property, as the Commissioner directed, to former owners who signed loyalty oaths or received Presidential pardons.
The first Assistant Commissioner divided North Carolina into four districts—with headquarters located at Newbern, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Goldsboro—and thereunder into subdistricts. The officers in charge of districts were designated superintendents and those in charge of subdistricts, assistant superintendents. On July 1, 1867, the basic unit of organization for the State was changed to the subdistrict. Eleven subdistricts were established, each containing from two to four further subdivisions. The officers in charge of the subdistricts were designated subassistant commissioners, and those who administered smaller segments of the subdistrict were titled assistant subassistant commissioners. Each of the subassistant commissioners reported directly to the Assistant Commissioner.
March 1, 1868, marked the last change in the organization of the North Carolina Bureau. The State was divided into the four subdistricts of Morganton, Wilmington, Raleigh, and Goldsboro, but there was provision for smaller subdivisions in each subdistrict. This new subdivision of the State resembled the first in organizational structure, although titles for the various officers remained the same as those of the second organizational structure. By May 1869 all of the Bureau offices and functions except education, were phased out in North Carolina, and the Assistant Commissioner closed his office the first week of that month.
The following officers succeed Col. Eliphalet Whittlesey as Assistant Commissioner of North Carolina: Bvt. Maj. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger, May - June 1866; Bvt. Maj. Gen. John C. Robinson, June – November 1866; Col. James V. Bomford, November 1866 – April 1867 (Acting Assistant Commissioner); Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, April 1867 – October 1868; Bvt. Lt. Col. Jacob F. Chur, October 1868 – January 1869; Bvt. Maj. Gen. Nelson A Miles, February – March 1869; Bvt. Lt. Col. Charles E. Compton, April – May 1869.
When the Freedmen’s Bureau was abolished, its records were sent to the Office of the Adjutant General. Clerks in the Adjutant General’s Office numbered the volumes or book records and prepared “indexes” or lists of these books. In this microfilm publication the number assigned to the volume by the clerks in the Adjutant General’s Office appears in parenthesis. This number is useful only as a more precise method of identifying the volume.
Courtesy of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Freedmen’s Bureau Digital Collection, 1865-1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877
National Museum of African American History and Culture
American ethnic writers / editors, the editors of Salem Press
3 v. (xxxvi, 1,295 p.) : ill ; 24 cm
Vol. 1. Ai ; Meena Alexander ; Sherman Alexie ; Paula Gunn Allen ; Isabel Allende ; Rudolfo A. Anaya ; Maya Angelou ; Mary Antin ; Reinaldo Arenas ; Moelfi K. Asante ; Jimmy Santiago Baca ; James Baldwin ; Toni Cade Bambara ; Amiri Baraka ; Raymond Barrio ; Saul Bellow ; Arna Bontemps ; Cecilia Manguerra Brainard ; Edward Kamau Brathwaite ; Aristeo Brito ; Gwendolyn Brooks ; Claude Brown ; Roselle Brown ; Sterling A. Brown ; William Wells Brown ; Ed Bullins ; Carlos Bulosan ; Julio de Burgos ; Octavia E. Butler ; Abraham Cahan ; Hortense Calisher ; Bebe Moore Campbell ; Lorene Cary ; Carlos Castaneda ; Ana Castillo ; Lorna Dee Cervantes ; Barbara Chase-Riboud ; Denise Chavez ; Charles Waddell Cehsnutt ; Alice Childress ; Frank Chin ; Louis H. Chu ; Sandra Cisneros ; Eldridge Cleaver ; Lucille Clifton ; Jesus Colon ; Lucha Corpi ; Victor Hernandez Cruz ; Countee Cullen ; Nicholas Dante ; Angela Davis ; Samuel R. Delany ; Toi Derricotte ; Owen Dodson ; Michael Dorris ; Frederick Douglass ; Rita Dove ; W. E. B. Dubois ; Paul Laurence Dunbar ; Andrea Dworkin ; Cornelius Eady ; Lonne Elder III ; Stanley Elkin ; Ralph Ellison ; Louise Erdrich ; Martin Espada ; Percival L. Everett ; Jessie Redmon Fauset ; Rosario Ferre ; Harvey Fierstein ; Rudolph Fisher ; Maria Irene Fornes ; Charles Fuller ; Ernest J. Gaines ; Ernesto Galarza ; Christina Garcia ; Lionel G. Garcia --
Vol. 2. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ; Allen Ginsberg ; Nikki Giovanni ; Joanne Greenberg ; Jessica Hagedorn ; Janet Campbell Hale ; Alex Haley ; Virginia Hamilton ; Lorraine Hansberry ; Joy Harjo ; Michael S. Harper ; Wilson Harris ; Robert Hayden ; Le Ly Hayslip ; Oscar Hijuelos ; Chester Himes ; Rolando Hinojosa ; Bell Hooks ; Langston Hughes ; Zora Neale Hurston ; David Henry Hwang ; Gish Jen ; Ruth Prawer Jhabvala ; Ha Jin ; Charles Johnson ; James Weldon Johnson ; Gayl Jones ; June Jordan ; Cynthia Kadohata ; William Melvin Kelley ; Adrienne Kennedy ; Jamaica Kincaid ; Martin Luther King, Jr. ; Thomas King ; Barbara Kingsolver ; Maxine Hong Kingston ; Etheridge Knight ; Joy Kogawa ; Yusef Komunyakaa ; Jerzy Kosinski ; Stanley Kunitz ; Tony Kushner ; Jhumpa Lahiri ; Nella Larsen ; Evelyn Lau ; Wendy Law-Yune ; Gus Lee ; Le-Young Lee ; Gerda Lerner ; Audre Lorder ; Eduardo Machado ; Claude McKay ; Reginald McKnight ; Terry McMillan ; D'Arcy McNickle ; James Alan McPherson ; Haki R. Madhubuti ; Clarence Major ; Bernard Malamud ; Malcolm X ; Paule Marshall ; Ved Mehta ; Louise Meriwether ; Arthur Miller ; Henry Miller ; Anchee Min ; Nicholasa Mohr ; N. Scott Momaday ; Alejandro Morales ; Toni Morrison ; Walter Mosley ; Thylias Moss ; Bhararti Mukherjee ; Albert Murray ; Walter Dean Myers ; Gloria Naylor ; Fae Myenne Ng ; John Okada ; Simon J. Ortiz ; Judith Ortiz Cofer ; Louis Owens ; Cynthia Ozick ; Grace Paley --
Vol. 3. Gordon Parks, Sr.; Suzan-Lori Parks ; Ann Petry ; Marge Piercy ; Darryl Pinckney ; Miguel Pinero ; Mary Helen Ponce ; Chaim Potok ; Dudley Randall ; John Rechy ; Ishmael Reed ; Adrienne Rich ; Mordecai Richler ; Alberto Rios ; Tomas Rivera ; Abraham Rodriguez, Jr. ; Richard Rodriguez ; Ninotchka Rosca ; Henry Roth ; Muriel Rukeyser ; Louis Rafael Sanchez ; Sonia Sanchez ; Thomas Sanchez ; George S. Schuyler ; Delmore Schwartz ; Ntozake Shange ; Bapsi Sidhwa ; Leslie Marmon Silko : Isaac Bashevis Singer ; Cathy Song ; Gary Soto ; Shelby Steele ; Virgil Suarez ; Amy Tan ; Sheila Ortiz Taylor ; Piri Thomas ; Jean Toomer ; Luis Miguel Valdez ; Jose Antonio Villarreal ; Victor Villasenor ; Helena Maria Viramontes ; Gerald R. Vizenor ; Alice Walker ; Joseph A. Walker ; Booker T. Washington ; Wendy Wasserstein ; James Welch ; Ida B. Wells-Barnett ; Cornel West ; Phillis Wheatley ; John Edgar Wideman ; Elie Wiesel ; John A. Williams ; August Wilson ; Jade Snow Wong ; Jay Wright ; Richard Wright ; Mitsuye Yamada ; Hisaye Yamamoto ; Frank Yerby ; Jose Yglesias ; Al Young