John Peabody Harrington papers: Quinault/Chehalis/Cowlitz/Yakima/Chinook/Chinook Jargon, 1942-1943
Harrington, John Peabody 1884-1961
1.66 linear feet (4 boxes)
Indians of North America Northwest Coast of North America
Washington (State), Western
John P. Harrington conducted fieldwork in western Washington and northwestern Oregon from January to April 1942. In a report for that period Harrington explained the rationale behind his work on at least some of the many languages: "By studying the Salish much can be learned about the now extinct neighbors and predecessors of Athapascan tongue."
Harrington worked primarily with Emma Millet Stills Luscier (also spelled Lussier, and abbreviated Emma or Em.). She was the original source for most of the linguistic data and she reheard and commented on published and manuscript vocabularies or on the information given by other individuals. Other linguistic sources included Joe Peter, Minnie Case (Minnie, Min.), Lizzie Johnson (Lizzie, Liz.), Cleve Jackson (Mr. Jackson, Chief Jackson), and Harry Shale (Harry). George Sanders, Henry E. Franklin (Henry), and Sarah Farron Scarborough (abbreviated Mrs. Sc., sometimes misspelled ScabbIer) also provided some linguistic information.
Two residents were particularly helpful in supplying non-linguistic information regarding the Salish and Chinook. Benjamin Knight Bush (Ben, B.B.) of Bay Center had lived there most of his life and spoke Chinook jargon. He supplied biographical background information on his brother Lafayette Lincoln Bush (Lin.), who was the only non-Indian man Emma Luscier knew who could speak Chehalis. Another non-Indian who provided much of the historical background was the attorney John Bruce Polwarth (Polw.) of Cathlamet. Around 1934 he had written a history of Cathlamet County for the Sun newspaper. A few comments of a similar nature were added by the Reverend Nick Sivonen (NS) of Centralia.
Among the Indians who provided only nonlinguistic information were the Bay Center residents Mr. Lundquist, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Petit, and Mr. and Mrs. Edward D. Tyler. Those from Oakville were Silas Heck, John Vosper, Eliza Jane Elliott, and Emil Johnson. Maude K. Butler and her married daughter Julia Hanson provided Cathlamet information. A few comments from Joe Peter's wife appear in the Yakima / Cowlitz data. Nonlinguistic data and Tillamook equivalences were provided by Sammy Jackson and Clara Pearson.
This subseries of the Alaska/Northwest Coast series contains Harrington's research on Quinault, Chehalis, Cowlitz, Yakama, Chinook, and Chinook Jargon. The material was collected by Harrington from January to April 1942 in western Washington and northwestern Oregon; some additional comments were added in 1943. Comprising mostly vocabulary, the bulk of the notes consists of Chehalis and Cowlitz data. Distinctions were not always made between the Upper and Lower forms of the languages. That is, forms were often simply labeled "Cheh." or "Cowl." At times Harrington used "L. Cheh." or "Shw. B." (Shoalwater Bay) to point out Lower Chehalis. Upper Chehalis forms were occasionally marked "Oakv. (Oakville) Chehalis." Cowlitz forms were distinguished by the abbreviations "LC" and "UC." When Upper Cowlitz terms were identical with those in Yakima, they were labeled "UC and Yak." There are lesser amounts of data on Quinault and Chinook. Quinault forms were abbreviated' 'Quin." Authentic Chinook forms were preceded by the labels "Chin." or "Real Chin.," whereas the trade language referred to as Chinook jargon was marked "Chinj." or "Jarg."
There are also notes on Harrington's observations on bilingualism among various Salish-speaking groups; two stories in English; biographical, ethnographic, and historical notes; records of placename trips; and notes on bibliographic sources on Chinook and Chinook Jargon.
Alaska/Northwest Coast: Quinault/Chehalis/Cowlitz/Yakima/Chinook/Chinook Jargon, John Peabody Harrington papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution