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Drum

Artists/Makers:
Black Chicken (Siyo Sapa/Sayosapa/Black Prairie Chicken), Yanktonnai Nakota, ca. 1845-ca. 1903  Search this
Media/Materials:
Wood, rawhide, buffalo horn, paint, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Carved, bent, stretched, laced, painted
Dimensions:
59 x 49 x 7 cm
Culture/People:
probably Yanktonnai Nakota (attributed)  Search this
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Fort Peck Reservation; Roosevelt County; Montana; USA (inferred)
Date Created:
1860–1870
Catalog Number:
23/2202
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
The George Gustav Heye Center, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_247487
Additional Online Media:

Shield and cover

Artists/Makers:
Chief Arapoosh (Rotten Belly/Eelápuash), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), 1795-1834  Search this
Media/Materials:
Buffalo rawhide, deerhide/deerskin, wood stork head, eagle feather/feathers, feather/feathers, wool cloth, horsehair, brass tacks/bosses, hide thong/babiche, vermilion/cinnabar, paint, deer tail
Techniques:
Laced, tied, wrapped, painted
Dimensions:
61.9 x 61.8 cm
Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Place:
Montana; USA
Date Created:
1800-1830
Catalog Number:
11/7680
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
The George Gustav Heye Center, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_126360
Additional Online Media:

Robe

Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin, wool cloth, animal hoof/hooves, porcupine quills, glass pony beads, glass bead/beads, dye/dyes, sinew
Techniques:
Quilled (lane stitched), quill plaiting/woven quillwork, quill-wrapped (flat), lazy/lane stitch beadwork, painted
Dimensions:
223 x 190 cm
Culture/People:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke); collected from the Plains Cree (Prairie Cree)  Search this
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Outerwear (flat)
Place:
Montana; USA
Date Created:
circa 1850
Catalog Number:
1/2558
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
The George Gustav Heye Center, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_13077

Lariat/Rope

Donor:
Grace Hoffman White (Mrs. John Jay White), Non-Indian, ca. 1861-1937  Search this
Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin
Techniques:
Braided
Dimensions:
47 x 18.5 cm
Culture/People:
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Object Type:
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Place:
Montana; USA (inferred)
Date Created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
10/4323
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_111940
Additional Online Media:

Moccasins

Donor:
Frederick M. E. Schaefer, Non-Indian, 1892-1976  Search this
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, metal bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, beaded
Dimensions:
25 x 10 x 15 cm
Culture/People:
probably Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne) (attributed)  Search this
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
Montana; USA (inferred)
Date Created:
1905-1910
Catalog Number:
23/2554
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_247457
Additional Online Media:

Parker Field and Company .58 caliber percussion trade gun

Donor:
IBM Gallery of Arts and Sciences (IBM Gallery of Arts & Sciences)  Search this
Media/Materials:
Metal, wood
Techniques:
Commercially produced/manufactured
Dimensions:
16 x 12 cm
Culture/People:
Non-Indian; collected from the Apsáalooke (Crow)  Search this
Object Type:
Firearms and accessories
Place:
Montana; USA
Date Created:
circa 1875
Catalog Number:
23/299
See more items in:
Ethnographic Items
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_245423
Additional Online Media:

Cradle

Donor Name:
Catholic University Of America  Search this
Collector:
Rev. John M. Cooper  Search this
Rev. Eli W. Lindesmith  Search this
Culture:
Cheyenne  Search this
Object Type:
Cradle
Place:
Fort Keogh, Custer County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1956-Jul-06
Collection Date:
1882
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
211312
USNM Number:
E395625A-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8424397
Additional Online Media:

Bridgewater Family Papers

Creator:
Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1908-1970  Search this
Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1905-1968  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, 1878-1948  Search this
Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1893-1981  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1916-1963  Search this
Harrell, Charles Henry, Jr., 1914-1948  Search this
Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981  Search this
Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1927-2000  Search this
Harrell, Cornelius Eckart  Search this
Bridgewater  Search this
Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1903-1985  Search this
Harrell, Richard Francis  Search this
Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1894-1990  Search this
Bridgewater, Samuel, 1862-1912  Search this
Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1872-1950  Search this
Donor:
Campbell, Janet Harrell  Search this
Harrell, Jules  Search this
Names:
Lincoln School for Nurses -- Geographic subdivision--New York (N.Y.);  Search this
Pleasant Hour Club (Helena, Mont.)  Search this
Society for the Relief of Worthy Aged Indigent Colored Persons  Search this
United States. Army. Army Nurse Corps  Search this
United States. Army. Cavalry, 9th  Search this
Extent:
21 cubic feet (64 document boxes, one oversize folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Montana
Louisiana
United States -- Race relations
Date:
1880-2017
undated
Summary:
Papers and photographs documenting the lives and descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgewater of Helena, Montana.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the lives of the family and descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgwater. The papers primarily belonged to the family and descendants of their daughter Mary Emma (1893-1981), who married Charles H. Harrell (1878-1948), a Pullman porter. The collection includes materials from collateral relatives and from those who married into the Bridgewater and Harrell families. The women of these families were extensively involved in community, religious, and social organizations. The collection contains materials about social and religious life in the relatively small African-American communities surrounding Helena, Montana. It also contains family papers including Samuel and Mamie's marriage certificate from 1892; educational memorabilia and school diplomas; scrapbooks and photogaphs documenting family members, vacations, life events and friends; baptismal records; hand-written birth and death entries; and correspondence between family members and friends living in other states.

The collection includes records of many of Montana's social and religious organizations from the 1890s to the 1950s, including the Colored Women's Clubs of America; the Pleasant Hour Club in Helena; the Helena Negro Chorus; the local chapter of the Society for the Relief of Worthy, Aged, Indigent Colored Persons, Pleasant House Club; and numerous Baptist and Roman Catholic congregations. Generations of women in the Bridgewater and Harrell families were members or officers of these organizations. The collection contains records and photographs relating to several African-American and integrated churches in Helena. Friends and community members, primarily other African-American Montanans, are represented in the collection as well.

Photographs and other documents record the lives of nearby neighbors and friends as well as lives of more distant family members and friends. Subjects covered in the collection are: the formerly enslaved parents of Samuel and Mamie Bridgwater; Samuel Bridgwater and his fellow Buffalo soldiers; Octavia Bridgewater's experiences at the Lincoln School of Nursing in New York City; Octavia Bridgewater's service with a segregated unit of the Army Nurse Corps in World War II while stationed at the Tuskegee Air Base, Alabama and her later life after returning to civilian life in Helena when she worked mostly as a midwife.

Some of the arrangement of the collection was done by family members prior to its donation to the Archives Center. The families had a vigorous and wide ranging network of family and friends in Montana and elsewhere in the United States, and materials related to all family members and friends may be found across multiple series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Bridgewater Family, 1880-2013, undated

Subseries 1.1: Bridgewater, Samuel, 1880-1908, undated

Subseries 1.2: Bridgewater, Mamie Anderson, 1888-1990, undated

Subseries 1.3: Darby, Sophia Bridgewater, 1911-2005, undated

Subseries 1.4: Bridgewater, Octavia Marie, 1922-2013, undated

Subseries 1.5: Bridgewater, Leon Archibald, 1912-1968, undated

Subseries 1.6, Bridgewater, Herbert Ford, 1925-1970, undated

Subseries 1.7: Photographs, 1920-1955, undated

Subseries 1.8: Family Memorabilia, 1903-2007, undated

Subseries 1.9: Family Friends, 1930-2001, undated

Series 2, Harrell Family, 1914-2005, undated

Subseries 2.1: Harrell, Mary Bridgewater, 1914-1981, undated

Subseries 2.2: Harrell, Charles Henry, 1914-1977, undated

Subseries 2.3: Harrell, Arthur Samuel, 1930-1973, undated

Subseries 2.4: Harrell, Mary Trahan, 1925-2002, undated

Subseries 2.5: Harrell, Arthur Samuel, Jr., 1948-1981, undated

Subseries 2.6: Campbell, Janet Harrell, 1951-2005, undated

Subseries 2.7: Harrell, Jules Parker, 1950-1980, undated

Subseries 2.8: Harrell, Richard Francis, 1960-1996, undated

Subseries 2.9: Harrell, Cornelius Eckart, 1940-2001

Subseries 2.10: Harrell, Jr., Charles Henry, 1925-2005

Subseries 2.11: Family Memorabilia, 1960-1990, undated

Subseries 2.12: Photographs, 1929-1996, undated

Series 3, Trahan Family, 1923-1995, undated

Series 4, Family Friends, 1912-1979, undated

Series 5, Photographs, 1907-1992, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Bridgewater family is a multi-generation African American family descended from Samuel (1862-1912) and Mamie Anderson Bridgwater (1872-1950) (note: later family members spelled the name with an "e"). The son of slaves, Bridgwater was born in Dixon Springs, Smith County, Tennessee, on February 25, 1862. He later enlisted in the all-Black 24th Infantry Regiment, USCI (United States Colored Infantry), one of the famous "Buffalo Soldier" regiments. The 24th Infantry served in the Department of Texas from 1869-1889, Indian Territory from 1880-1888 and following 1888 in the Department of Arizona. In 1892 he married Mamie E. Anderson the daughter of Levi Anderson and Emma Lucy in Fort Huachuca, in what later became the state of Arizona.

Bridgwater fought in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War, where he was wounded. He retired from the United States Army at Fort Harrison, Montana, after twenty years of service on August 22, 1906. The family remained in Helena, Montana purchasing a home at 502 Peosta Avenue. The 1910 United States Census lists Samuel has having retired from the United States Army and lists Mamie as being a matron in the US Army hospital. They raised five children, three boys and two girls.

Samuel died on June 9, 1912. His widow and family remained in Montana becoming active in community affairs. Their descendants continued their parents' involvement in community and religious affairs as well as their fathers' tradition of military service. Their daughter Octavia served in an all-black unit of the Army Nurse Corps during World War II and then served her community as a nurse-midwife for the rest of her life. Members of the family continued to live in the home at 502 Peosta well into the twentieth century.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian by Janet Harrell Campbell and Jules Harrell, descendants of Samuel and Mamie Anderson Bridgewater, 2016.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Spanish-American War, 1898  Search this
Midwives  Search this
Community activists  Search this
United States Army  Search this
African American families -- Montana  Search this
Churches -- Montana  Search this
African American churches -- Montana  Search this
African Americans -- History -- 20th century -- Montana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Baptismal certificates
Scrapbooks
Marriage certificates
Diplomas
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Bridgewater Family Papers, 1880-2013, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1385
See more items in:
Bridgewater Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1385
Additional Online Media:

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