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Braxton Bragg

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Publisher:
E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, active 1852 - 1901
Sitter:
Braxton Bragg, 22 Mar 1817 - 27 Sep 1876
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.6cm x 5.3cm (3 3/8" x 2 1/16")
Mount: 10.1cm x 6.1cm (4" x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1861
Topic:
Interior
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
Braxton Bragg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Braxton Bragg: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.95.431
Exhibition Label:
Carte-de-visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in the North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually nothing to work with, photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of generals Simon Bolivar Buckner, Braxton Bragg, and Albert Sidney Johnston, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by such firms as E. & H. T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

Edmund Kirby Smith

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Publisher:
E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, active 1852 - 1901
Sitter:
Edmund Kirby Smith, 16 May 1824 - 28 Mar 1893
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.5cm x 5.3cm (3 3/8" x 2 1/16")
Mount: 10cm x 6.1cm (3 15/16" x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1861
Topic:
Interior
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Confederate
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education\Educator\Professor\University
Edmund Kirby Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain
Edmund Kirby Smith: Education\Administrator\University\President
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.95.412
Exhibition Label:
Carte de visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in the North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually "nothing to work with," photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of Generals Jubal A. Early, Edmund Kirby Smith, and Fitzhugh Lee, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by firms such as E.& H.T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Henry Lee

Artist:
James Herring, 12 Jan 1794 - 8 Oct 1867
Copy after:
Gilbert Stuart, 3 Dec 1755 - 9 Jul 1828
Sitter:
Henry Lee, 29 Jan 1756 - 25 Mar 1818
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 76.2 x 63.5cm (30 x 25")
Frame: 84.5 x 68.6 x 6.4cm (33 1/4 x 27 x 2 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1834
Topic:
Clothing & Apparel\Accouterment\Epaulet
Henry Lee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Revolution
Henry Lee: Politics and Government\Congressman\Continental
Henry Lee: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia
Henry Lee: Politics and Government\Governor\Virginia
Henry Lee: Congressional Gold Medal
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.78.51
Exhibition Label:
The first casualties of the War of 1812 resulted from Americans fighting Americans. On the night of July 27, 1812, Baltimore erupted into violent riots against those who opposed the weeks-old war, including Revolutionary War hero "Light-Horse Harry" Lee. Lee found himself barricaded in a house with supporters of a Federalist newspaper editor who had spoken out against war. When the mob attacked, the besieged men defended themselves, causing the death of a ringleader and further inciting the pro-war mob. Near morning, city leaders finally intervened, escorting the Federalists to jail for their own protection. That night, angry citizens broke in and brutally attacked the men, killing sixty-year-old veteran James McCubbin Lingan. Lee was smuggled out of the city and survived, although he never recovered from his wounds. He died six years later, when his son Robert E. Lee was only eleven.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Fitzhugh Lee

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Publisher:
E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, active 1852 - 1901
Sitter:
Fitzhugh Lee, 19 Nov 1835 - 28 Apr 1905
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.6cm x 5.1cm (3 3/8" x 2")
Mount: 10.1cm x 6.1cm (4" x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1862
Topic:
Interior
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard
Fitzhugh Lee: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Confederate
Fitzhugh Lee: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Consul\US Consul
Fitzhugh Lee: Politics and Government\Governor\Virginia
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.95.413
Exhibition Label:
Carte de visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually "nothing to work with," photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of Generals Jubal A. Early, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Fitzhugh Lee, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by firms such as E.& H.T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Nathan Bedford Forrest

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Publisher:
E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, active 1852 - 1901
Sitter:
Nathan Bedford Forrest, 13 Jul 1821 - 29 Oct 1877
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.6cm x 5.3cm (3 3/8" x 2 1/16")
Mount: 10cm x 6.1cm (3 15/16" x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1862
Topic:
Interior
Nathan Bedford Forrest: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Confederate
Nathan Bedford Forrest: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Landowner
Nathan Bedford Forrest: Society and Social Change\White Supremacist
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.95.424
Exhibition Label:
Carte de visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually "nothing to work with," photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of Generals Jubal A. Early, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Fitzhugh Lee, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by firms such as E.& H.T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
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Albert Sidney Johnston

Artist:
Edward Anthony, 1818 - 1888
Sitter:
Albert Sidney Johnston, 2 Feb 1803 - 6 Apr 1862
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 8.7 x 5.5cm (3 7/16 x 2 3/16")
Mount: 10.2 x 6.1cm (4 x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1862
Topic:
Weapon\Sword
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory
Interior\Studio\Photography
Albert Sidney Johnston: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Confederate
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.99.155
Exhibition Label:
Carte-de-visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in the North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually nothing to work with, photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of generals Simon Bolivar Buckner, Braxton Bragg, and Albert Sidney Johnston, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by such firms as E. & H. T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

Jubal Early

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Sitter:
Jubal Anderson Early, 1816 - 1894
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.8 x 5.3cm (3 7/16 x 2 1/16")
Mount: 10 x 6.1cm (3 15/16 x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1865
Topic:
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Beard
Photographic Format\Carte-de-visite
Jubal Anderson Early: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Jubal Anderson Early: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2003.61
Exhibition Label:
Carte de visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually "nothing to work with," photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of Generals Jubal A. Early, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Fitzhugh Lee, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by firms such as E.& H.T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

Simon Bolivar Buckner

Artist:
Unidentified Artist
Sitter:
Simon Bolivar Buckner, 1 Apr 1823 - 8 Jan 1914
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 8.3cm x 5.3cm (3 1/4" x 2 1/16")
Mount: 10.1cm x 6.1cm (4" x 2 3/8")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
c. 1864
Topic:
Clothing & Apparel\Dress Accessory\Headgear\Hat
Weapon\Sword
Clothing & Apparel\Accouterment\Epaulet
Symbols & Motifs\Star
Interior\Studio\Photography
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Confederate
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Communications\Journalist\Editor\Newspaper
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Vice-Presidential Candidate
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Politics and Government\Governor\Kentucky
Simon Bolivar Buckner: Business and Industry\Businessman\Insurance Agent
Portrait
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.95.407
Exhibition Label:
Carte-de-visite portraits of Confederate generals
During the Civil War, the Union blockade of southern ports effectively halted the flow of most goods, including materials needed by Confederate photographers to continue their operations. Although some photographic supplies were smuggled through, by January 1862 it was reported in the North that "the Photographic Art down South has completely died out in consequence of the war." Because southern cameramen had virtually nothing to work with, photographs representing Confederate leaders, such as these portraits of generals Simon Bolivar Buckner, Braxton Bragg, and Albert Sidney Johnston, typically circulated in the form of retouched copy images produced in the North by such firms as E. & H. T. Anthony rather than as original life portraits created in the South.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

The Opium Trail ca. 1960

Creator:
Cowell, Adrian director
Director:
Crowell, Adrian
Film editor:
Freemantle, Brian
Cameraman:
Menges, Chris
Sound editor:
Ambler, Guy
Physical description:
2,160 feet (60 minutes) sound b&w video
Culture:
Burmese Shan
Chinese
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Collection descriptions
Television programs
Place:
Thailand, Maesai
Thailand, Chieng
Thailand, Kong
China
Yunan Province
Burma
Hong Kong
Asia
Date:
ca 1960
Topic:
Special crops--poppy
Smuggling--ethnic specialization--penalties
Narcotics--opium--heroin--addiction
Adornment--wealth--ethnic groups--opium trade
Religion--Buddhism--narcotics
Secret societies--Chinese--Triads--Tongs
Smoking--pipes--opium
Political movements--smuggling--Koumingtang
Army--smuggling
Police--illegal drugs--enforcement
Chieng, Thailand
Crime--organized
Corruption--bribery--police
Local number:
HSFA 81.5.7
Notes:
Title from credits (published work)--study collection
Summary:
An edited film dealing with the varied aspects of the opium trade in golden triange region of Burma, Laos, and the Yunan Province of China. Scenes include: the growing cycle of the poppy and extraction of sap from the mature pods, illustration of the role of opium growing and trade in the local economy of the Shan peoples of highland Burma, the preparation of the drug for sale to smugglers, the organization of the smuggling caravans, the techniques by which smugglers circumvent detection and arrest, the processing of opium into heroin, the sale of heroin on the streets of Hong Kong, and enforcement efforts
Edited film produced by ATV Pathfinder Productions documenting aspects of the opium trade in the golden triangle region of Burma, Laos, and the Yunan Province of China. Film includes the growing cycle of the poppy, the role of opium trade in the local economy of the Shan people of highland Burma, preparation of the drug for smuggling, and processing of opium into heroin for sale on the streets of Hong Kong
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Bernardo de Gálvez, Conde de Gálvez

Artist:
José de Alfaro
Sitter:
Bernardo de Gálvez, 1746 - 1786
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 93.7 x 74.8cm (36 7/8 x 29 7/16")
Frame: 100.1 x 81.5 x 5cm (39 7/16 x 32 1/16 x 1 15/16")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1785-1786
Topic:
Vehicle\Ship
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane
Clothing & Apparel\Jewelry\Medallion
Symbols & Motifs\Emblem\Coat of arms
Home Furnishings\Curtain
Bernardo de Gálvez: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer
Bernardo de Gálvez: Politics and Government\Governor\Louisiana
Portrait
Credit Line:
Current Owner: Museo Nacional de Historia, Mexico
Object number:
EXH.SP.11
Exhibition Label:
Bernardo de Gálvez was educated in military science at the Academy of Ávila. At age sixteen, he participated in his first military battle in a Spanish campaign against Portugal before leaving for New Spain. After his first American assignment in Chihuahua, Mexico, in 1772 he returned home and participated in an expedition to Algiers. Promoted to colonel, he was named governor of the province of Louisiana in 1776, a position he held for seven years. His administration saw a decline in British smuggling and a rise in free trade with allies. Gálvez was integral to British defeat in the siege of Mobile, and he directed the successful land and sea assault on Pensacola, the British capital of West Florida, the same year. Appointed viceroy of New Spain in 1785, he quickly became known for his bold city planning and progressive building projects.
Bernardo de Gálvez estudió en la Academia Militar de Ávila. A la edad de dieciséis años participó en su primera batalla en la campaña española contra Portugal antes de partir para Nueva España. Después de su primer destino americano en Chihuahua, México, en 1772 regresó a la patria y participó en la expedición de Argel. Ascendido al rango de coronel, fue nombrado gobernador de la provincia de Luisiana en 1776, un puesto que mantuvo durante siete años. Durante su administración disminuyó el contrabando británico y aumentó el libre comercio con los aliados. Gálvez fue esencial en la derrota de los británicos durante el asedio a Mobile, y, el mismo año, dirigió con éxito el ataque por tierra y mar contra Pensacola, la capital británica de Florida Occidental. Designado Virrey de Nueva España en 1785, se dio a conocer rápidamente por su audaz planeamiento urbano y sus proyectos de construcción muy avanzados.
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery
Visitor Tag(s):

Knife, Fork, and Plate from Libby Prison

User:
Crocker, John S.
Physical Description:
tin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 21.844 cm x 21.844 cm x 1.905 cm; 8 5/8 in x 8 5/8 in x 3/4 in
Object Name:
plate
Object Type:
plate
Used at:
United States: Virginia, Libby Prison
United States: Virginia, Richmond
Date made:
1862
Associated date:
1861 - 1865
Subject:
Military
POWs
ThinkFinity
Event:
Civil War
Civil War and Reconstruction
ID Number:
AF*75529M
Catalog number:
75529M
Accession number:
296035
Description:
Physical Description
Metal-and-bone knife and fork and a metal plate.
Specific History
This knife, fork, and plate was issued to prisoner of war Colonel John S. Crocker, 93rd Infantry Regiment, New York Volunteers, by the commandant of Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia, and used by him at Libby and Salisbury prisons, 1862.
General History
Libby Prison's three buildings were designed and built as a warehouse by John Enders, who died before putting them to use. Following his death, the warehouse sold to Luther Libby from Maine, who erected a sign "L. Libby & Son, Chip Chandlers". At the beginning of the war, Libby was given 48 hours to vacate the building so it could be used as a prison. The only thing Libby left behind was his sign; the building became Libby Prison. During the war, Libby held over 125,000 men, mostly Union officers. On February 9, 1864, the most bold and daring of prison escapes happened at Libby. One hundred nine Union army officers managed to escape by crawling through a fireplace, sliding down a chimney, and slithering through a 53-foot-long tunnel. The escape came after months of digging with tools smuggled into the prison by a Northern sympathizer, Elizabeth Van Wert, a.k.a. Crazybet. Libby was vacated just before the Union army captured Richmond, and spent the rest of the war empty.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Armed Forces History: Armed Forces History, General
ThinkFinity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Stubby

Physical Description:
fur (overall material)
plaster (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 22 in x 26 in x 11 in; 55.88 cm x 66.04 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
Dog, stuffed
Served in:
France
Born in:
United States
Subject:
Military
Dogs
ThinkFinity
Event:
World War I
The Emergence of Modern America
ID Number:
AF*58280M
Catalog number:
58280M
Accession number:
210736
Description:
Physical Description
Stuffed dog, blanket adorned with medals.
Specific History
While training for combat on the fields of Yale University in 1917, Private J. Robert Conroy found a brindle puppy with a short tail. He named him Stubby, and soon the dog became the mascot of the 102nd Infantry, 26th Yankee Division. He learned the bugle calls, the drills, and even a modified dog salute as he put his right paw on his right eyebrow when a salute was executed by his fellow soldiers. Stubby had a positive effect on morale, and was allowed to remain in the camp, even though animals were forbidden.
When the division shipped out for France aboard the SS Minnesota, Private Conroy smuggled Stubby aboard. Hidden in the coal bin until the ship was far at sea, Stubby was brought out on deck where the sailors were soon won over by the canine soldier. Stubby was soon discovered by Private Conroy's commanding officer who allowed Stubby to remain after the dog gave him a salute.
When the Yankee Division headed for the front lines in France, Stubby was given special orders allowing him to accompany the men to the front lines as their official mascot. The 102nd Infantry reached the front lines on February 5, 1918. Stubby soon became accustomed to the loud rifles and heavy artillery fire. His first battle injury occurred from gas exposure; he was taken to a nearby field hospital and nursed back to health. The injury left him sensitive to the tiniest trace of gas. When the division was attacked in an early morning gas launch, most of the troops were asleep. Stubby recognized the gas and ran through the trench barking and biting at the soldiers, rousing them to sound the gas alarm, saving many from injury. Stubby also had a talent for locating wounded men between the trenches of the opposing armies; he would listen for the sound of English and then go to the location, barking until paramedics arrived or leading the lost soldiers back to the safety of the trenches. He even caught a German soldier mapping out the layout of the Allied trenches. The soldier called to Stubby, who put his ears back and began to bark. As the German ran, Stubby bit him on the legs, causing the soldier to trip and fall. He continued to attack the man until the U.S. soldiers arrived. For capturing an enemy spy, Stubby was put in for a promotion to the rank of sergeant by the commander of the 102nd Infantry. He became the first dog to be given rank in the United States Armed Forces. Later, Stubby was injured during a grenade attack, receiving a large amount of shrapnel in his chest and leg. He was rushed to a field hospital and later transferred to a Red Cross recovery hospital for additional surgery. When Stubby became well enough to move around at the hospital, he visited wounded soldiers, boosting their morale.
By the end of the war, Stubby had served in seventeen battles. He led the American troops in a pass-and-review parade and later visited with President Woodrow Wilson. He visited the White House twice and met Presidents Harding and Coolidge. Stubby was awarded many medals for his heroism, including a medal from the Humane Society. It was presented by General John Pershing, the commanding general of the United States Armies. He was awarded a membership in the American Legion and the YMCA. When his master, J. Robert Conroy, began studying law at Georgetown University, Stubby became the mascot of the Georgetown Hoyas. He died in 1926.
See more items in:
Armed Forces History: Armed Forces History, Military
ThinkFinity
Exhibition:
The Price of Freedom: Americans at War
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

How did animals (even slugs) serve in World War I?

Creator:
National Museum of American History
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 11 Nov 2014 21:08:39 +0000
Topic:
American History
Description:

Veterans Day is a time to commemorate the brave men and women who are serving or have served in the armed forces. However, the service of animals during times of military conflict often goes unmentioned. Whether providing comfort, inspiration, or indispensable service, animals have played a crucial role in militaries and armed conflicts for centuries. World War I, which ended 96 years ago on November 11, was no exception. To honor our animal veterans, this post highlights five animals that made significant contributions to the Great War.

Pigeons

Pigeons played a crucial role in communication during World War I because of their speed and ability to fly at great heights. Their homing instincts also made pigeons extremely reliable and capable messengers—they could easily find their way back to their loft. Some of the lofts remained at army/division headquarters, while others were mobile, with soldiers carrying the lofts and pigeons on their backs as they moved throughout Europe. 

Above: Peerless Pilot, a feathered hero of the war, worked at the U.S. Naval Air Station at Pauillac. During the last year of the war, he delivered 196 messages from the sea. Bottom: "Liberating a pigeon." William E. Moore and James C. Russell, U.S. Official Pictures of the World War Showing America's Participation Selected from the Official Files of the War Department (Washington, D.C.: Pictorial Bureau, 1920), 119.

Both the Allied and the Central Powers used tens of thousands of homing pigeons to send messages between military detachments. In fact, they were so important to communication during the war that the British Defence of the Realm Act made it a crime to kill, wound, otherwise molest, or not take adequate care of pigeons. 

Cher Ami, one of two WWI pigeons in our collection, served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps in France with the American sector in Verdun. He delivered 12 messages, and in delivering the last one on October 4, 1918, he was shot through the breast and leg. Despite being gravely injured by enemy fire, he was able to carry on and save the lives of almost 200 men. The message that he delivered was from the "Lost Battalion" of the U.S. Army's 77th Infantry Division, who were trapped behind enemy lines and accidentally being shelled by American troops. The message from the 77th Infantry Division read: "WE ARE ALONG THE ROAD PARALELL [sic] 276.4. OUR ARTILLERY IS DROPPING A BARRAGE DIRECTLY ON US. FOR HEAVENS SAKE STOP IT." After receiving the message, the U.S. Army redirected its artillery fire and found and relieved the soldiers, bringing them back behind American lines.

 

Taxidermy pigeon

Cher Ami, the savior of the "Lost Battalion"

For his bravery and outstanding service, the French government awarded Cher Ami with the Croix de Guerre with palm. The palm signifies the great importance of Cher Ami’s role in the battle. Unfortunately, Cher Ami died on June 13, 1919, from the wounds he sustained in the heroic delivery of his last message.

Dogs

Like homing pigeons, Allied and Central Powers used dogs as messengers during World War I. Dogs could easily and much more subtly navigate trenches and battlefields than soldiers could, thus making them ideal ground messengers.

Dogs also served in several other capacities—for example, their keen sense of smell made them perfectly suited to finding wounded soldiers on the battlefield and in the trenches. This sense of smell, combined with dogs' excellent hearing, allowed them to serve as effective guards and scouts, particularly when it came to detecting nearby enemies. Man's best friend also filled the simple but essential need for comfort and companionship during times of great distress. In the United States, dogs were not officially incorporated into the military until World War II, but many still served with the armed forces. These dogs were most likely adopted by units on an individual basis as mascots, as in the case of Stubby.

Stubby the dog with his numerous military decorations

Stubby with his numerous military decorations

Stubby was a Staffordshire terrier mix puppy adopted by Private J. Robert Conroy while he was training for combat. Stubby became the mascot of the 102nd Infantry, 26th Yankee Division, and he learned the calls, drills, and salutes. Private Conroy smuggled Stubby onto the SS Minnesota when the division shipped out to France, and Stubby won over the commanding officer when he gave the officer his dog salute.

When the division reached France, Stubby was allowed to accompany it to front lines and serve as their mascot—but he did much more.

Private J. Robert Conroy and Stubby in France\

Private J. Robert Conroy and Stubby in France

His sense of smell allowed him to detect enemy gas before the men, and he would run through the camp barking, sounding the alarm, and saving the lives of the troops. He also saved the lives of many soldiers because he could locate the wounded on the battlefield and would lead the soldiers to safety or bark until medics arrived.

One day, Stubby caught a German spy attempting to make a map of Allied trenches, and he attacked the man until American soldiers arrived. For this act, Stubby was unofficially promoted to sergeant.

By the end of the war, Stubby had served in 17 battles. At the Battle of Seicheprey on April 20, 1918, shrapnel from a shell seriously injured Stubby, and he was rushed to a field hospital for treatment and then to a Red Cross hospital for recovery. During his recovery, Stubby went around the hospital and visited wounded soldiers, boosting their morale. Stubby received many awards and medals for his outstanding service, including one awarded by General John Pershing.

Horses and Mules

Dogs and pigeons played a crucial a role in World War I, but horses and mules are perhaps the animals most commonly associated with the Great War. Sketches from the American Expeditionary Forces show both animals constantly in the background, and even the foreground, of American military activity.

Barn with Mules, Boucq. J. Andre Smith. Official Art from the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.

Barn with Mules, Boucq. J. Andre Smith. Official Art from the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.

They were used as beasts of burden to pull pieces of artillery, supply trains, and other materials. Horses also served as transportation for soldiers and as integral members of cavalry units. In fact, horses and their transportation capabilities were so important on the battlefields of the Great War that they were seen as the key to saving soldiers’ lives.

"He's Ready to Fight—Are You?" National Guard. Princeton University Poster Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center.

The American Red Star Animal Relief created posters that urged people to "Help the Horse to Save the Soldier," depicting a soldier holding his wounded horse. This relief organization was founded on June 27, 1916, with the purpose of functioning essentially as a Red Cross for U.S. Army animals.

American Red Star Animal Relief, organized by the American Humane Association, started a veterinary corps and recruited experienced veterinarians, blacksmiths, and stable hands to serve in its ranks. The organization created and distributed over 80,000 booklets to American soldiers that detailed first aid for horses, and it supplied veterinary ambulances and medical supplies to Army camps.

Help the Horse to Save the Soldier poster

"Help the Horse to Save the Soldier." Fortunino Matania. American Red Star Animal Relief. Princeton University Poster Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center.

The new technology of machine guns and tanks made these efforts by the American Red Star Animal Relief all the more important because horses sustained much graver injuries. Today, the American Red Star Animal Relief is the American Humane Association's Red Star Animal Emergency Services. The Red Star now works on its own, responding to disasters such as Hurricane Sandy and animal cruelty cases.

The essential role that horses and mules played in World War I did not go unrecognized: the U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum erected a plaque dedicated to the horses and mules that served in the American Expeditionary Forces during the Great War. It states, "A fitting tribute to their important services has been given by... General John J. Pershing who has written 'The army horses and mules proved of inestimable value in prosecuting the war to a successful conclusion. They were found in all the theaters of preparation and operation doing their silent but faithful work without the faculty of hoping for any reward or compensation.'" The plaque also says that "what they suffered is beyond words to describe."

Plaque featuring horses and mules in the military

Tribute to World War I Horses and Mules. Image courtesy of the U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum.

Slugs

By the time soldiers noticed the presence of mustard gas on the battlefield, it was often too late. Dr. Paul Bartsch of the Division of Mollusks in the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History) discovered that slugs could detect mustard gas well before humans could. The slugs would visibly indicate their discomfort by closing their breathing pores and compressing their bodies, and soldiers in the trenches would quickly put on their gas masks to protect themselves from harmful levels of gas. The "slug brigade" ended up saving many lives. 

Gas Mask

Gas mask from World War I

What all of our soldiers sacrifice and suffer is beyond words to describe. This Veterans Day, as we remember and give thanks for the brave men and women who have given so much in the service of our country, let us also remember the animals who provided them aid, comfort, and companionship.

Leah Tams is the James Lollar Hagan intern in Armed Forces History. She recommends learning more about military cats, other animals in war, and the history of the Red Star. She also recommends Animals in the Military: From Hannibal’s Elephants to the Dolphins of the U.S. Navy by John M. Kistler. 

Author(s): 
Armed Forces History Intern Leah Tams
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Surging south of Baghdad : the 3d Infantry Division and Task Force Marne in Iraq, 2007-2008 / Dale Andrade

Author:
Andradé, Dale
Center of Military History
Subject:
United States Army Infantry Division, 3rd
Physical description:
xvii, 429 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Iraq
Baghdad
Date:
2010
21st century
Topic:
Iraq War, 2003-2011--Regimental histories
Iraq War, 2003-2011--Campaigns
Counterinsurgency--History
Notes:
Shipping list no.: 2011-0096-P
Contents:
Back to Iraq. A brave tradition; Gearing up for a third tour; Changing course; The Baghdad belts; South of Baghdad -- On the ground. Working in the desert; East Bank of the Tigris; Commando Brigade; Paratroopers on the Euphrates -- First combat. Attack on Patrol Base Dog; Air cavalry; Kiowa down; Missing in action -- Taking the offensive. Preparing the battlefield; Western operations; Last pieces in place; Planning the first offensive -- Operation Marne Torch. Maintaining momentum; Anvil on the East Bank; High-value targets; Running out of steam -- New ground. Coalition contingent; Cross-border smuggling; Facing Iran -- New offensives. Avalanche; Beyond reach; taking stock -- Sons of Iraq. Anbar beginnings; New focus on reconciliation; Combat multipliers; Progress East of the Tigris; Burgeoning numbers -- Pressing the advantage. Marne Torch, second round; Pacifying Arab Jabour; The Shi'ite strategy -- Western front. The Rakkasans; Missing in action resolved; Security in the Euphrates Valley; Switching brigades; Operation Marne Roundup -- Thunderbolt. Shifting priorities; Relentless pursuit; Air power; Improving the odds -- New focus. Grand Slam; Winding down; Baghdad interlude; Back to Capitol Hill; Piledriver; Transition -- Conclusion: What winning looks like. Balance sheet; The counterinsurgency assessment; Remembering
Summary:
This book covers this crucial period in the Iraq war from the perspective of a single division operating in the region south of the Iraqi capital. This account offers a snapshot of the surge, its successes and shortcomings, and shows how the Army coped with the changing demands of the modern combat environment.--[Foreword]
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Encounters with witchcraft : field notes from Africa / Norman N. Miller

Author:
Miller, Norman N. 1933-
Physical description:
viii, 232 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Africa, Sub-Saharan
Date:
2012
Topic:
Witchcraft--Social aspects
Contents:
Prologue: first encounter -- The colonial days -- An archeologist's view of witchcraft -- Ancient spirit paintings -- Lion-men and colonial witch trials -- Angry man with a cross-bow -- Witchcraft and the Congo pygmies -- Crocodile bile and the poison principle -- Living with witches -- The witchcraft trial of Mohammadi -- The woman who poisoned a chief -- The issue of death by suggestion -- Witchcraft symbols in western Tanzania -- Reflections on Mohammadi -- Through African eyes: the arts -- The gift of an execution mask -- Seeing witchcraft images in nature -- The witch's toolkit: implements and artifacts -- Guns, throwing knives and power symbols -- Spirit art and the ideas of an African chief -- Witch-hunters and witch-cleansers -- Secrets of a professional witch hunter -- Using witch hunters for political coercion -- A famous witch-cleanser in Malawi -- Faith healers, snake handlers, herbalists -- Kajiwe (little stone), Kenyan witch-hunter -- Witchcraft and violence -- Meeting Idi Amin in Uganda -- State-sponsored terror with witchcraft skin gangs and secret societies on trial: witchcraft court cases -- A rough map of witchcraft in eastern Africa -- The spirit wars -- How prophet movements use witchcraft healing -- The sick by the sea -- "Evil eye" among desert people -- Witchcraft violence in an African Christian church -- Missionary zeal: African spirits versus Christian spirits -- Witchcraft and juju economics -- Smuggling of witchcraft poisons and products -- Long distance trade in protective medicines -- The healer's trade: witchcraft as a diagnosis -- Commercialization and urbanization of witchcraft -- Spirit art, devil art and modern art for profit -- Witch beliefs as barriers to economic development -- Political witchcraft -- Witchcraft threats and mafia-like politics -- The Tanzanian holocaust: the Sungusungu killings -- Meeting Kenya's President Moi -- Devil cults in Nairobi: alleged satanic practices -- The use of witchcraft in Uganda's
Lord's Resistance Army -- Rebellion in Kenya: the rise of mungiki -- Lessons learned -- "Look, there is no 'paranormal'" -- Lessons from a little boy -- How witchcraft really works: an African view -- Death by suggestion: a final confession -- Killing elders as witches, the rise of senecide -- Mohammadi's shadow -- Return to my village -- Dramatic changes over the years -- Why witches are never mentioned -- The truth about Mohammadi's life -- The mystery resolved -- Epilogue: the future of witchcraft
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Smithsonian Libraries
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