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95th Aero Squadron Photographs, 1917-1918

Creator:
Garrison, Herbert
Subject:
Garrison, Herbert
United States Army Air Service 1st Pursuit Group 95th Aero Squadron
Physical description:
0.01 cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Date:
1917
1917-1918
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918
Aeronautics
Aeronautics, Military
Voisin Aircraft Family
SPAD XIII (S.13)
Nieuport (France) 11 Monoplane
Nieuport (France) 17
Nieuport (France) 28
Morane-Saulnier Model LA (Mo.S.4)
RAF F.E.3 (A.E.1)
Fokker D.VI
Local number:
1998-0029
Notes:
The 95th Aero Squadron was organized on August 20th, 1917 and demobilized on March 18th, 1919. The 95th was part of the 1st Pursuit Organization and was stationed in France during World War I
Summary:
This donation consists of 23 images copied from a scrapbook which was loaned to the Archives Division by Walter Garrison. Mr. Garrison's father, Herbert Garrison, was a mechanic for the 95th Aero Squadron during World War I. These images, taken by Herbert Garrison, include shots of both aircraft and aviation personnel. The following aircraft are represented: Voisin VIII; Spad XIII; Nieuport 11, 17 and 28; Morane-Saulnier LA; Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.3B; and Fokker D.VI. In addition, there are two copy transparencies of a Red Cross postcard, stating that Garrison had arrived safely back in New York from the war
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Abrams Explorer

Manufacturer:
Abrams Instrument Corp.
Materials:
Steel tubing airframe, aluminum and fabric skin
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 11.7 m (38 ft. 6 in.)
Length: 8.3 m (27 ft. 9 in.)
Height: 1.9 m (6 ft. 7 in.)
Weight: Empty 1,067 kg (2,350 lbs.)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1937
Credit Line:
Gift of Abrams Instrument Corporation
Inventory Number:
A19490018000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Twin boom 2-seat aerial photography plane with 280 hp Wright Whirlwind R-975 E-3 engine
Summary:
The Abrams Explorer, built in 1938, was the only one ever created and was uniquely designed for aerial survey and mapping functions. By featuring obstruction-free camera platforms, Abrams Air Craft CEO Dr. Talbert Abrams planned to market the plane to the United States armed forces for surveys, mapmaking, and aerial photography. However, on the brink of World War II, the military opted for the more survivable, converted high-speed fighter aircraft for photo reconnaissance.
The aircraft was successfully tested and used for government contract survey work until the beginning of the war. For unobstructed photography the Explorer featured a forward glass crew nacelle and camera ports while the usual struts, wing panels, engine cowls, and propeller were placed aft of the cameraman's normal line of sight. Hermetically sealed camera ports maintained cabin pressure up to 20,000 feet. Dr. Abrams lent the Explorer to the National Air Museum in 1948, and it was officially donated in 1973.
Long Description:
The Abrams Explorer is a unique aircraft specifically designed for aerial survey and mapping functions. Built in 1937, the aircraft was designed by Kenneth Ronan, former chief designer for Stinson, and Edward Kunzl, also of Stinson. Dr. Talbert Abrams, founder and CEO of the then newly-formed Abrams Air Craft Corporation and the established Abrams Aerial Survey Corporation of Lansing, Michigan, envisioned the aircraft as an obstruction-free camera platform for survey and mapping businesses, a design in which the U.S. Army showed interest. The initial requirement was to provide the capability for aerial photography, aerial survey, and mapping from near sea level up to an operating altitude of 20,000 feet. It was to provide an unobstructed field of view for the several cameras which meant displacing the usual struts, wing panels, engine cowls, and propeller arc away from the cameraman's normal line of sight. The aircraft was to have an endurance of at least eight hours, climb quickly to altitude, and cruise at a speed of 180 to 200 knots.
The resulting configuration was a specially designed two-place non-conventional mid-wing pusher monoplane which had twin booms extending back from the wing trailing edge to support the tail assembly. The-two place crew nacelle was located entirely forward of the wing leading edge and included clear safety glass windows over most of area above the cockpit floor. This is similar to the bombardier's nose section of a World War II medium bomber. The placement of the crew nacelle permitted an almost unobstructed view for photography except for a direct rear view past the engine, propeller and tail structure. The nacelle was pressurized and carried oxygen for crew comfort and operating efficiency at the 20,000 foot operating altitude. The nacelle was faired back over the wing center section to the engine compartment where the Wright R975-E.1 330 hp radial engine, equipped with a NACA cowl and Hamilton Standard controllable pitch propeller, were mounted just aft of the wing's trailing edge. The engine assembly was located between the two fuselage booms that extended back to support the horizontal tail with two vertical tail assemblies.
Hermetically-sealed camera ports were provided to permit unobstructed camera operation at those higher operating altitudes while still maintaining proper cabin pressure. The airplane has a fixed tricycle landing gear with low drag streamlined wheel fairings. The structure is of welded steel tubing and the combined crew nacelle and wing center section are covered with sheet aluminum panels. The twin tail booms are of semi-monocoque sheet aluminum construction and the tail assembly and outer wing panels are covered with fabric. The structure is stressed to handle engines of up to 1,000 hp for possible future production models.
The first flight was made in November 1937 and the Abrams Company flew the airplane, with a full array of cameras, for government contract survey work until the beginning of World War II. The first Wright engine was replaced by a Wright Whirlwind 450 hp engine that raised the maximum speed to more than 200 mph and the performance ceiling to 25,000 feet. It had a rate of climb of 1,500 feet per minute. Unfortunately, Dr. Abrams' plans to produce and sell the airplane to the armed forces and to civilian aerial mapping companies were not successful. His timing was bad for the civilian applications because of the war and the military opted for the more survivable, converted high-speed fighter aircraft for photo reconnaissance. The good performance figures of 1938 were not enough for wartime reconnaissance and a single-purpose aircraft was no longer desirable. As a result, the airplane currently in the possession of the Smithsonian was the only example built.
Dr. Abrams lent the Explorer to the National Air Museum in 1948 and, although it was accessioned at that time, the "official" donation was not until 1973. It was acquired as one of the few aircraft designed and used specifically for aerial photography, and it was one of the first U.S. aircraft to employ a tricycle landing gear and the twin boom pusher concept. The aircraft was received with the Wright R-975-E3 450 hp engine and a plastic-covered cabin nacelle. It was transported by military air to Washington and was stored for several years at the Paul E. Garber Restoration and Preservation Facility in Suitland, Maryland. In 1975, the Museum lent the Explorer to the Michigan Aerospace Education Association in Lansing, Michigan, for restoration by students at the Lansing Community College, but, unfortunately, the restoration was not fully completed. In 1981, the airplane was returned to the Garber Facility.
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National Air and Space Museum
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Adhesive plaster, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

Manufacturer:
Johnson & Johnson Inc.
Materials:
metal, cotton
Dimensions:
Overall: 1 1/4 x 1 1/16in. (3.18 x 2.7cm)
Weight: <0.2 lb
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Medical
Date:
1931-1933
Credit Line:
Transferred from the USAF Museum
Inventory Number:
A20030081008
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
A circular metal tube with cotton bandage wrapped around the middle. A metal sleeve slides over the cotton to keep it clean.
Summary:
This "Zonas Adhesive Plaster" was in the first aid kit Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, took on their 1931 survey flight to the Orient. Since they were traveling over vast expanses of uninhabited territory where medical attention would be hard to find, even a small injury could have been fatal. Always meticulous planners, Charles and Anne considered this and took a first aid kit to treat small wounds.
Long Description:
A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.
The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.
Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.
At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.
Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.
Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.
The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.
Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.
From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."
After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.
They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.
The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Aerial Navigation Company of America Collection, 1911-1912

Creator:
Moody, William
Subject:
Moody, William
Call, Henry Laurens
Aerial Navigation Co
Physical description:
0.01 cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Correspondence
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1911
1911-1912
Topic:
Aerial Navigation Co Call Monoplane
Aeronautics
Socialists
Airplanes--Motors
Local number:
1995-0046
Notes:
The Aerial Navigation Company of America (1908-1912) was founded by Henry Laurens Call, socialist lawyer and economist. Located in Girard, Kansas, the Aerial Navigation Company designed the the Call airship -- the first Kansas-designed and built aircraft to make an attempt to take off. The airship was not successful, but the company established a factory, a flying school, and built an additional 13 aircraft before going bankrupt in 1912. Only one of the aircraft, the Call Monoplane, actually flew. The Company's biggest success was with the Call Aviation Engine which they manufactured and marketed
Summary:
This collection consists of photographs and documents relating to the Aerial Navigation Company of America, including: Call engine photographs and literature; Call aircraft, including the 1912 Call Monoplane; by-laws and stock certificates for the Company; a photograph of the machine shop; and newspaper clippings regarding William Moody, who was a mechanic for the company, circa 1910-1912. There is also material regarding the lighting system installed by Moody at the Omaha Airport, 1936
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
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Aeronautica Macchi C.202 Folgore

Manufacturer:
Macchi S.A.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 10.6 m (34 ft 8 ½ in)
Length: 8.8 m (29 ft ½ in)
Height: 3 m (9 ft 11 ½ in)
Weights: Empty, 2,338 kg (5,196 lb)
Gross, 2,963 kg (6,585 lb)
Engine: Alfa Romeo R. A. 1000 R. C. 411 Monsonie (Monsoon, a license-built
DB 601), liquid-cooled twelve-cylinder vee, 1,075 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Italy
Credit Line:
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Inventory Number:
A19600332000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Single-seat, single-engine, low-wing monoplane fighter of all-metal monocoque construction; retractable, tailwheel-type landing gear.
Summary:
Virtually unknown outside Italy, the C.202 Folgore was the best fighter airplane fielded in significant numbers by the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force or RA) during World War II. This airplane demonstrated that Italy could design and build fighter aircraft to world-class standards. Aeronautica Macchi S. p. A. designed and built the Folgore (Lightning), which was based on an earlier Macchi design powered by a radial engine, the C.200 Saeta (Thunderbolt). To create the Folgore, Macchi's chief of design, Mario Castoldi, adapted the Saeta airframe to the German Daimler-Benz DB 601 liquid-cooled engine. Italy was a significant air-faring nation during the mid-1930s but its aviation industry began to lag late in the decade, particularly in engine development. No indigenous, in-line powerplant of sufficient power was available when the war started so early in 1940 Macchi had to import the German engine as a private venture. The results were impressive. Flat out, the Folgore was almost 97 kph (60 mph) faster than the Saeta's speed of 502 kph (312 mph).
Long Description:
Virtually unknown outside Italy, the C.202 Folgore was the best fighter airplane fielded in significant numbers by the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force or RA) during World War II. This airplane demonstrated that Italy could design and build fighter aircraft to world-class standards. Aeronautica Macchi S. p. A. designed and built the Folgore (Lightning), which was based on an earlier Macchi design powered by a radial engine, the C.200 Saeta (Thunderbolt). To create the Folgore, Macchi's chief of design, Mario Castoldi, adapted the Saeta airframe to the German Daimler-Benz DB 601 liquid-cooled engine. Italy was a significant air-faring nation during the mid-1930s but its aviation industry began to lag late in the decade, particularly in engine development. No indigenous, in-line powerplant of sufficient power was available when the war started so early in 1940 Macchi had to import the German engine as a private venture. The results were impressive. Flat out, the Folgore was almost 97 kph (60 mph) faster than the Saeta's speed of 502 kph (312 mph).
The C.202 first flew in August 1940 and the RA initially deployed the aircraft during the summer of 1941 to the 1° Stormo C.T. for conversion training. By November, this unit had transferred to Libya and engaged British forces shortly before the British blockaded Tobruk. Although it was available too late to affect the outcome in North Africa, the new Macchi C.202 proved clearly superior to both the American Curtiss P-40 and the British Hawker Hurricane. Pilots flying the Italian fighter outperformed all opponents except Supermarine Spitfires and North American P-51 Mustangs. Folgore pilots lauded the fighter's finger-light handling and superb agility.
When supplies of DB 601 engines ran out, Alfa Romeo began building a copy, under license, called the R. A. 1000 R. C. 41 Monsonie (Monsoon) but initial production was slow. The need for airplanes was urgent so for a time, Macchi built the outdated C.200 alongside the C.202 but by late 1942, Folgores outnumbered all other fighter airplanes in the Regia Aeronautica. Folgore production totaled about 1,500 airplanes, built from
1941 to 1943. Macchi built fewer than 400 but the Breda and S. A. I. Ambrosini firms manufactured the balance.
Chief designer Castoldi employed a unique method of counteracting the torque and P-factor (propeller factor) generated by the engine. These aerodynamic phenomena often cause airplanes to swing on take off, sometimes uncontrollably. Castoldi made the left wing 21 cm (8 3/8 in) longer than the right wing. The larger wing created more lift which tended to roll the fighter right, opposing and thereby counteracting the torque and P-factor.
The Germans operated the C.202 in limited numbers and after 1943 it appeared in the small Allied Co-Belligerent Air Force that operated continuously against the Axis from the Italian Armistice to V-E Day. Postwar Folgores, modified to accept the more powerful DB 605 engine and redesignated C.205 Veltros, last served in the Egyptian Air Force in 1949.
The Macchi C.202 in the National Air and Space Museum is one of only two remaining in the world. The early history of this airplane is obscure, but it was among many Axis aircraft brought to this country for evaluation at the Army's Air Technical Service Command at Wright Field, Ohio, and Freeman Field, Indiana. After evaluation, it remained in storage for years.
In 1975 National Air and Space Museum technicians completely restored the fighter to exhibit condition. Positive identification of the C.202 model series is still unknown, but it rests somewhere between the late production block Series VI and IX. For marking purposes, curators selected the arbitrary serial number MM 9476 from Series IX. No record is known of the original markings and but curators chose to copy aircraft 90-4 of the 4º Stormo (Wing), 10º Gruppo (Squadron), and 90º Squadriglia (Flight) that operated in Libya during the summer of 1942. The 4º Stormo is a famous Italian fighter wing that fought during the Axis advance in North Africa and claimed 500 victories from 1940 to the end of the war.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
World War II Aviation
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Aeronca C-2

Manufacturer:
Aeronautical Corporation of America
Materials:
Fuselage: steel tube, fabric cover
Wings: wood with fabric cover
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 10.9 m (36 ft)
Length: 6.1 m (20 ft)
Height: 2.1 m (7 ft 6 in)
Weight, empty: 184 kg (406 kg)
Weight, gross: 318 kg (700 lb)
Top Speed: 180 km/h (80 mph)
Engine: Aeronca E-107A, 26 hp
Manufacturer: Aeronautical Corporation of America, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1929
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1929-1932
Credit Line:
Gift of Aeronca, Inc.
Inventory Number:
A19490051000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
X626N; 1929 single-seat, light sport monoplane; Aeronca E-107A engine; low-wing, tailwheel design.
Summary:
The Aeronca C-2 was the first truly light airplane certified by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Aeronautics and produced in substantial numbers in the United States. Safe, economical, and easy to fly, this delightful but unassuming monoplane changed the face of aviation by tapping a new market, that of private aircraft ownership. This Aeronca is the production prototype; it first flew on October 20, 1929.
The single-seat Aeronca C-2 and the two-seat C-3 capitalized on the enthusiasm of the post-Lindbergh flight era by offering small and affordable designs to the general public. During the depression, while many larger aircraft proved to be too expensive to operate, the Aeronca C-2 sold for under $1,300 and could be rented for only $4.00 an hour. This Aeronca flew for 10 years with several owners.
Long Description:
The Aeronca C-2 of 1929 was the first truly light airplane certified by Department of Commerce, Bureau of Aeronautics and produced in substantial numbers in the United States. Safe, economical, and easy to fly, this delightful but unassuming monoplane changed the face of aviation by opening a market never before successfully tapped-that of private aircraft ownership.
The Aeronautical Corporation of America, a small company whose name was shortened to Aeronca, was formed in 1928 at Lunken Airport near Cincinnati, Ohio. Aeronca bought production rights to a small and light airplane designed solely for recreational flying by French-born Jean A. Roché, Senior Aeronautical Engineer for the U.S. Army Air Service. The airplane, engineered for production by Roger E. Schlemmer of the University of Cincinnati's Aeronautical School, was designated the C-2 (Roché's hand-built plane being considered the first of the type). Work began on the production prototype in 1929 and it first flew on October 20, 1929. Painted bright yellow and orange, it was assigned registration NX626N.
Before the Aeronca C-2, purely recreational aircraft were rare. There was almost no private ownership during the decade following World War I for the open-cockpit biplanes had to work to earn their keep. Even the barnstormer's Jenny-despite inexpensive price and romantic images-was strictly a commercial venture that bore little resemblance to the luxury of owning an automobile. By the late 1920s and early 1930s, aircraft manufacturers began to cater to the lucrative but limited market of the wealthy sportsman pilot. Charles Lindbergh's 1927 flight from New York to Paris in the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis heightened public awareness of the airplane, but, ironically, it was the depression that further promoted the emergence of light airplanes by making larger aircraft too expensive to operate. These factors, and advances in airframe and engine technology, set the stage for one of the most significant trends in aviation between the wars when it became possible for a significant segment of American society to own and fly an airplane.
The first C-2s that Aeronca demonstrated at aviation expositions around the country won enthusiastic acceptance during the latter half of 1930. Squat and bug-eyed, the diminutive Aeronca C-2 was a simple airplane with modest performance and delightful flying characteristics. Its steel-tube fuselage and wooden wings were covered with fabric and braced with wires. The pilot, seated before a stick and rudder bar, had just four instruments: oil temperature, oil pressure, nonsensitive altimeter, and tachometer. The single-seat C-2 was powered by a two-cylinder Aeronca E-107 engine rated at 26-30 hp. In 1929, the Aeronca C-2 sold for $1,495. By mid-1930, the price had dropped to $1,245 as a result of the depression. C-2s were economical at 1 cent a mile for oil and gas, and they could often be rented for just $4.00 an hour. Furthermore, they were simple to fly, easy to maintain, and had no bad characteristics to spring on a novice pilot. By 1931, more than 100 C-2s had been sold and Aeronca introduced the two-seat C-3, with an Aeronca E-1 13 36-40 hp engine. With seating for two side-by-side, the C-3 offered greater utility than the C-2 and quickly became popular as a trainer. "Airknockers" or "Flying Bathtubs, as they were affectionately known, made it possible for the average person to fly. Other light aircraft began to appear but the Aeronca style remained popular and C-3 production ended in 1937 with more than 500 produced built.
NX626N flew for ten years with a variety of owners. In 1940, it was reacquired by the Aeronca Company for display at its new factory in Middletown, Ohio. In 1948, after the establishment of the National Air Museum in 1946, the Aeronca Company answered a call by the Smithsonian Institution to various companies and organizations for historic aircraft and donated the first Aeronca, C-2 NX626N. The C-2 was restored 1976 and was briefly displayed in the General Aviation gallery.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Aircraft identification / prepared by the Aeroplane

Physical description:
v. : ill. ; 14 x 20 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1942
[1942-
Topic:
Airplanes, Military
Airplanes--Recognition
Call number:
TL685.3 .A35 1942
Notes:
Cover-title
Contents:
pt. 1. British monoplanes -- pt. 2. German monoplanes -- pt. 4. American monoplanes with the R.A.F. -- pt. 5. Japanese aeroplanes
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Visitor Tag(s):

Albatros D.Va

Manufacturer:
Albatros Flugzeugwerke GmbH
Materials:
Airframe: Wood
Covering: Fabric
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 9.0 m (29 ft 6 in)
Length: 7.3 m (24 ft )
Height: 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Weight: Empty, 680 kg (1,500 lb)
Gross, 915 kg (2,017 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Germany
Date:
1917-1918
Credit Line:
Gift of George K. Whitney.
Inventory Number:
A19500092000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Single-engine, single-seat, German World War I biplane fighter; 180-horsepower Mercedes D.IIIa water-cooled engine. Lozenge camouflage on wings. Natural wood finish on fuselage. Green and yellow stripes on tail.
Summary:
In 1916, Albatros Werke produced the remarkably advanced Albatros D.I. It featured a streamlined semi-monocoque fuselage, with an almost fully-enclosed 160-horsepower in-line Mercedes engine, and the propeller spinner neatly contoured into the nose of the fuselage. A sesquiplane version with narrow-chord lower wings, designated the D-III, was introduced early in 1917, and served with great success. The Albatros D.V model was fitted with a more powerful 180-horsepower engine, but was plagued by a rash of upper-wing failures. The wings were strengthened, resulting in a re-designation, the D.Va. Unfortunately, the necessary strengthening increased the weight and negated the performance advantage of the new engine.
Approximately 4,800 Albatros fighters of all types were built during World War I. They were used extensively by the German Air Service throughout 1917, and remained in action in considerable numbers until the end of the war. Many of the highest-scoring German aces achieved the majority of their victories while flying Albatros fighters.
Long Description:
The Albatros series of single-seat fighters produced between 1916 and 1918 were among the most numerous and distinctive aircraft of the First World War. The Albatros Werke began to build airplanes in 1910. Early in the war, the firm focused on two-seat observation types. In 1916, in response to the fading superiority of the Fokker monoplane to the French Nieuport 11 and the British de Havilland D.H.2, the German government requested the nation's aircraft companies to produce a suitable replacement for the Fokker. Albatros Werke chief designer, Robert Thelen, with his assistants Gnaedig and Schubert, offered a remarkably advanced design, the Albatros D.I. It featured a streamlined semi-monocoque fuselage, with an almost fully-enclosed in-line Mercedes engine and the propeller spinner neatly contoured into the nose of the fuselage. The D.I was quickly modified into the very similar D.II, which had the upper wing repositioned slightly to improve visibility for the pilot. Both fighters entered front-line service in the fall of 1916 and immediately demonstrated strong advantages over their Allied counterparts. Powered by a 160-horsepower Mercedes engine and armed with two machine guns, the Albatros fighters used speed and firepower to overwhelm the lighter, more maneuverable Nieuports and D.H. 2s.
Even before the success of the Albatros D.I and D.II was fully realized, Thelen was already developing an improved model. The Albatros D.III was introduced early in 1917 and it met with instant acceptance by the German pilots. It was easy to fly and was an effective combat aircraft. The principal design change was the use of a narrow-chord lower wing, similar to the sesquiplane wing arrangement of the agile Nieuport fighters. This increased maneuverability as well as improving the pilot's field of view. Initially, the narrow lower wing was susceptible to frequent failure in prolonged dives, but with reinforcement of the structure and improved workmanship, the problem was ameliorated. The Albatros D.III served with great success throughout the first half of 1917.
Beginning in mid-1917, however, with the introduction of the British S.E. 5 and the French Spad VII, German air superiority waned once again. Thelen was forced to refine the sleek Albatros design further in an effort to gain parity with the new Allied fighters. In the D.IV model, Thelen reverted to the equal-width upper and lower wings of the D.I and D.II. The nose was even more streamlined than the D.III and the rudder had a more rounded shape. An experimental geared version of the 160-horsepower Mercedes engine was fitted to the D.IV prototype. But despite its racy appearance, the performance of the D.IV was not up to that of the D.III, and the experimental geared engine was problem-ridden. Thus, no production run of the D.IV was ordered.
The Albatros D.V returned to the sesquiplane wing design of the D.III. Initially it was powered by the same 160-horsepower Mercedes engine used in the D.III, but later it was replaced by an up-rated model that delivered approximately 180 horsepower. The major new innovation was the D.V's elliptical cross-section fuselage, compared to the flat-sided fuselage of the earlier models. Primarily because of changes in the nature of the construction of the elliptical fuselage, the D.V was approximately 32 kg (70 lb) lighter than the D.III, and this improved performance marginally. But hopes for the new version were soon undermined by a rash of upper-wing spar failures shortly after the D.V was introduced. To remedy the problem, the wing ribs and the spars were strengthened, resulting in a re-designation, the D.Va. Unfortunately, the necessary strengthening of the airframe made the overall weight of the D.Va 23 kg (50 lb) more than the D.III, negating the performance improvement of the newer model. Even so, the D.Va remained in production until April 1918, when the superior Fokker D.VII appeared.
Approximately 4,800 Albatros fighters of all types were built during World War I. They were used extensively by the German Air Service throughout 1917, and remained in action in considerable numbers until the end of the war. Many of the highest-scoring German aces achieved the majority of their victories while flying Albatros fighters. Although most often associated with the novel Fokker Triplane, the famed Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, won three-quarters of his 80 combat victories in Albatros aircraft.
Despite the large production and pervasive presence of the Albatros fighters during World War I, only two have survived, and both are D.Va models. One is at the Australian War Memorial Museum in Canberra, Australia, serial number D.5390/17. The other is in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum.
The early history of the NASM Albatros is very sketchy. During the restoration of the airplane by NASM, the serial number D.7161/17 was discovered under several layers of paint on the fin. This places it in the final batch of 550 D.Vas built by the Albatros factory during the war. The last of these aircraft reached the front in April 1918. It is apparent, however, that the airplane is comprised of components from more than one Albatros. The individual wings show evidence of workmanship of different quality, suggesting that they were not produced at the same time and at the same place. Further, before restoration, there were straight crosses as well as the earlier Iron Cross national insignia on different components of the airplane.
Another clue to the history of the NASM Albatros was revealed during restoration. The original layer of paint showed green and yellow stripes on the tail. This was the marking for the German squadron Jasta 46. This unit was formed at Graudenz on December 17, 1917, as part of Germany's Amerika Program, an effort to build up German strength rapidly and deliver a decisive blow to the West before American resources could be brought to bear for the Allies. Under the program, the number of German fighter units doubled. The inferred production date from the serial number of the NASM Albatros fits with the creation and equipping of Jasta 46 with Albatros fighters. Evidence that the NASM Albatros did see combat is damage from a bullet that passed through the right machine gun mount, penetrated the emergency fuel tank, and then lodged in the right magneto. The airplane was unlikely to have flown again as the fuel tank had not been repaired.
The distinctive personal marking of "Stropp" on the fuselage side remains a mystery. Some have suggested that stropp can be interpreted to mean a precocious or mischievous boy, but no record confirming this, or even with whom the marking was associated, has been found.
The history of the airplane for the remainder and immediate aftermath of the war remains unknown. The first record of the NASM Albatros in the United States is the presentation of the airplane to the De Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco on July 13, 1919, by Congressman Julius Kahn. It is unclear how Congressman Kahn became associated with the Albatros, but a label placed with the airplane at that time credited it as a gift from the French government. Some years later, NASM curator Paul Garber learned of the Albatros at the De Young Memorial Museum. On a trip to California in January 1947, he located the airplane and approached the museum about donating it to the Smithsonian. Garber was informed that it had recently been sold at auction for $500.00 to George K. Whitney, who planned to display it at Playland near Cliff House, a local San Francisco tourist stop. After Garber explained the importance of the historic aircraft to Whitney, he agreed to donate it to the Smithsonian, with the condition that the museum pay the packing and transportation costs. After a lengthy delay until funds were available, the Albatros was moved to the museum's temporary storage facility in Park Ridge, Illinois, in August 1949. It was brought to Washington, D.C., in 1952 and remained in storage until restoration began in January 1977. The complex and meticulous rebuilding of the NASM Albatros D.Va was completed in February 1979.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Legend, Memory and the Great War in the Air
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Albree Trulog Spiral Circular Logarithmic Table

Maker:
Albree, G. Norman
Physical Description:
paper (part material)
plastic (cursor material)
wood (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 2 cm x 20.5 cm x 20.5 cm; 25/32 in x 8 1/16 in x 8 1/16 in
Object Name:
slide rule
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Boston
Date made:
after 1945
Subject:
Rule, Calculating
Chart, Logarithmic
Science & Mathematics
Mathematics
Slide Rules
Credit Line:
Gift of G. Norman Albree
ID Number:
MA*335486
Catalog number:
335486
Accession number:
321674
Description:
This is Norman Albree's pilot model for a one-sided logarithmic chart. It is white paper on a wooden disc painted black. There is a clear celluloid indicator that pivots at the center and is cushioned on purple felt. The scale permits readings of logarithms from 10,000 to 100,000. The instrument is marked at the center: ALBREE TRULOG SPIRAL (/) G. NORMAN ALBREE (/) BOSTON. Inside the fifth ring of the spiral is marked: ©1945.
George Norman Albree (1888–1986), the inventor and donor, attended Amherst College with the Class of 1911 and graduated from Dartmouth in 1912. He is best known for designing the first monoplanes purchased by the U.S. Army in 1917. However, after testing, the military deemed the aircraft too unreliable and slow and declined to order a production run from Albree's employer, the Pigeon Hollow Spar Company of East Boston, Mass.
See also MA*335484 and MA*335487.
Location:
Currently not on view
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Slide Rules
Data Source:
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Visitor Tag(s):

Aluminum Pot and Lid, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

Materials:
Aluminum
Dimensions:
3-D: 12.7 x 12.7cm (5 x 5 in.)
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Food & Food Accessories
Date:
1931-1933
Credit Line:
Transferred from the USAF Museum
Inventory Number:
A20030080016
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Aluminum cooking pot, with bail & lid
Summary:
This aluminum cooking pot was among the equipment Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, took on their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 survey flights across the North and South Atlantic. Lodging and meals were provided at the Lindberghs' planned stops, but they still had to consider what they would eat in case of an emergency landing. They took enough canned rations to last them several weeks, but even that might not have been enough. They were traveling over vast expanses of uninhabited territory and there was no telling how long it would take to find the nearest outpost after an emergency landing. If their canned rations ran out, they would need a way to cook whatever food they could find (or catch with their fishing gear). For that reason, they took along this cooking pot plus a frying pan and portable stove. They planned to use gasoline from the plane as fuel for the stove.
Long Description:
A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.
The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.
Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.
At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.
Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.
Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.
The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.
Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.
From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."
After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.
They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.
The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The Air Force Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Amelia Earhart’s Irish Sojourn

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Update Date:
2010-07-12T20:01:27Z
Topic:
Aircraft
Flight
Space
Synopsis:
Earhart in Derry, Ireland, 1932. Courtesy NASM. On May 20, 1932 Amelia Earhart set off in her Lockheed Vega from Newfoundland intending to fly to Paris. Nearly 15 hours later, she landed in Robert Gallagher’s cow pasture in Ballyarnott, in Derry, Northern Ireland, instead, thereby becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. Mrs. Gallagher told the BBC about that day in this 1935 recording: “About two o’clock we heard an aeroplane. And soon afterwards we saw a great red monoplane over the house, flying very low. It circled around a couple of times, and then made for a big field a [...]
See more posts:
The Daily Planet
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

American Aerolights Double Eagle

Manufacturer:
American Aerolights Inc.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 10.7 m (35 ft)
Length: 4.6 m (15 ft)
Height: 3.1 m (10 ft)
Weight: Empty, 141 kg (310 lb)
Gross, 299 kg (660 lb)
Engine: Cuyuna 430RR air-cooled two-cylinder inline, 35 horsepower
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1982-1983
Credit Line:
Gift of the Monterey Park City Council.
Inventory Number:
A19850407000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Side-by-side two-seat single-engined high-wing monoplane with conventional three-axis control. Aluminum-tube airframe propelled by a two-cycle, two-cylinder, in-line pusher engine mounted below and behind wing. Wing has swept back leading and trailing edges, and tapering chord; no tail and a canard wing with elevator for pitch control. Yaw control via wingtip rudders, roll control via one-third span spoilers. Control stick moves elevator and spoilers, foot pedals control tip rudders. Cable-braced wing with kingpost; double-surface wing covered with synthetic fabric. Tricycle undercarriage with bungee suspension on main gear, brake is fitted to nosewheel but no suspension.
Summary:
This is the first known ultralight aircraft employed by a police force. The Monterey Park, California, Police Department first flew this airplane on September 2, 1982, and it quickly became a valuable asset to police work. However, the powerplant proved fragile and Lt. Joe Santoro, project manager, grounded the Eagle after seven engine failures in six months. Santoro continued to believe in the basic concept and experimented with several other types of ultralight aircraft. "Our hilly terrain and lack of appropriate forced landing sites do not allow a viable program in this community," Santoro said after grounding the Eagle, "but the concept is good." The National Air and Space Museum also displays another ultralight flown by Monterey Park police officers, an improved and more reliable twin-engine Ultraflight Lazair SS EC.
Long Description:
Larry Newman founded American Aerolights in 1979, a year after he, Ben Abruzzo, and Maxie Anderson crewed the first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean (see Double Eagle II, also in the NASM collection). Newman built and flew the first Eagle ultralight in 1980. A simple, low-powered beginner's machine was his primary design goal and he aimed squarely at the market for trainers that permitted experienced hang glider pilots to transition safely and economically to powered ultralights. He designed a flight control system that combined techniques found in both hang gliders and some motorized ultralights. The pilot sat in a swing-seat for weight-shift pitch control (the standard hang glider control arrangement) and he or she moved a tiller bar to control yaw.
Newman equipped the first Eagles that he sold with Soarmaster power packs, a device that propelled a number of motorized hang gliders but the Soarmaster did not provide enough power an ultralight such as the Eagle. Eventually a variety of other engines drove Eagles but one type originally built to power industrial-strength, timber-felling chainsaws, the Cuyuna 430RR, powered the modified Double Eagle bought by the Monterey Park, California, Police Dept. To handle the rigors of law enforcement aviation, American Aerolights installed a single seat on the production Double Eagle airframe and they used a stronger airframe and more powerful engine than those that equipped the standard single-seat Eagle.
This modified Double Eagle became the first known ultralight aircraft operated by a police force. Officers flew the airplane first on September 2, 1982, and it quickly became a valuable asset to police work. However, the engine proved fragile and Lt. Joe Santoro, project manager, grounded the Eagle after seven engine failures in six months. Santoro continued to believe in the basic concept and experimented with several other types of ultralight aircraft. "Our hilly terrain and lack of appropriate forced landing sites do not allow a viable program in this community," Santoro said after grounding the Eagle, "but the concept is good." The National Air and Space Museum also displays the second type of ultralight operated by Monterey Park police officers, an improved and more reliable twin-engine, Ultraflight Lazair SS EC. The Monterey Park City Council generously donated the Double Eagle to NASM on March 22, 1985.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Additional Online Media:

Anchor, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

Materials:
Metal
Dimensions:
3-D: 53.3 x 2.5 x 68.6cm, 10.6kg (21 x 1 x 27 in., 23 3/8lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Mission Support
Date:
1931-1933
Credit Line:
Transferred from the USAF Museum
Inventory Number:
A20030068016
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
A metal shaft with a metal hoop at one end to attach to a chain and at the other end a concaved metal bar with a metal trianlge attached to each end.
Summary:
Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, brought along this anchor when they flew their Lockheed Sirius aircraft to the Orient in 1931 and across the North and South Atlantic in 1933. On both trips the Lindberghs landed the specially-modified floatplane on lakes, rivers, and even open ocean along their route. They needed strong anchors to prevent their plane from moving with the wind or tide during their several stops. While flying they stored the anchor in the plane's pontoons.
During their 1931 trip, one of the Lindberghs' anchor ropes was cut free by the sharp edge of a rock while they were stopped off the Japanese island of Shimushiru. As the airplane began to drift, nearby sailors came to the rescue and stopped the plane before it crashed into the rocky coast. The episode proved to Charles and Anne that strong anchors alone were not enough to protect their plane: safe harbors were also necessary. From then on they tried to avoid landing in the open ocean, opting instead for the calm waters of lakes, rivers, and bays.
Long Description:
A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.
The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.
Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.
At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.
Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.
Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.
The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.
Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.
From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."
After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.
They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.
The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The AirForce Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
Visitor Tag(s):

Applebay Zuni II

Manufacturer:
Applebay Sailplanes Inc.
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 15 meters (49 feet 3 inches)
Length: 6.5 meters (21 feet 8 inches)
Height: 1.5 meters (5 feet)
Weight: Empty, 238.5 kg (530 lb)
Gross, 540 kg (1,200 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of J. G. Mercer.
Inventory Number:
A19840004000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Cantilever, shoulder-wing, single-seat monoplane glider with one-piece, all-moving T-tail; glass-fibre/foam sandwich construction with carbon fiber spar caps; detachable wings with Wortmann FX 67-K-170 airfoil inboard and modified FX 67-K-150 outboard to wingtip; integral 219.8 lit (58 gal) 220 kg (484 lb) water ballast tanks and full-span, variable-
camber, trailing edge flaps and ailerons (-6° to +80° travel); retractable centerline main wheel and semi-recessed non-retracting tailwheel.
Summary:
George Appelbay designed the Zuni in 1975 to compete in 15-Meter Class sport sailplane competitions. A 15-Meter Class sailplane has wings that span 15 meters (49 ft 3 in) and it is equipped with flaps and wing tanks to carry water ballast. European designs made of fiberglass had ruled competitive soaring since the late 1960s and Applebay believed he could challenge their domination in the 15-Meter category with a sailplane designed and built in the United States.
In 1980 Appelbay announced the improved Zuni II. The designer made numerous refinements to the cockpit, landing gear, and wings. He built a special Zuni II from Kevlar, with assistance from the Dupont Company. Applebay completed this airplane on February 6, 1981, and sold it to J. G. Mercer. William G. Hill carried out the first three test flights for Mercer on the 14th, 15th, and the 22nd. Mercer first flew his glider on March 7 for one hour and 11 minutes. During the flight, Mercer reached a speed of 247 kph (153 mph) and he noted in his log book that the sailplane exhibited no tendency to tuck its nose at this speed. After flying a total of fifty-six hours and twenty minutes, Mercer donated his Zuni II to the National Air and Space Museum in November 1983.
Long Description:
George Appelbay designed this sailplane for pilots who wished to compete in the 15-Meter Class sailplane competitions. Aircraft equipped with flaps and water ballast are allowed but wingspan cannot exceed 15 meters (49 ft 3 in). Soaring pilots worldwide recognize two other classes of competition. The Standard Class resembles the 15-Meter grouping except that flaps are prohibited but the Open Class has no restrictions on wingspan or aerodynamic gadgetry. Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) sailplanes designed and built in Europe had ruled all three classes of competitive soaring since the late 1960s and Applebay believed he could challenge their domination with a sailplane designed and built in the United States.
Applebay first flew the Zuni prototype in 1976 and four year later, William Gaines, spokesman for Appelbay Sailplanes, announced an improved model called the Zuni II in an article by Billy Hill published in the February 1980 issue of "Soaring" magazine. Many improvements distinguished the new glider from the prototype. Applebay had redesigned the cockpit and relocated the original side-stick pitch and roll control to the center of the floor ahead of the seat. To reduce friction and make the stick easier to move, Appelbay switched to ball-bearing races in the control system and he added a new and more comfortable seat to increase pilot comfort on long flights. He improved the canopy, rudder pedals, and the handle used to activate the flaps.
He increased wing dihedral to 2° for better stability when a pilot circled in thermals and the he repositioned the landing gear to reduce ground forces on the tail wheel. Building the gear doors from Kevlar and other manufacturing tweaks reduced the empty weight. The factory also improved their composite finishing techniques and the Zuni II flew with smoother wing surfaces and straighter wing leading edges.
Applebay built the National Air and Space Museum's Zuni II from Kevlar with assistance from the Dupont Company. He completed the airplane on February 6, 1981, and sold it to Jerrry G. Mercer who arranged for William G. Hill to conduct the first three test flights. Mercer first flew his glider on March 7 for one hour and 11 minutes and he reached a speed of 247 kph (153 mph). He noted in his logbook that the Zuni II exhibited no tendency to tuck its nose at this speed. Mercer regularly flew the sailplane every month until July when the aircraft ground-looped during landing and incurred significant damage. George Applebay made the last entry in Mercer's logbook on August 6, 1981. He noted the following: "...Replaced landing gear, stabilator, repaired rudder, dorsal fin and wing fairing area...following ground loop accident. No weight change. Aircraft is ok for flight." These cryptic log entries give no hint that Mercer earned seven distinct soaring badges during a single flight at the controls of this sailplane over Taos, New Mexico, in 1982. According to George Applebay, he acquired all of his Silver (3) and Gold badges (3) and two Diamond badges. Applebay contends that before Mercer's flight, no one had earned more badges during one sailplane flight. Mercer generously donated this Zuni II to the National Air and Space Museum in November 1983.
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Arado Ar 196 A-5

Manufacturer:
Arado
Dimensions:
Overall: 175 1/4in., 6592.9lb. (445.1cm, 2990.5kg)
Other: 175 1/4 x 433 1/4 x 488 1/4in. (445.1 x 1100.5 x 1240.2cm)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Germany
Inventory Number:
A19610128000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
World War II; float-plane; observation; black and blue.
Long Description:
The Arado Ar 196 was the last combat floatplane built in Europe. It was obsolescent by the end of World War II but during the war, this airplane served Germany well in all theaters of operation. The type flew in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean, Baltic, Aegean, Black, and North Seas. When the Third Reich came to power in 1933, the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) was equipped with the Heinkel He 60 biplane. This type served through the Spanish Civil War and had excellent seagoing performance but it was slow, weakly armed, and very vulnerable by the start of World War II. An interim type, the Heinkel He 114, had poor water-handling characteristics and only slightly better performance in flight than the He 60.
During the fall of 1936, the Reichs Air Ministry (RLM) Technical Office released a specification that called for a 2-seat aircraft powered by a single 800-900 horsepower engine with either a single- or a twin-float arrangement. Heinkel choose to continue trying to improve the He 114 but Arado, Dornier, Gotha, and Focke-Wulf responded to the specification. Arado offered an advanced monoplane design designated the Ar 196 and the RLM ordered four prototypes. However, conservative elements in the Technical Office continued to favor biplanes over monoplanes and awarded Focke-Wulf a contract for two, more conservative, Fw 62 aircraft. The RLM later canceled the Fw 62 when the Ar 196 design showed clear superiority over its biplane rival.
Arado delivered the first two prototypes during the summer of 1937. Both were equipped with twin floats. Two more prototypes soon followed but these airplanes carried a single, large, central float and two small outrigger floats. Testing in the laboratory and on water did not conclusively prove that one configuration was significantly better than the other. The single float withstood rough seas during a landing better than the twin floats because it attached directly to the fuselage, the strongest part of the airplane. However, the twin floats had more stability when taxiing and maneuvering. Weight and drag were comparable, too, so the RLM directed Arado to ready both types for production.
Officials at the RLM awarded a pre-production contract for 10 twin-float Ar 196A-0s and Arado built the first one at its Warnemünde facility and delivered it to the Kreigsmarine in November 1938. Shakedown tests left naval authorities very pleased and by June 1939, Arado began delivering the first production floatplanes (designated Ar 196A-1) to the fleet. By the start of hostilities, the Kreigsmarine had selected many of their finest warships to upgrade to the new airplane including Admiral Graf Spee, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Deutschland, Admiral Scheer, and Prinz Eugen.
Production Ar 196 floatplanes flew well-armed with one 20 mm MG FF cannon in each wing, a 7.9mm MG 17 forward-firing machine gun in the fuselage nose, and one or two 7.9mm flexible guns in the aft cockpit. The floatplane could also haul a 50 kg (110 lb) bomb under each wing.
The Arado Ar 196 first put to sea aboard "Admiral Graf Spee" when the commerce raider set sail from Wilhelmshaven in August 1939. For four months, the ship cruised the South Atlantic searching for merchant ships and launching its complement of two Ar 196s from catapults set amidships. The Arados projected the battlecruiser's "eyes" hundreds of miles to look for prospective targets. They found most of the battlecruiser's 11 British victims.
Many Ar 196s flew coastal patrol missions from land bases. A notable action occurred on May 5, 1940, when two Ar 196A-2s from Aalborg, Denmark, captured a British submarine. The HMS "Seal" was sewing mines in a narrow waterway called the Kattegat when it struck one of its own mines. Drawn to the commotion, patrolling Arados attacked the sub with guns and bombs and inflicted such damage that the boat could not submerge. One of the Arados landed alongside the stricken sub and her captain surrendered to the pilot. Other Ar 196 units that operated along the French coast of the Bay of Biscay successfully intercepted RAF Whitley bombers attacking German U-boats sailing to and from their pens.
These operations typify the Arado floatplane's roles and capabilities. This is not the most famous German aircraft of the war but the Ar 196 served ably, if quietly, nearly everywhere that German forces put to sea. It was the primary German maritime reconnaissance aircraft and its counterpart in the U. S. Navy was the Vought OS2U Kingfisher.
Slow but steady production continued throughout the war and the Kriegsmarine accepted only 94 aircraft during in 1942. The Germans prepared a French factory at St. Nazaire to augment Warnemünde's efforts, but this firm built just 10 airplanes before transferring production to the Fokker facility in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. By the end of 1943, Fokker had become the primary builder. The Ar 196 became increasingly vulnerable to faster, better-armed, Allied airplanes that ranged deeper and deeper into German-held territory. Tthe RLM finally terminated production in August 1944. In addition to the German Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine, Romania and Bulgaria also used the aircraft in limited numbers. The final and definitive version was the Ar 196A-5. NASM's collection contains this type of aircraft.
Only three Ar 196 floatplanes still exist from the total production run of 526 aircraft, excluding the prototypes and pre-production aircraft. The Bulgarski Vozdushni Voiski Muzeum in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, displays an Ar 196A-3, one of twelve the Bulgarian Navy operated during World War II from Varna on the coast. The Allies recovered two others aboard the German battlecruiser "Prinz Eugen" when she surrendered at Copenhagen, Denmark. The U. S. Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida, owns one and the other belongs to the National Air and Space Museum.
When the US Navy took custody of "Prinz Eugen," they were more interested in the catapult system used to launch the floatplane rather than the Ar 196 but they nonetheless saved the two floatplanes. The NASM airplane has only 14 hours of operational flying time and U. S. Navy pilots added just four more hours during testing and evaluation at the Naval Air Materiel Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The '196 Werk-Nummer (serial number) is 623167 however the Navy evidently repainted the airplane with markings copied from a different aircraft. That floatplane bore the code letters GA+DX and Werk-Nummer 68967. Today, the NASM Ar 196A-5 still carries the bogus paint and markings of GA+DX. After years in storage, the Navy transferred the airplane to the NASM in 1961. It is now on display at the Paul E. Garber Facility in Silver Hill, Maryland.
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Arado Ar 234 B-2 Blitz (Lightning)

Manufacturer:
Arado
Materials:
Overall: Aluminum
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 14.4 m (47 ft 4 in)
Length: 12.6 m (41 ft 6 in)
Height: 4.3 m (14 ft 2 in)
Weight, empty: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb)
Weight, gross: 10,010 kg (22,070 lb) with RATO (rocket-assisted takeoff) units
Top speed: 735 km/h (459 mph)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Germany
Date:
1944
Credit Line:
Transferred from the United States Air Force.
Inventory Number:
A19600312000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Single seat, twin engine jet bomber with RATO.
Summary:
The Arado Ar 234 B Blitz (Lightning) was the world's first operational jet bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. The first Ar 234 combat mission, a reconnaissance flight over the Allied beachhead in Normandy, took place August 2, 1944. With a maximum speed of 735 kilometers (459 miles) per hour, the Blitz easily eluded Allied piston-engine fighters. While less famous than the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters, the Ar 234s that reached Luftwaffe units provided excellent service, especially as reconnaissance aircraft.
This Ar 234 B-2 served with bomber unit KG 76 from December 1944 until May 1945, when British forces captured it in Norway. Turned over to the United States, it was brought to Wright Field, Ohio, in 1946 for flight testing. In 1949 it was transferred to the Smithsonian, which restored it in 1984-89. This Arado is the sole survivor of its type.
Long Description:
The Arado Ar 234 B Blitz (Lightning) was the world's first operational jet bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Two Junkers Jumo 004 B turbojets powered this clean, graceful design. Speed made the Blitz virtually immune to attacks from piston-engined Allied fighters. The jet's maximum velocity topped 735 kph (456 mph). Although overshadowed by the more famous Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter, the relatively few Ar 234s that reached Luftwaffe units before the end of the German surrender provided excellent (if ultimately futile) service, particularly as reconnaissance aircraft.
Development of the Ar 234 began in 1940. The German Aviation Ministry issued an order to Dr. Walter Blume, technical director of the state-owned Arado concern, to design and build a reconnaissance aircraft propelled by the turbojet engines then under development by BMW and Junkers. Rüdiger Kosin led the design team. Largely free from Air Ministry interference, Kosin created a high-wing monoplane with two turbojet engines mounted in nacelles under the wings. The rear fuselage contained two downward-looking recon-
naissance cameras. To reduce weight and free space for larger fuselage fuel tanks, the initial prototype series dispensed with a conventional landing gear in favor of retractable skids mounted beneath the fuselage and nacelles. The airplane would taxi and takeoff atop a wheeled trolley that the pilot jettisoned as the jet left the runway. Ground crews recovered the trolley and refurbished it for the next flight.
Engine problems repeatedly slowed flight testing the first Ar 234. BMW and Junkers both experienced trouble building jet engines in quantities sufficient for both the Me 262 and
Ar 234 programs. Although Arado completed the Ar 234 V1 airframe in late 1942, the Messerschmitt aircraft took priority and claimed the trickle of flight-ready engines that Junkers managed to turn out. Consequently, the Ar 234 V1 did not fly until July 30, 1943.
Before it flew, the Air Ministry directed Arado to redesign the landing gear and give the jet a bombing capability. Kosin and his team enlarged the fuselage slightly to accommodate a conventional tricycle landing gear and added a semi-recessed bomb bay under the fuselage. To allow the pilot to act as a bombardier, Kosin mounted a Lotfe 7K bombsight in the fuselage floor ahead of the control column, which the pilot swung out of his way to use the sight. A Patin PDS autopilot guided the aircraft during the bombing run. The pilot-bombardier used another periscope sight during shallow-angle, glide bombing.
The first prototype for the revised design, designated Ar 234 V9, flew on March 12, 1944. The bomber version, designated Ar 234 B-0, became the first subtype built in quantity. The Air Ministry ordered 200 Ar 234 Bs and Arado built them at a new Luftwaffe airfield factory at Alt Lönnewitz in Saxony. The factory finished and delivered all 200 airplanes by the end of December 1944 but managed to roll out another 20 by war's end. The initial order had called for two versions of the Ar 234 B: the B-1 reconnaissance aircraft and the B-2 bomber but Arado built only the B-2 version. The company converted B-2 airframes into reconnaissance aircraft.
Plans called for more advanced versions of the Arado jet, including the Ar 234 C powered by four BMW 003 A-1 engines and fitted with a pressurized cockpit. Subvariants of the "C" model included the C-3 multi-role aircraft and the C-3N two-seat nightfighter. However, only 14 Ar 234 Cs left the Arado factory before Soviet forces overran the area. The four-engine Ar 234 was, however, the fastest jet aircraft of World War II. Prototypes for the more advanced Ar 234 D reconnaissance aircraft and bomber with provision for a second crewman were under construction but not completed at war's end.
A Luftwaffe pilot flew the first Ar 234 combat mission on August 2, 1944, when Erich Sommer piloted the V5 prototype on a reconnaissance sortie over the Allied beachhead in Normandy. He encountered no opposition. During his two-hour flight, Sommer gathered more useful intelligence than the Luftwaffe obtained during the previous two months. Virtually immune to interception, the Ar 234 continued to provide the German High Command with valuable reconnaissance until nearly the end of the war. The intelligence gathered, however, allowed German military planners to do little more than delay inevitable defeat.
Only one Luftwaffe unit, KG 76 (Kampfgeschwader or Bomber Wing 76), was equipped with Ar 234 bombers before Germany's surrender. As the production of the Ar 234 B-2 increased in tempo during fall 1944, the unit received its first aircraft and began training at Burg bei Magdeburg. The unit flew its first operations during December 1944 in support of the Ardennes Offensive. Typical missions consisted of pinprick attacks conducted by less than 20 aircraft, each carrying a single 500 kg (1,100 lb.) bomb. The unit participated in the desperate attacks against the Allied bridgehead over the Rhine at Remagen during mid-March 1945, but failed to drop the Ludendorff railway bridge and suffered a number of losses to anti-aircraft fire. The deteriorating war situation, coupled with shortages of fuel and spare parts, prevented KG 76 from flying more than a handful of sorties from late March to the end of the war. The unit conducted its last missions against Soviet forces encircling Berlin during the final days of April. During the first week of May the unit's few surviving aircraft were either dispersed to airfields still in German hands or destroyed to prevent their capture.
The National Air and Space Museum's Blitz, an Arado Ar 234 B-2 bomber carrying Werk Nummer (manufacturer's serial number) 140312, was one of nine Ar 234s surrendered to British forces at Sola airfield near Stavanger, Norway. It is the sole surviving example of an Ar 234. The aircraft had been on strength with 9./KG 76 (Ninth Squadron/ bomber Wing 76) during the final weeks of the war, having served earlier with the unit's eighth squadron. It and three other Ar 234s were collected by the famous "Watson's Whizzers" group of the USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) for shipment to the United States. After flying from Sola to Cherbourg, France on June 24, 1945, the four Ar 234s joined thirty-four other advanced German aircraft aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper for shipment to the United States. The Reaper departed from Cherbourg on July 20, arriving at Newark, New Jersey eight days later. U. S. Army Air Forces personnel reassembled and flew two Ar 234s, including 140312, to Freeman Field, Indiana, for testing and evaluation. The USAAF assigned the foreign equipment number FE-1010 to this Ar 234 for inventory and tracking purposes.
After receiving new engines and replacement radio and oxygen equipment, FE-1010 was flown to Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, in July 1946 and transferred to the Accelerated Service Test Maintenance Section (ASTMS) of the Flight Test Division. After flight-testing was completed on October 16, 1946, the aircraft remained at Wright field until 1947, when it was moved to Orchard Place Airport, Park Ridge, Illinois. On May 1, 1949, the USAF (United States Air Force after 1947) transferred the Ar 234 and other aircraft at Park Ridge to the Smithsonian Institution. During the early 1950s, the airplanes were finally moved to a new Smithsonian storage facility at Suitland, Maryland to await restoration.
Restoration of the NASM Ar 234 began during 1984 and was completed in February 1989. Because all of the original German paint was stripped off the airframe before the aircraft's transfer to the Smithsonian, restoration specialists applied markings of a typical aircraft of 8./KG 76, the first bomber unit to fly the Blitz. The museum displayed the aircraft during 1993 in the main museum building downtown as part of an exhibit titled "Wonder Weapon? The Arado Ar 234." It is now shown at the museum's new Udvar-Hazy-Center near Dulles.
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Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Armbrust Cup, Lockheed Sirius "Tingmissartoq", Lindbergh

Materials:
Metal and canvas.
Dimensions:
3-D: 20.3 x 10.2 x 5.6cm, 0.3kg (8 x 4 x 2 3/16 in., 5/8lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Survival
Date:
1931-1933
Credit Line:
Transferred from the USAF Museum
Inventory Number:
A20030072001
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
For condensation of water from breath. Two chambered object with a mouthpiece, an exhaust hole, pure water hole, and a saliva hole. This one was never used.
Summary:
This Armbrust Cup was among the survival gear Charles Lindbergh and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, brought with them on their 1931 flight to the Orient and 1933 survey flights across the North and South Atlantic. By condensing moisture from breath into drinking water, the Armbrust Cup (named after its inventor) would provide a few last sips of water when there was nothing else to drink. It did not, however, provide a permanent solution to dehydration because it only recycled lost moisture, and did not provide a new source of water.
In case of an emergency landing, Charles Lindbergh always took an Armbrust Cup with him on flights over the ocean, including his 1927 flight from New York to Paris. The military considered making the Armbrust Cup standard issue for all its air pilots, but decided against it because the device was ineffective.
The text printed on the front of the Armbrust Cup reads:
"INSTRUCTIONS
When in use: If possible, keep this cover constantly wet by frequent dipping or submerging.
FOR USE IN MOUTH
Blow through mouthpiece with enough force to send breath through cup. Always keep cup as cools as possible by best means at hand."
The text printed on the back of the Armbrust Cup reads:
"GENERAL INFORMATION
Cup may be used submerged or in air at will. The quantity of water obtained depends upon the quantity and frequency of breaths blown through cup and temperature. Keeping cup as cool as possible by frequent dipping or submerging it in water greatly aids its efficiency."
Long Description:
A vacation flight with "no start or finish, no diplomatic or commercial significance, and no records to be sought." So Charles A. Lindbergh described the flight that he and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh, were planning to make to the Orient in 1931. Their choice of route, however, showed the feasibility of using the great circle to reach the Far East.
The Lindberghs flew in a Lockheed Sirius low-wing monoplane, powered by a 680-hp Wright Cyclone. The Sirius had been designed in 1929 by John K. Northrop and Gerard Vultee, and this model was specially fitted with Edo floats, since most of the Lindberghs flight was to be over water.
Their route took them from North Haven, Maine, to Ottawa, Moose Factory, Churchill, Baker Lake, and Aklavik, all in Canada; Point Barrow, Shismaref, and Nome, Alaska; Petropavlosk. Siberia; and on over the Kurile Islands to Japan. After receiving an enthusiastic welcome in Tokyo, they flew to China. They landed on Lotus Lake near Nanking on September 19, thus completing the first flight from the West to the East by way of the North.
At Hankow, the Sirius, with the Lindberghs aboard, was being lowered into the Yangtze River from the British aircraft carrier Hermes, when the aircraft accidentally capsized. One of the wings was damaged when it hit a ship's cable, and the aircraft had to be returned to the United States for repairs.
Their next venture in the Sirius came as a result of the five countries' interest in the development of commercial air transport. In 1933 Pan American Airways, Imperial Airways of Great Britain, Lufthansa of Germany, KLM of Holland, and Air France undertook a cooperative study of possible Atlantic routes. Each was assigned the responsibility for one of the following areas: New Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland; Newfoundland via the great circle route to Ireland; Newfoundland southeast to the Azores and Lisbon; Miami, Bermuda, the Azores, and Lisbon; and across the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, to Cape Verde, Africa.
Pan American was to survey the Newfoundland to Europe via Greenland route. Ground survey and weather crews in Greenland were already hard at work when Lindbergh, Pan Am's technical advisor, took off from New York on July 9 in the rebuilt Lockheed Sirius, again accompanied by his wife, who would serve as copilot and radio operator. A Sperry artificial horizon and a directional gyro had been added to the instrument panel since the previous flight, and a new Wright Cyclone SR1820-F2 engine of 710 horsepower was installed. Lindbergh's plan was not to set up a particular route but to gather as much information as possible on the area to be covered.
The Jellinge, a Danish ship, was chartered by Pan Am to maintain radio contact with the Lindberghs in the Labrador-Greenland-Iceland area. The ship also delivered advance supplies for them to Halifax, Saint John's, Cartwright, Greenland, and Iceland.
Every possible space in the aircraft was utilized, including the wings and floats, which contained the gasoline tanks. There was plenty of emergency equipment in case the Lindberghs had to make a forced landing in the frozen wilderness.
From New York, the Lindberghs flew up the eastern border of Canada to Hopedale, Labrador. From Hopedale they made the first major overwater hop, 650 miles to Godthaab, Greenland, where the Sirius acquired its name-Tingmissartoq, which in Eskimo means "one who flies like a big bird."
After crisscrossing Greenland to Baffin Island and back, and then on to Iceland, the Lindberghs proceeded to the major cities of Europe and as far east as Moscow, down the west coast of Africa, and across the South Atlantic to South America, where they flew down the Amazon, and then north through Trinidad and Barbados and back to the United States.
They returned to New York on December 19, having traveled 30,000 miles to four continents and twenty-one countries. The information gained from the trip proved invaluable in planning commercial air transport routes for the North and South Atlantic.
The aircraft was in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City until 1955. The AirForce Museum in Dayton, Ohio, then acquired it and transferred it to the Smithsonian in 1959.
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Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Army Air Service Donates Monoplane

Subject:
United States National Museum Division of Mechanical Technology
National Air and Space Museum
Date:
1924
Topic:
Airplanes
Gifts
Category:
Chronology of Smithsonian History
Notes:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit, Box 1, "Local Notes," 2/1/1924, p. 4
Summary:
The Army Air Service donates the Fokker T-2 monoplane which "flew from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts, making the non-stop flight in a little over a day" and represents the latest advances in long distance transportation planes to the Division of Mechanical Technology, Section of Aeronautics. It is installed in the Aircraft Building
Contact information:
Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, 600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024-2520, SIHistory@si.edu
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
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Barograph "Spirit of St. Louis", Charles A. Lindbergh, NY-Paris Flight May 1927

Materials:
Wood and metal
Dimensions:
3-D: 19.7 x 10.5 x 13.7cm, 1.2kg (7 3/4 x 4 1/8 x 5 3/8 in., 2 5/8lb.)
Type:
INSTRUMENTS-Scientific
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1927
Credit Line:
Donated by the National Aeronautic Association
Inventory Number:
A19310028000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
Light colored wood box with four (4) eyebolts on top, rectangular cut out on front with black and gray tubular canister inside unit for recording time and altitude of flight.
Summary:
This barograph provided an accurate record of the altitude and flight duration of "The Spirit of St. Louis" as Charles Lindbergh flew it nonstop from New York to Paris on May 20, 1927. Lindbergh needed a barograph tracing of his flight because he was competing for a $25,000 prize offered by New York hotel owner Raymond Orteig for the completion of the first nonstop flight between New York and Paris. The regulations of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale required a barograph tracing of all competitive flights to ensure that a nonstop flight was truly nonstop.
Recorded on the drum were Lindbergh's takeoff and climb, his ascents to various altitudes in search of favorable winds, his attempts to rise over storms and fog banks, his sudden drops because of turbulent air, his partial descent near Ireland, his flight over southwest Britain and northwest France, and finally his landing in Paris.
Long Description:
"Our messenger of peace and goodwill has broken down another barrier of time and space." So spoke President Calvin Coolidge about Charles A. Lindbergh's extraordinary solo transatlantic flight in 1927. Not until the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969 was the entire world again as enthusiastic about an aviation event as it was when Lindbergh landed his little Ryan monoplane in Paris.
In 1922, after a year and a half at the University of Wisconsin, Lindbergh left to study aeronautics with the Nebraska Aircraft Corporation. He was a 'barnstormer" until 1924, when he enrolled as a flying cadet in the Army Air Service. He won his reserve commission and began serving as a civilian airmail pilot, flying the route between St. Louis and Chicago.
Early in 1927 he obtained the backing of several St. Louis men to compete for the $25,000 prize offered by Raymond Orteig in 1919 for the first nonstop flight between New York City and Paris. In February of that year Lindbergh placed an order with Ryan Airlines in San Diego for an aircraft with specifications necessary to make the flight.
Development began based on a standard Ryan M-2, with Donald A. Hall as principal designer. Certain modifications to the basic high-wing, strut-braced monoplane design had to be made because of the nature of the flight. The wingspan was increased by 10 feet and the structural members of the fuselage and wing cellule were redesigned to accommodate the greater fuel load. Plywood was fitted along the leading edge of the wings. The fuselage design followed that of a standard M-2 except that it was lengthened 2 feet. The cockpit was moved further to the rear for safety and the engine was moved forward for balance, thus permitting the fuel tank to be installed at the center of gravity. The pilot could see forward only by means of a periscope or by turning the aircraft to look out of a side window. A Wright Whirlwind J-5C engine supplied the power.
Late in April 1927 the work on the aircraft was completed. It was painted silver and carried registration number N-X-21 1, which, with all other lettering on the plane, was painted in black. Lindbergh made several test flights, and then flew the aircraft from San Diego to New York on May 10-12, making only one stop, at St. Louis. His flight time of 21 hours, 40 minutes set a new transcontinental record.
After waiting several days in New York for favorable weather, Lindbergh took off for Paris alone, on the morning of May 20, 1927. Thirty-three hours, 30 minutes, and 3,610 miles later he landed safely at Le Bourget Field, near Paris, where he was greeted by a wildly enthusiastic crowd of 100,000.
Lindbergh and the Spirit of St Louis returned to the United States aboard the U.S.S. Memphis on June 11. He received tumultuous welcomes in Washington, D.C. and New York City. From July 20 until October 23 of that year he took the famous plane on a tour of the United States. Then, on December 13, he and the Spirit of St. Louis flew nonstop from Washington to Mexico City; through Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico; and nonstop from Havana to St. Louis. Beginning in Mexico City, flags of the countries he visited were painted on both sides of the cowling.
On April 30, 1928, the Spirit of St. Louis made its final flight-from St. Louis to Washington, D.C where Lindbergh presented the aircraft to the Smithsonian Institution.
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Location:
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition:
Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
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Beechcraft D18S Twin Beech

Manufacturer:
Beech Aircraft Corporation
Materials:
Fuselage and wings: all-metal
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 14.5 m (47 ft)
Length: 10.4 m (33 ft 11 in)
Height: 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Weight, empty: 2,584 kg (5,697 lb)
Weight, gross: 3,967 kg (8,750 lb)
Engine: Pratt & Whitney Wasp, Jr. 450 hp (2)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1937-1969
Credit Line:
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Mike Mitchell
Inventory Number:
A19761792000
Rights:
Do not reproduce without permission from the Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum
Physical Description:
N522B. Twin-engine business, feeder airline, and military transport monoplane. Two Pratt & Whitney Wasp, Jr. engines. Six passengers, two crew members. Low-wing, tailwheel design.
Summary:
The Beechcraft Model 18 made its first demonstration flight in 1937 and production continued for an impressive thirty-two years, with move than 9,000 aircraft built. The low-wing, all-metal, twin-engine monoplane was originally intended as a six-to-eight passenger executive or feeder airline transport, but eventually thirty-two versions were built. The highly adaptable design became a mail plane, a utility aircraft, and a distance and speed record breaker. Military versions included personnel transport, photo reconnaissance, and trainers for navigators and bombardiers.
The success of the Beech 18 ensured the success of Beech Aircraft Corporation throughout the 1940s. Beech introduced the D-18S model in October 1945, with structural modifications for increased payload and new engines and landing gear. Mike Mitchell operated N522B as an air ambulance for fifteen years, flying it a million and one-quarter miles and transporting nearly fifteen thousand patients.
Long Description:
On January 15, 1937, the Beechcraft Model 18 made its first demonstration flight at the factory in Wichita, Kansas, and it continued in production for thirty-two years. This low-wing, all-metal, twin-engine monoplane was originally intended as a six-to-eight-passenger executive or feeder airline transport. As the years passed, however, the Model 18 was adapted to many uses and, in all, thirty-two different versions were produced.
When production began on the Model 18 in 1937, there was virtually no market for this airplane in the United States. At the time, air transportation in the United States was a trunkline operation, and few feeder lines existed. Acceptance of the Model 18 by foreign and charter lines was immediate, however. The Model 18A, which also operated on interchangeable ski- or float-landing gear, was an ideal adaptation for snowbound areas and for lake and inter-island service. Prairie Airlines of Alberta, Canada, for example, ordered several of these airplanes for use in delivering air mail over a route that extended from Prince Albert to North Battleford, south to Saskatoon and Moose Jaw, finally joining up with the main route of Trans Canada Airlines at Regina. Also, businessmen were favorably impressed with the performance of the Model 18 as an executive transport, with orders coming from Alaska, Canada, and Puerto Rico.
On January 13, 1939, Beech began negotiations with the U.S. government on a contract for a photo reconnaissance version of the 18. Fourteen of these aircraft, designated Type F-2, were ordered as part of the Emergency Procurement Program. This order was followed by a contract for eleven C-45 personnel transports. Later that year, Beech began negotiations with the Chinese government for a bomber trainer. This version had a clear plastic nose, a single gun turret on the upper fuselage, and a machine gun in a tunnel in the rear floor. It also had internal bomb racks, which carried up to twenty 25-pound bombs.
1939 also saw a standard Beech 18S set a new flight record while on a demonstration tour, flying from Bogota to Barranquilla, Colombia, a distance of 450 miles, in 1 hour, 54 minutes. Later the same airplane made a 1,350-mile flight from Maracay, Venezuela, to Miami, Florida, in 6 hours, the first known nonstop flight between those two cities. To further demonstrate the capable performance of the Beech Model 18, Walter Beech entered a D18S in the 1940 Macfadden Race from St. Louis to Miami. With "Ding" Rankin as his pilot, Beech crossed the finish line in Miami in 4 hours, 37 minutes to win first place. Their average speed for the flight was 234 mph.
World War II brought more orders for military versions of the Beech 18S from the United States and foreign governments for a wide range of uses. About 90 percent of the U.S. Air Force's navigators and bombardiers received their training on AT-7s and AT-11s respectively. The U.S. Navy SNB-1 was similar to the AT-11, the SNB-2 to the AT-7. The JRB-1 was a radio-control airplane for target or drone aircraft. The Navy's personnel transports similar to the C-45 were known as JRB2, JRB-3, and JRB-4.
With the end of the war came the end of military production, although many of these aircraft remained in service for years. By October 1945 Beech was back into full commercial aircraft production. The first aircraft off the line was the newest model, the D18S, which incorporated a number of improvements. Structural modifications allowed for an increase in maximum weight and new landing gear, brakes, and tires were installed. Two 450-hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp, Jr., engines with Hamilton Standard constant speed propellers powered the D18S. It was the premier executive transport among businessmen and it was also used by the new local service airlines that emerged after the end of World War II.
On December 10, 1953, the prototype of the Super 18, the last version of the Beech 18, made its first flight. The last three production aircraft were delivered in November 1969. More than 9,000 Model 18s were produced since 1937, and, in 1970, more than 2,000 were still being flown in the United States alone.
In 1958, Mike Mitchell bought a D18S from the F.H. Hogue Produce Company that was already ten years old, but still in good condition. He modified the aircraft as an air ambulance aircraft and operated it at Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix, Arizona. It could accommodate up to ten ambulatory patients and stretcher patients could be placed on a lounge running fore and aft. Over fifteen years, Mitchell flew his N522B a total of a million and a quarter miles, transporting nearly fifteen thousand patients. He donated it to the Smithsonian in 1976.
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National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
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National Air and Space Museum
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