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Rudolph Schaeffer papers

Creator:
Schaeffer, Rudolph  Search this
Names:
East & West Gallery (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Frey, Caroline  Search this
Frey, Fred  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
13.3 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1880s-1997
Summary:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997 and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection measures 13.3 linear feet, dates from the 1880s-1997, and documents the life and varied career of Rudolph Schaeffer, artist, designer, teacher, writer, collector of Asian art, and pioneer in the field of color study who founded the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco in 1926. The papers include biographical information, correspondence, subject files, writings, diaries, journals, artwork, scrapbooks, sound recordings, and photographs.

Correspondence documents Schaeffer's personal and professional activities as well as the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design. Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and drawings reflecting Schaeffer's activities, projects, and interests. Within the subject files is correspondence with artists, including Mark Tobey. Extensive writings include manuscripts for published and unpublished articles and drafts, notes, and manuscripts of several unpublished books including Collected Lectures of Rudolph Schaeffer on Color and Design, Color and Design, Prismatic Color Theory, and Rhythmo-Chromatics, all undated. Diaries include a volume recording Schaeffer's 1936 trip to Japan. 42 volumes of journals, compiled between 1954 and 1987, contain entries on a wide range of subjects including lists of errands, invitation lists, class notes, drafts of letters, notes including staff assignments and staff meetings, autobiographical notes and reminiscences, and musings on religion and philosophy.

The Artwork series houses artwork by Schaeffer and his students. Found are hand-made Christmas cards, designs, sketches, and sketchbooks. Seven scrapbooks document Rudolph Schaeffer's career, his school and former students, and the San Francisco art scene. They contain printed material, photographs, letters, and a small amount of artwork. Volume 3 is devoted to East West Gallery, and volume 7 documents Rudolph Schaeffer's 90th Birthday and the 50th Anniversary of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Most untranscribed sound recordings (audio cassettes and reels) are of lectures by Schaeffer and others delivered at the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design.

Miscellaneous records includes a series of hand-baticked fabric samples from the Wiener Werkstatte, as well as transcripts of an oral history with Schaeffer and other interviews.

Printed material concerns the career of Rudolph Schaeffer, his school and former students, the San Francisco art scene, and general art topics. Included are articles and a book by Schaeffer, catalogs and other items produced by the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and miscellaneous items about or mentioning Schaeffer and his school. Items of note are announcements of courses taught by Schaeffer in Piedmont and San Francisco prior to the opening of his school, and theatre programs from productions with sets and some costumes designed by Schaeffer in the early 1920s.

Photographs are of artwork, people, places, events, stage designs, and miscellaneous subjects. Artwork includes some designs by Rudolph Schaeffer; people include Schaeffer, his family, friends, and students. Of particular note are a photograph of Frank Lloyd Wright's visit to the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design, and one of Rudolph Schaeffer and Imogen Cunningham. Places include interior and exterior views of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design at its St. Anne Street and Mariposa Street locations. Also included are photographs by Ansel Adams of the home of Ed and Caroline Fey.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1900-1988 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1989 (Box 1, 19; 0.5 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1907-1988 (Boxes 1-2, OV 16; 1.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1910-1987 (Boxes 2-6, 15, 19, 21; 4.2 linear ft.)

Series 5: Artwork, 1911-1957 (Boxes 6-15, 19, 21 OV 17; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1933-1976 (Boxes 6, 14, 19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Sound Recordings, 1949-1986 (Boxes 11-13; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 8: Miscellaneous Records, 1905-1986 (Box 7, 19, 22; 0.8 linear ft.)

Series 9: Printed Material, 1906-1994 (Boxes 7-8, 15, 19, 22; 1.2 linear ft.)

Series 10: Photographs, 1880s-circa 1988 (Boxes 8-10,15, 20, 22, OV 18; 1.8 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Rudolph Schaeffer (1886-1988), a proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement, aspired to unite technology, science, and lifestyle in order to live in harmony with nature. An individual with many talents and interests, he was best known for his work in the field of color study and as a teacher and the founder of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design in San Francisco.

Born on a farm in Clare, Michigan in 1886, Rudolph Schaeffer displayed musical and artistic talent from a young age. Although he initially wanted to become a professional musician, he began focusing more on art when his musical abilities were compromised by an improperly set broken wrist. Schaeffer received his first formal art training as a high school student and then attended the Thomas Normal Training School in Detroit, where he studied music, art, and design. He continued studying independently, developing interests in calligraphy and metal craft.

In 1907, Schaeffer taught manual training courses in the Columbus, Ohio, public schools. The following summer he traveled to Paris and London. While in London he saw an exhibition of Josef Hoffman's modern interiors that had a great impact on his own design ideas. He then returned to Michigan and taught in schools close to home. In 1909, Schaeffer attended a design course in Minneapolis taught by A. E. Batchelder, director of Throop Polytechnic Institute in Pasadena. Both Batchelder and his course were strong influences on Schaeffer, as was Ralph Johnot, a proponent of Arthur Wesley Dow's design principles. In 1910 Schaeffer joined the faculty of Throop Polytechnic Institute, where he remained for five years.

The U. S. Commission on Education selected Schaeffer to be part of a delegation of twenty-five American teachers sent to Munich for several months in 1914 to investigate the exemplary industrial design curriculum offered in their secondary schools. Schaeffer subsequently expected to begin teaching at the Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles at the start of the 1914 school year, but World War I erupted while he was in Germany and his return to the United States was delayed so long that another teacher had to be hired to fill his place.

In 1915 Schaeffer was a manual training instructor at the California College of Arts and Crafts (formerly the Hopkins School), and taught design and metal crafts at the University of California Berkeley. For a number of years afterwards, he did free lance design work, taught private classes, and ran a small summer school in his Piedmont studio. Schaeffer was a visiting professor at Stanford University in 1918 when he was drafted and sent to drafting and surveying courses by the Army. Between 1917 and 1924 Schaeffer was on the faculty of the California College of Arts and Crafts where he taught design, color, handicrafts, and interior design. During this period he developed a new approach to teaching color and design based on the prismatic color wheel.

During the early 1920s Schaeffer worked as a set designer and as Art Director of Greek Theatre at the University of California at Berkeley, Schaeffer began applying prismatic color theory to set and costume design. He also designed sets for productions in Detroit. In 1925, Schaeffer saw the Paris Exposition and researched interior and stage design while in France.

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design which, in its early days was called the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Rhythmo-Chromatic Design, opened on St. Anne Street in San Francisco's Chinatown in 1926. In 1951 the school then moved to Union Street on Telegraph Hill where it remained for nearly a decade. In 1960, the school purchased a former boys' school on Mariposa Street, Portero Hill. Rudolph Schaeffer lived in a small cottage built for him at the rear of the property where he designed and tended a remarkable "Peace Garden."

The Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was best known for its courses in color and interior design. Schaeffer was the first person in the United States to teach prismatic color theory, is credited with being the first to use the term "interior design" rather than "interior decoration" and the first to incorporate the use of models into interior design coursework. In 1959 the school's courses were expanded from 2 to 3-year programs and a diploma was awarded. Former students include many successful interior designers, textile designers, furniture designers, industrial designers, commercial artists, color consultants, teachers, and master flower arrangers.

In addition to the interior design and color diploma courses, the school offered a summer session, classes for children, a brief lecture series for the general public, and a wide variety of classes including advertising art, architecture and design, art history, art in public schools, calligraphy, color design, color for television, color for weavers, color theory, design, drawing, environmental aesthetics, fashion design, fashion illustration, flower arrangement, industrial design, interior design, Notan, sculpture, space planning, textile design, and weaving. Always struggling financially and sometimes lacking adequate enrollment, the school nevertheless managed to stay open for nearly 60 years. In 1984, the Board of Directors voted to remove Schaeffer from the board and close the school. Two years earlier the board had forced Schaeffer to retire, appointed him Director Emeritus, and brought in a new director charged with making the institution financially solvent, reorganizing the curriculum, and working toward accreditation. Unable to separate himself from the school (though he had done so legally when it was incorporated in 1953), Schaeffer balked and refused to cooperate with plans for revitalizing the institution.

One of the aims of the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design was to interpret Asian esthetic principles. To this end the East West Gallery was established at the school in 1950. A membership organization, it offered exhibitions, lectures, concerts, and other programs that encouraged cultural integration. Exhibitions alternated between East (Asian art and artifacts from Rudolph Schaeffer's collection or other sources) and West (student work or work of local artists illustrating the influence of the Asian esthetic on contemporary art and design). East West Gallery was a membership organization, the first space of its kind in San Francisco for Asian art and operated in each of the school's locations.

In addition to running the school Schaeffer was involved in many other activities. He wrote several articles about flower arrangement, color, and color theory that were published in popular magazines. In 1935, he published Flower Arrangement Folio I (said to be the first on the subject published in this country) and in 1942 edited and wrote the introduction to Sunset's Flower Arrangement Book by Nell True Welch. Over a period of many years, he worked on several monographs on color, design, and "rhythmo-chromatics." None were ever published.

A sought-after speaker on the subjects of color, interior design, flower arrangement, and myriad other art topics, Schaeffer frequently served as a juror for art exhibitions and flower shows. From the 1930s on, the San Francisco department store Emporium used his services as a color consultant, as did Dutch Boy paints, and numerous textile and clothing manufacturers. Builders also asked Schaeffer to select interior and exterior colors for suburban housing developments.

Schaeffer worked on planning and designing the decorative arts exhibition at the 1939-40 Golden Gate International Exposition. In 1943-44, he participated in the Red Cross's Arts and Skills program, using color therapy with shell-shocked soldiers in a psychiatric unit.

The Rudolph Schaeffer Collection of Asian Art began as a collection of ceramics, both historical and contemporary examples chosen for their form and color, which he used for flower arrangements and in set-ups for still life classes. It soon expanded to include color prints, paintings, screens, and other works of art and portions were exhibited frequently in the East West Gallery. Selections from this collection were exhibited in Kansas City in 1960 and at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in 1976.

The City of San Francisco declared June 26, 1986, Schaeffer's 100th birthday, "Rudolph Schaeffer Day" and it was observed with great fanfare. He died at home on March 5, 1988, a few months before his 102nd birthday.
Provenance:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers were donated in 1991 by Rudolph Schaeffer and the Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design administrator Peter Docili, and in 1999 and 2000 by James Alexander, a friend of both Schaeffer and Docili, who had been storing portions of Docili's estate after his death in 1998, with the assistance of Frances Valesco, a fiber artist and researcher. An addition was received in 2007 by William Woodworth, a close friend and caretaker of Schaeffer's and in 2017 and 2018 by Frances Valesco.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Rudolph Schaeffer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Designers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Art, Asian  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art teachers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Artists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Authors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Color -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Christmas cards
Designs
Interviews
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Citation:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers, 1880s-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.scharudo
See more items in:
Rudolph Schaeffer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-scharudo

Florence Arquin papers

Creator:
Arquin, Florence  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago -- Faculty  Search this
Federal Art Project (Ill.)  Search this
United States. Department of State  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Rebay, Hilla, 1890-1967  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Williams, Samuel  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Extent:
8.2 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Prints
Sketches
Photographs
Date:
1923-1985
Summary:
The papers of Florence Arquin measure 8.2 linear feet and date from 1923 to 1985. The papers document Arquin's career as a painter, photographer, educator, writer, and critic through biographical material, correspondence, writings, teaching and project files, printed material, photographs, artwork, and scrapbooks. Additionally, the papers relate to her personal relationships with her husband Samuel Williams and friends, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Teaching and project files include material from Arquin's work with the Federal Art Project at the Art Institute of Chicago and as director of the U.S. State Department's Kodachrome Slide Project, which was part of an effort to provide educational agencies with visual aids to support Latin American Studies.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Florence Arquin measure 8.2 linear feet and date from 1923 to 1985. The papers document Arquin's career as a painter, photographer, educator, writer, and critic through biographical material, correspondence, writings, teaching and project files, printed material, photographs, artwork, and scrapbooks. Additionally, the papers relate to her personal relationships with her husband Samuel Williams and friends, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Teaching and project files include material from Arquin's work with the Federal Art Project at the Art Institute of Chicago and as director of the U.S. State Department's Kodachrome Slide Project, which was part of an effort to provide educational agencies with visual aids to support Latin American Studies.

Biographical materials include awards, biographical sketches and resumes, travel papers, identification cards, and ten address books.

The bulk of correspondence is comprised of letters written by Florence Arquin to her husband, Samuel Williams. These letters discuss her trips to Mexico in the 1940s, her role in the Kodachrome Slide Project, and her friendships with fellow artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, and others. Also found are copies of letters from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera to Florence Arquin.

Writings and notes include extensive research notes, notebooks, and notecards by Florence Arquin, primarly on Latin American art and culture. Also found is a draft of Arquin's work on Diego Rivera, Diego Rivera (1886-1957): The Shaping of an Artist (Early Period--1889-1921). Writings by others include a draft of a foreword by Diego Rivera, and writings by Jose de Souza Pedreira, and Hilla Rebay.

Teaching and project files include materials from Arquin's time teaching at the Art Institute of Chicago, her work with the the Federal Art Project at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Kodachrome Slide Project. Teaching files are scattered and include student papers, class outlines, and a lecture. The Federal Art Project at the Art Institute of Chicago files include a proposal and project reports. The Kodachrome Slide Project files include correspondence, receipts, reports, educational guides and materials, slide sequences, and printed material.

Printed material includes exhibition catalogs and announcements, clippings, booklets, travel guides, magazines, education journals, subject files on Diego Rivera and Frank Lloyd Wright, and blank postcards from Arquin's travels. There are extensive booklets and pamphlets published by the Pan American Union, and travel guides and educational guides for Latin America. Some printed material is in Spanish.

Photographs include portraits and snapshots of Florence Arquin, Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo and others. Photos of Florence Arquin show her in her office, giving lectures, and at events with others. Photographs of works of art are by Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera.

Artwork is scattered and includes a sketchbook by Florence Arquin with watercolor and pencil sketches and a print signed by de Diego.

There are four scrapbooks created by Florence Arquin. Scrapbooks may include photographs, writings, maps, and printed materials. Materials relate to the Federal Art Project at the Art Institute of Chicago, travel, and the Kodachrome Slide Project.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1939-1962 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1, 11)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1940-1985 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1929-circa 1964 (2.0 linear feet; Box 2-4)

Series 4: Teaching and Project Files, 1930-1963 (1.4 linear feet; Box 4-5)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1923-1964 (1.8 linear feet; Box 5-7, 11)

Series 6: Photographs, 1929-circa 1960 (0.7 linear feet; Box 7, 11)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1940-circa 1950 (2 folders; Box 7, 11)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1935-1956 (0.9 linear feet; Box 8-10)
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, photographer, educator, writer, and critic, Florence Arquin (1900-1974) was active in Chicago, Illinois. She was widely known for her expertise in the field of Latin American Studies and had a close relationship with Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. From 1935 to 1939 she worked as administrator for the Federal Art Project in Illinois and joined the Art Institute of Chicago in 1939 to develop education programs aimed at secondary school students.

Florence Arquin was born in 1900 in New York City. She graduated from the Art Institute of Chicago where she studied art education. After, she undertook post graduate studies at the National University of Mexico. In the early 1940s Arquin traveled to Mexico to paint, where she developed friendships with Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. In 1943 a solo exhibition of her paintings at the Benjamin Franklin Library in Mexico City was highly praised by Rivera in the catalog introduction. Arquin's book Diego Rivera: The Shaping of an Artist, 1889-1921 about the artist's formative years, was published by the University of Oklahoma Press in 1971.

Arquin traveled extensively in South America, the United States, and Europe throughout her life. From 1945 to 1951 she traveled to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador as Director of the Kodachrome Slide Project under the sponsorship of the Department of State. Arquin photographed aspects of life and culture and gave lectures at bi-national cultural institutions throughout those countries and in the United States. The project was part of an effort to provide educational agencies with visual aids in the field of Latin American studies.

Under another State Department grant, duplicates of Arquin's photographs were then made available for sale to institutions and individuals interested in the field of Latin American studies. The Metropolitan Museum of Art assumed responsibility for publicity, sale, and distribution of the slides from 1950 to 1955. Although few sales originated through the sales office of the Museum, Arquin managed to generate sales through her own efforts. In 1961 she applied for another grant to take control of the original slides and to add slides that she had taken on other visits to Latin America, Morocco, Spain, Portugal, and other European countries since then.

Florence Arquin died in 1974.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by Samuel Williams, Arquin's husband, in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Florence Arquin papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Rights:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Educators -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art, Latin American  Search this
Art critics  Search this
Authors -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Hispanic American art  Search this
Painters  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Women artists -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Genre/Form:
Prints
Sketches
Photographs
Citation:
Florence Arquin papers, 1923-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.arquflor
See more items in:
Florence Arquin papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-arquflor
Additional Online Media:

Emily Genauer papers

Creator:
Genauer, Emily, 1910-2002  Search this
Names:
Aronson, David  Search this
Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988  Search this
Carnegie, Dorothy  Search this
Chagall, Marc, 1887-  Search this
Dalí, Salvador, 1904-  Search this
Davis, Stuart, 1892-1964  Search this
Graham, Martha  Search this
Guggenheim, Harry Frank, 1890-1971  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice), 1902-1971  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Tamayo, Rufino, 1899-  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Extent:
11.4 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Essays
Lectures
Transcriptions
Speeches
Photographs
Date:
circa 1920-1990
Summary:
The papers of art critic Emily Genauer measure 11.4 linear feet and date from circa 1920 to 1990. Found within the papers are correspondence with artists, gallery owners, and friends; extensive writings; research and reference files; personal business records; and photographs. Notable correspondents include David Aronson, Mrs. Max Beckman, Isabel Bishop, Dorothy Carnegie, Marc Chagall, Salvatore Dali, Stuart Davis, Martha Graham, Harry F. Guggenheim, Irene Rice Pereira, Clyfford Still, Rufino Tamayo, and Frank Lloyd Wright, among many others.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art critic Emily Genauer measure 11.4 linear feet and date from circa 1920 to 1990. Found within the papers are correspondence with artists, gallery owners, and friends; extensive writings; research and reference files; personal business records; and photographs.

Notable correspondents include David Aronson, Mrs. Max Beckman, Isabel Bishop, Dorothy Carnegie, Marc Chagall, Salvatore Dali, Stuart Davis, Martha Graham, Harry F. Guggenheim, Irene Rice Pereira, Clyfford Still, Rufino Tamayo, and Frank Lloyd Wright, among numerous others. Extensive writings consist largely of drafts of columns written by Genauer and supporting research notes, as well as essays, speeches, lectures, book manuscripts, and memoirs. Research and reference files include source material for columns and essays. Personal business records document Genauer's work on committees and arts organizations, juries, awards, honors and also include interview transcripts and other personal scattered files. There is material regarding her leaving the New York World-Telegram. Printed material includes two of Genauer's books, magazines, newspaper clippings, and exhibition catalogs. Photographs are portraits of Genauer and of artwork.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Correspondence and Letters, 1938-1991 (Box 1, 12, 0.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Writings, circa 1930s-1990s (Box 1-3, 2.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Research and Reference Files, circa 1920s-1990s (Box 4-6, 2.6 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1933-1992 (Box 6-7, 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Materials, circa 1920s-1990s (Box 7-9, 12, 1.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1930s-1970s (Box 9-11, 12, 1.8 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Emily Genauer (1911-2002) was a modern art critic and columinst working in New York City from 1932 until well into the 1980s. In 1974, she won the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished art criticism.

Genauer was born in 1911 in Staten Island. She attended Hunter College and Columbia University, majoring in Journalism. She began her writing career in 1929 with the New York World, which later became the New York World-Telegram. She became a strong advocate for modern art and sculpture and introduced modern artists like Marc Chagall and Diego Rivera to the newspaper audience. She also followed lesser known artists and often visited their studios, and they, in return, regularly read her articles and reviews of their shows.

Genauer left the New York World-Telegram in 1949 after a dispute with the owner who accused her writing as overly sympathetic to "Communists and left-wingers" and told her she could no longer write about Picasso. She immediately went to work as the art critic for the New York Herald Tribune, where she worked until 1967, when it folded. She then wrote a regular column for the Newsday Syndicate until the mid-1970s. She also worked for Harper's and in television and served on the council for the National Endowment for the Humanities from 1966 to 1970. Genauer was the author of a number of books, including The Best of Art, Chagall at the Met, and Rufino Tamayo.

Genauer passed away in 2002 in New York City at the age of 91.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reel NG1) including 300 letters, photographs, and printed material. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Emily Genauer lent letters on reel NG1 for microfilming 1959. Constance Roche, daughter of Emily Genauer, donated additional papers in 2000 and 2003.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Emily Genauer papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Gallery owners -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Essays
Lectures
Transcriptions
Speeches
Photographs
Citation:
Emily Genauer papers, circa 1920s-1990s. Archives of American art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.genaemil
See more items in:
Emily Genauer papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-genaemil

A testament

Author:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Physical description:
256 p. illus., plans. 31 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1957
[1957]
Call number:
NA737.W7A33X 1957
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_281299

Henry-Russell Hitchcock papers

Creator:
Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, 1903-1987  Search this
Names:
Abbott, Jere  Search this
Austin, Arthur Everett, 1900-1957  Search this
Barr, Alfred H., Jr., 1902-1981  Search this
Berenson, Bernard, 1865-1959  Search this
Berman, Eugene, 1899-1972  Search this
Berman, Leonid, 1896-1976  Search this
Doesburg, Theo van, 1883-1931  Search this
Erffa, Helmut von, 1900-1979  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel, 1871-1956  Search this
Francis, Henry Sayles, 1902-1994  Search this
Gill, Brendan, 1914-1997  Search this
Goldwater, Robert John, 1907-1973  Search this
Howe, George, 1886-1955  Search this
Johnson, Philip C.  Search this
Kaufmann, Edgar, 1910-  Search this
Kirstein, Lincoln, 1907-  Search this
McCormick, Thomas J.  Search this
Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990  Search this
Oud, J. J. P. (Jacobus Johannes Pieter), 1890-1963  Search this
Panofsky, Erwin, 1892-1968  Search this
Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1902-1983  Search this
Porter, Kingsley  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Schindler, R. M. (Rudolph M.), 1887-1953  Search this
Scully, Vincent Joseph, 1920-  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Smith, E. Baldwin (Earl Baldwin), 1888-1956  Search this
Smith, Peter van der Meulen  Search this
Soby, James Thrall, 1906-  Search this
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Sterner, Harold  Search this
Summerson, John Newenham, Sir, 1904-  Search this
Thomson, Virgil, 1896-  Search this
Vanderbilt, Paul  Search this
Washburn, Gordon B. (Gordon Bailey), 1904-1983  Search this
Wittkower, Rudolf  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Extent:
24.8 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Writings
Photographs
Date:
1919-1987
Summary:
The papers of architectural historian, author, critic, teacher, and museum director, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, date from 1919-1987 and measure 24.8 linear feet. Almost all of the collection is comprised of Hitchcock's correspondence files relating to academic research, teaching, curatorial interests, and professional associations. Letters are from prominent architectural historians, architects, artists, preservationists, museum directors and curators, and family and friends. Also found are two feet of writings by Hitchcock and others, scattered biographical information, printed material, and photographs of Hitchcock and architecture.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of architectural historian, author, critic, teacher, and museum director, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, date from 1919-1987 and measure 24.8 linear feet. Almost all of the collection is comprised of Hitchcock's correspondence files relating to academic research, teaching, curatorial interests, and professional associations. Letters are from prominent architectural historians, architects, artists, preservationists, museum directors and curators, and family and friends. Also found are two feet of writings by Hitchcock and others, scattered biographical information, miscellaneous records, printed material, and photographs of Hitchcock and architecture.

Among the biographical documents are Hitchcock's birth certificate, passport, and wills. Awards, citations, honorary degrees and commendations are from the University of Pennsylvania, Wesleyan University, the Friends of Cast Iron Architecture, National Institute of Arts and Letters, and the Victorian Society in America.

Chronological name and subject files consist mostly of correspondence and printed material along with a small number of photographs. They include personal and professional correspondence and subject files relating to academic research, teaching, curatorial interests, and professional associations. The correspondence includes large numbers of letters from prominent architectural historians, architects, artists, preservationists, museum directors and curators. Also included are students, friends, relatives, publishers, and representatives of organizations and institutions. Among those of note are: Jere Abbott, Everett A. (Chick) Austin, Alfred H. Barr, Bernard Berenson, Eugene Berman, Leonid Berman, Lyonel Feininger, Henry (Harry) Sayles Francis, Brendan Gill, Robert Goldwater, George Howe, Philip C. Johnson, Edgar Kaufmann, Jr., Lincoln Kirstein, Thomas J. McCormick, Lewis Mumford, J.J.P. Oud, Erwin Panofsky, Nikolaus Pevsner, Kingsley Porter, Paul J. Sachs, R. M. Schindler, Vincent Scully, Jr., Theodore Sizer, E. Baldwin Smith, Peter van der Meulen Smith, James Soby, Victor Spark, Harold Sterner, John Summerson, Virgil Thomson, Paul Vanderbilt, Theo Van Doesburg, Helmut von Erffa, Gordon Washburn, Rudolf Wittkower, and Frank Lloyd Wright.

Writings by Hitchcock consist of manuscripts and drafts of numerous published and unpublished articles, book chapters, and his masters thesis. Other writings by Hitchcock include lecture notes and texts, book reviews, notes, outlines, photo lists, and a bibliography. Among the other authors represented in this series are John Coolidge and Sir Wilfred Green.

Miscellaneous records consist of the alien registration card of Hitchcock's friend Peter van der Meulen Smith, architectural drawings by Hitchcock, book contracts, and a small number of receipts and invoices.

Printed material consists of articles about, by, or mentioning Henry-Russell Hitchcock, along with advertisements for his books, and postcards of architectural subjects.

Photographs are of architecture, art work, events, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects; also included are color slides, negatives, and transparencies. Architectural subjects include the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and Gaudi, as well as interior and exterior views of buildings identified only by location. Photographs of people include Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Chick Austin and Ernestine Carter, Alexander Dorner, Tammy Grimes, Lincoln Kirstein, the Steinway family, and Edgar Tafel. Events recorded include the Society of Architectural Historians at the Newport Casino, Hitchcock receiving honorary degrees at the University of Glasgow and Wesleyan University, and a high tea sponsored by the Victorian Society in America. Family houses and views of Greece are among the photographs of places. Miscellaneous subjects include exhibition installations and family heirlooms.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, 1922-1984 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 2: Chronological Name and Subject Files, 1919-1987 (Boxes 1-22; 21.9 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, 1922-circa 1978 (Boxes 23-24; 2.0 linear ft.)

Series 4: Miscellaneous Records, 1928-1977 (Box 25; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1922-1984 (Boxes 25-26; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1926-1979 (Box 26; 0.3 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Henry-Russell Hitchcock, considered the "father" of modern architectural historiography, played a major role in bringing modern architecture to the United States. As an eminent professor for more than forty years, Hitchcock trained and influenced several generations of scholars and critics. He combined a love of architecture with criticism and scholarship to produce a large number of distinguished monographs and articles on a broad range of styles and periods.

Born in Boston in 1903, Henry-Russell Hitchcock was the son of Mayflower descendants. At Harvard University, he studied medieval history with A. Kingsly Porter as his mentor and completed the undergraduate curriculum in three years. Hitchcock spent his senior year studying architecture, graduated in 1924, and stayed to study for a master's degree, which was awarded in 1927. During his years at Harvard, he wrote for Hound and Horn and knew Alfred Barr, T. S. Eliot, Philip Johnson, Lincoln Kirstein, Virgil Thomson, and others who became leaders in the modernist movement.

Henry-Russell Hitchcock's teaching career began when he was appointed an assistant professor at Vassar College for the academic year 1927-28. In 1929, he joined the faculty of Wesleyan University, where he remained for two decades before moving to Smith College in 1949. During his tenures at Wesleyan and Smith, his services as a visiting lecturer were employed on many occasions by Cambridge University, Connecticut College, Harvard University, the Institute of Fine Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Yale University. Upon retiring from Smith College in 1968, Hitchcock moved to New York City and taught briefly at Columbia University, the Institute of Fine Arts, and the University of Massachusetts, at Amherst.

Best known as a proponent of modernism, Hitchcock wrote more than two dozen books about a wide range of styles and periods, and most are considered standard works on their subjects. His first, Modern Architecture: Romanticism and Reintegration, appeared in 1929 and was the first book on the subject to be published in English; his final book, German Renaissance Architecture, was published in 1981.

Henry-Russell Hitchcock served as director of the Smith College Museum between 1949 and 1955. In addition, he was curator of several exhibitions, the first and most important of which was Modern Architecture: International Exhibition, organized in collaboration with Philip C. Johnson and held at the Museum of Modern Art. Their book, The International Style: Architecture Since 1922, was published in 1932 in conjunction with the exhibition.

During World War II, Hitchcock's civilian service included working as director of the U. S. Navy's Photographic Library and writing Pratt and Whitney aircraft engine manuals.

Henry-Russell Hitchcock was an active member of many professional associations. He served as president of the Society of Architectural Historians from 1952 to 1954. In addition, he was a founding member of The Victorian Society in Great Britain, and between 1969 and 1974 was president of its sister organization, The Victorian Society in America.

During his long and illustrious career, Henry-Russell Hitchcock won many awards and honors. Awards for Early Victorian Architecture in Britain and Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries were conferred by the Society of Architectural Historians (1955) and College Art Association (1960), respectively. Hitchcock received the Royal Society of Arts Medal for Best Lecture (1956) and its Benjamin Franklin Medal (1970), in addition to the American Institute of Architects' Architectural Critics' Medal (1970). Other awards include: National Institute of Arts and Letters Award (1956), American Council of Learned Societies Prize for Distinguished Accomplishment in Humanistic Scholarship (1961), Friends of Cast-Iron Architecture Certificate of Commendation (1978), the American Institute of Architects Award of Merit (1978), and Municipal Art Society Certificate of Merit (1978).

He received honorary degrees from Glasgow University and the University of Pennsylvania in 1973, and in 1979 from Wesleyan University. In Search of Modern Architecture: A Tribute to Henry-Russell Hitchcock, edited by Helen Searing, was published by The Architectural History Foundation in 1982.

Due to declining health, Henry-Russell Hitchcock lectured rarely and wrote little in the three years preceding his death from cancer. He died in New York City, February 19, 1987.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds Henry-Russell Hitchcock letters to Dorothy Stroud and John N. Summerson, 1946-1949. Additional Henry-Russell Hitchcock papers (circa 8 linear feet) are in the Special Collections division of Wesleyan University Library.
Provenance:
Mosette Broderick, assistant to Hitchcock and his literary executor, donated the papers to the Archives of American Art in 1988.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Henry-Russell Hitchcock papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architectural historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Writings
Photographs
Citation:
Henry-Russell Hitchcock papers, 1919-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hitchenp
See more items in:
Henry-Russell Hitchcock papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-hitchenp
Additional Online Media:

Letters to apprentices / Frank Lloyd Wright ; selected and with commentary by Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer

Author:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Physical description:
x, 211 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Correspondence
Place:
United States
Date:
1982
C1982
Topic:
Architects--In-service training  Search this
Architects  Search this
Call number:
NA737.W7A3 1982X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_227934

Hanna House documents [microform] : Frank Lloyd Wright/Hanna Honeycomb House archival collection / Paul R. and Jean S. Hanna

Author:
Hanna, Paul Robert 1902-  Search this
Hanna, Jean Shuman  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Architectural History Foundation (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Stanford University Archives  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Paul R. Hanna House (Stanford, Calif.)  Search this
Physical description:
7 microfilm reels : ill., plans ; 35 mm
Type:
Microforms
Place:
California
Stanford
Date:
1981
C1981]
Topic:
Usonian houses  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Call number:
NA737.W7 H362X
mfm 1026
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_279348

Sprite Head, (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Medium:
Concrete
Type:
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Domino's Pizza Collection 44 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive Ann Arbor Michigan 48106-0997
Date:
1914
Topic:
Figure female--Head  Search this
Fantasy--Fairy  Search this
Control number:
IAS 65800001
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_295227

Frank Lloyd Wright House, Oak Park, Illinois, (painting)

Painter:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Columbia University Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library Morningside Heights New York New York 10027
Date:
1889
Topic:
Architecture exterior--Design--Domestic  Search this
Architecture exterior--Domestic--House  Search this
Control number:
IAP 36120713
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_42480

Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House : the illustrated story of an architectural masterpiece / by Donald Hoffmann

Author:
Hoffmann, Donald  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Robie House (Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 98 p. : ill., ports ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Illinois
Chicago
Date:
1984
Topic:
Organic architecture  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Call number:
NA7238.C4H63 1984X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_227643

Frank Lloyd Wright : the Western work / by Dixie Legler ; photographs by Scot Zimmerman ; introduction by Arthur Dyson

Author:
Legler, Dixie  Search this
Zimmerman, Scot  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959 Criticism and interpretation  Search this
Physical description:
142 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 26 x 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
West (U.S.)
Date:
1999
C1999
Topic:
Organic architecture  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_570498

Sprite, (sculpture)

Sculptor:
Iannelli, Alfonso 1888-1965  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959 (possibly by)  Search this
Medium:
Terra Cotta
Type:
Sculptures-Outdoor Sculpture
Sculptures
Owner/Location:
Unlocated
Date:
1914
Topic:
Figure female--Full length  Search this
Control number:
IAS 65700013
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_294606

Frank Lloyd Wright and Japanese prints : the Collection of Mrs. Avery Coonley / by Julia Meech-Pekarik

Author:
Meech, Julia  Search this
American Institute of Architects Foundation  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959 Art collections  Search this
Coonley, Queene Ferry Art collections  Search this
Physical description:
14 p. : ill. ; 34 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1983
Call number:
761.52 .M43
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_860699

Textile design for 'Taliesin Line' project, #1

Creator:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Schumacher and Company  Search this
Type:
Artworks
Date:
ca. 1955
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)6730
See more items in:
Frank Lloyd Wright textile design studies, [ca. 1955]
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_6730

Textile design for 'Taliesin Line' project, #2

Creator:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Schumacher and Company  Search this
Type:
Artworks
Date:
ca. 1955
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)6731
See more items in:
Frank Lloyd Wright textile design studies, [ca. 1955]
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_6731

Textile design for 'Taliesin Line' project, #8

Creator:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Schumacher and Company  Search this
Type:
Artworks
Date:
ca. 1955
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)6732
See more items in:
Frank Lloyd Wright textile design studies, [ca. 1955]
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_6732

Frank Lloyd Wright to Aline B. (Aline Bernstein) Saarinen

Creator:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Saarinen, Aline B. (Aline Bernstein), 1914-1972  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1958 May 24
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)5323
See more items in:
Aline and Eero Saarinen papers, 1906-1977
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_5323
Additional Online Media:

Frank Lloyd Wright design / Maria Costantino

Author:
Costantino, Maria  Search this
Subject:
Wright, Frank Lloyd 1867-1959  Search this
Physical description:
128 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 33 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1995
©1995
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1104066

[Millard Garden]

Creator:
Millard, Frank, Mrs  Search this
Architect:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Landscape architect:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Photograph (lantern slide, hand-colored, 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Millard Garden (Pasadena, California)
United States of America -- California -- Los Angeles County -- Pasadena
Date:
[between 1914 and 1949?]
General:
Mrs. Frank Millard's home and garden are designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. No 35 mm.
Historic plate number: "106."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Summer  Search this
Streams  Search this
Walls (building)  Search this
Walkways  Search this
Stairs  Search this
Chairs  Search this
Tables  Search this
Balconies  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Houses  Search this
Gardens -- California -- Hillsborough  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item CA006001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / California / CA006: Pasadena -- Millard Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref25200

Benton House: entrance driveway.

Photographer:
Swanson, Nancy  Search this
Former owner:
Benton, William Senator  Search this
Morton, Katherine  Search this
Morton, Wirt  Search this
Architect:
Green, H. H.  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Douglas, John  Search this
Landscape designer:
Dorio, Elio  Search this
Landscape architect:
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Ten Eyck, Christy  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
Arizona -- Phoenix
United States of America -- Arizona -- Maricopa County -- Phoenix
Date:
1995 Apr. 1
General:
Title supplied by cataloger; subtitle from documentation submitted with slide.
From photograph taken by Nancy Swanson, April 1 1995.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Palms  Search this
Driveways  Search this
Allées  Search this
Desert gardens  Search this
Royal palm  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item AZ005001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Arizona / AZ005: Phoenix -- Benton House
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref30077

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