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Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements

Topic:
Kodak (Brand name)
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Advertisements
Date:
1890-1948
Summary:
The collection consists of photographs and advertisements related to women working in industry dating from 1890 to 1948.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Photographs includes images of women in industry along with associated documents. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject. The photographs date from 1890 to 1981, yet the bulk of the materials are from 1930 to 1948. A portion of the materials are undated. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color. The photographs depict women working in engineering jobs, operating heavy machinery, working with textiles, and handling different types of technology. There are several types of machines and products featured in the collection including pneumatic drills, gas irons, typewriters, rivet guns, compressed air machines, an arbor press, bending roll machines, and light bulbs. Documents that correspond to the photographs discuss an increase in women taking men's jobs in the 1940s while the men were at war. Consequently, photographs from the 1940s in this collection represent the transition of making machinery more applicable to women and enabling them to do "man-sized" jobs. Many of the 1940's photographs depict women enrolling in engineering training programs and physically working with heavy machinery.

Earlier materials from the early 1900s show women sitting in factories next to lighter equipment such as sewing machines and typewriters. There are a variety of companies displayed in the photographs including B. F. Spinney Co., Computing-Bureau Freight Accounts, Curtis Publishing Company, Curtis-Wright Corporation, Deane Works, Draper Corporation, General Electric Co., Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Osborn Manufacturing Company, and Timken Roller Bearing Co. A portion of the commercial photographs were taken by companies including Commercial Photo Co., Eastman Kodak Company, Mercury MFG. Co., Novelty Photo Co., Science Service, and Underwood and Underwood.

Series 2: Advertisements includes advertisements related to women in industry. These advertisements date from 1927 to 1946. The materials in this series promote products and jobs targeting women operating machinery such as safety bars, grinding tools, bending roles, gauges, double-seaming machines, and portable package staplers. There are a variety of companies featured in this series including Acme Staple Co., Ashcroft Gauge Division, Buffalo Forge Company, E.W. Bliss Co., The Sheffield Corporation, and Willson Safety Products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photographs, 1890-1948

Series 2: Advertisements, 1927-1946
Historical:
This artificially created collection traces the transition of women's work in industry during the twentieth century. Most of the collection materials have a different provenance, but thirty-two photographs were assembled by Helena E. Wright during her years working as a curator in the Division of Culture and the Arts at the National Museum of American History. Other photographs showing women in industrial sites were added to the collection by the curator Peter Liebhold in the Division of Work and Industry. The photographs and advertisements in the complete collection were arranged to exhibit the evolution of women in the workforce. Women's occupations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries included work in the clothing industry (i.e. Draper Corporation, B. F. Spinney Co.), factories, and production lines. Despite the low pay, laborious and unsafe working conditions that came with working in these industries, most women felt a sense of empowerment being employed outside the home. Many women welcomed the opportunity to provide an income for their families yet worked long hours in inadequate and dismal settings. During World War I and World War II, men left their industry jobs to serve in the war. In order to serve the war effort, women found more employment opportunities in several types of industries. These included electric companies (i.e. General Electric Co.), aircraft and aerospace engineering businesses (i.e. Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp.), foundry work (i.e. Osborn Manufacturing Company), steel making (i.e. Timken Roller Bearing Co.), as well as enrollment in engineering training programs (i.e. Curtis-Wright Corporation). These industries provided women with a broader range of employment opportunities, skills, and experiences. Consequently, other companies began creating and marketing products to help improve the lives of women in the workforce. Inventions such as the Willson Saf-t-Bra advertised comfort and protection to women working in various industry occupations.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women (AC0060) Rosie the Riveter Health and Safety Records (AC0621) Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection (AC0233)
Provenance:
Found in collections and assembled by curatorial staff.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Science Service  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Manufacturing -- 1920-1930  Search this
Commercial photography  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements, 1890-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1446
See more items in:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1446
Additional Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Composers  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Additional Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
5.11 Cubic feet (consisting of 11 boxes, 1 folder, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 flat box (partial.))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Publications
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals
Date:
1819-1985
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Steel largely represents business records and advertisements created by steel manufacturers and distributors of steel-based goods or services. Additional materials include biographical writings about Andrew Carnegie, documentation about the effect of the steel industry on society, and educational material about the steel industry.

No complete set of business records are represented within the collection, however the United States Steel Corporation has notable representation within the business records.

Technical documentation about the production of steel-based products as well as background information about the United States Steel Industry and Andrew Carnegie are strong research strengths of this subject category.
Arrangement:
Steel is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material



Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Steel is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1930-2000  Search this
Stainless steel tableware  Search this
Steel alloys  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Steel, Stainless -- 20th century  Search this
Structural steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications -- Business
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Steel
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steel

Rosie the Riveter Health Study Records

Creator:
Crosby, Marlene  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Questionnaires
Date:
1979
Scope and Contents:
Records relating to a study done by Marlene Crosby on the health of World War II women factory workers, including approximately 600 questionnaires completed by study participants.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Crosby planned and carried out a study, funded by the New Jersey State Department of Health, to study the health effects of factory work during World War II on women.
Provenance:
Donated by Marlene Crosby in 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blue collar workers  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Health  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
Women welders  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Genre/Form:
Questionnaires
Citation:
Rosie the Riveter Health Study Records, 1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0621
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0621

Union women : forging feminism in the United Steelworkers of America / Mary Margaret Fonow

Author:
Fonow, Mary Margaret 1949-  Search this
Subject:
United Steelworkers of America History  Search this
United Steelworkers of America  Search this
Physical description:
x, 250 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
Topic:
Women labor union members--History  Search this
Women iron and steel workers--History  Search this
Feminism--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_715851

Life in the iron mills, and other stories / by Rebecca Harding Davis ; edited and with a biographical interpretation by Tillie Olsen

Author:
Davis, Rebecca Harding 1831-1910  Search this
Olsen, Tillie  Search this
Physical description:
242 p. ; 18 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1985
19th century
Topic:
Women iron and steel workers--Fiction  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Fiction  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_471892

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