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Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project

Creator:
Bunting, George L., Jr.  Search this
Brinkley, Christie  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Colonel, Sheri  Search this
Giordano, Lynn  Search this
Ford, Eileen  Search this
Hall, L. C. "Bates"  Search this
Grathwohl, Geraldine  Search this
Huebner, Dick  Search this
Harrison, Fran  Search this
Lindsay, Robert  Search this
Hunt, William D.  Search this
McIver, Karen  Search this
MacDougall, Malcolm  Search this
Noble, Stan  Search this
Nash, Helen  Search this
Noxell Corporation.  Search this
Bergin, John  Search this
O'Neill, Jennifer  Search this
Oelbaum, Carol  Search this
Pelligrino, Nick  Search this
Poris, George  Search this
Roberts, F. Stone  Search this
Tiegs, Cheryl  Search this
Troup, Peter  Search this
Weithas, Art  Search this
Witt, Norbert  Search this
Names:
Noxzema Chemical Company  Search this
Extent:
15.5 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Business records
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history
Photographs
Press releases
Scrapbooks
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Place:
Hunt Valley (Maryland)
Baltimore (Md.)
Maryland
Date:
1959-1990
Summary:
The Cover Girl Make-Up Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project, 1923-1991, is the result of a year-long study in 1990, which examined the advertising created for Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products from 1959 to 1990. The objective of the project was to document, in print and electronic media, the history of Cover Girl make-up advertising since its inception in 1959.
Scope and Contents:
Twenty-two oral history interviews (conducted by Dr. Scott Ellsworth for the Archives Center) and a variety of print and television advertisements, photographs, scrapbooks, personal papers, business records and related materials were gathered by the Center for Advertising History staff. The objective was to create a collection that provides documentation, in print and electronic media, of the history and development of advertising for Cover Girl make-up since its inception in 1959.

Collection also includes earlier material related to other Noxell products, including Noxzema, with no direct connection to the Cover Girl campaign.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Research Files

Series 2: Interviewee Files

Series 3: Oral History Interviews

Series 4: Television Advertising Materials

Series 5: Print Advertising Materials

Series 6: Company Publications and Promotional Literature

Series 7: Photographs

Series 8: Scrapbooks
Biographical / Historical:
George Avery Bunting founded the Noxzema Chemical Company in Baltimore, Maryland in 1917. In the 1890s, he left behind a teaching job on Maryland's Eastern shore to move to Baltimore, where he hoped to pursue a career as a pharmacist. He landed a job as errand boy and soda jerk at a local drugstore, where he worked while attending classes at the University Of Maryland College of Pharmacy. Valedictorian of the Class of 1899, Bunting was promoted to manager of the drugstore, which he purchased. Bunting began to experiment with the formulation of medicated pastes and compounds, which he marketed to his customers. In 1909, he began refining a medicated vanishing cream, which he introduced in 1914. "Dr. Bunting's Sunburn Remedy," an aromatic skin cream containing clove oil, eucalyptus oil, lime water, menthol and camphor, was mixed by hand at his pharmacy. Marketed locally as a greaseless, medicated cream for the treatment of a variety of skin conditions, including sunburn, eczema, and acne, the product was renamed "Noxzema" for its reputed ability to "knock eczema." By 1917, the Noxzema Chemical Company was formed. During the 1920s, distribution of the product was expanded to include New York, Chicago, and the Midwest and, by 1926, the first Noxzema manufactory was built in northwest Baltimore to accommodate the demand for nearly a million jars a year.

Having achieved a national market by 1938, Noxzema Chemical Company executives pursued product diversification as a means to maintain the corporate growth of the early years. In the 1930s and 1940s, line extensions included shaving cream, suntan lotion and cold cream, all with the distinctive "medicated" Noxzema aroma.

In the late 1950s, Bill Hunt, director of product development at Noxzema, suggested a line extension into medicated make-up. Creatives at Sullivan, Stauffer, Colwell & Bayles, Incorporated (SSC&B), Noxzema's advertising agency since 1946, suggested that the advertising for the new product focus on beauty and glamour with some reference to the medicated claims made for other Noxzema products. In contrast to other cosmetics, which were sold at specialized department store counters, Noxzema's medicated make-up would be marketed alongside other Noxzema products in grocery stores and other mass distribution outlets. After experimenting with names that suggested both glamour and the medicated claims (including Thera-Blem and Blema-Glow), Bill Grathwohl, Noxell's advertising director, selected Carolyn Oelbaum's "Cover Girl," which conveyed the product's usefulness as a blemish cover-up, while invoking the glamorous image of fashion models. These three elements of the advertising, wholesome glamour, mass marketing, and medicated make-up, remain central to Cover Girl advertising nearly a half-century later.

Beginning with the national launch in 1961, American and international fashion models were featured in the ads. The target audience was identified as women between eighteen and fifty-four and, initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising always featured beautiful women -- especially Caucasian women, but the Cover Girl image has evolved over time to conform to changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s and 1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. In the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American, Hispanic and working women.

In January 1970, SSC&B bought 49% of the Lintas Worldwide advertising network. After SSC&B was acquired by the Interpublic Group of Companies in 1979, the entire Lintas operation was consolidated under the name SSC&B/Lintas in 1981. With the Procter & Gamble buy-out of the Noxell Corporation in September 1989, the cosmetics account was moved to long-time P&G agency Grey Advertising, in order to circumvent a possible conflict of interest between P&G competitor Unilever, another Lintas account. In 1989 SSC&B/Lintas, Cover Girl's agency since its launch in 1961, lost the account it helped to create and define, but the brand continues to dominate mass-marketed cosmetics.

This project is the result of a year-long study of advertising created for the Noxell Corporation's Cover Girl make-up products, 1959-1990. The effort was supported in part by a grant from the Noxell Corporation. The target audience was identified as women 18-54, and initially, the "glamour" ads were targeted at women's magazines, while the "medicated" claims were reserved for teen magazines. Television ads featured both elements. Cover Girl advertising has always featured beautiful women (especially Caucasian women), but the Cover Girl image evolved over time to conform with changing notions of beauty. In the late 1950s-1960s, the Cover Girl was refined and aloof, a fashion conscious sophisticate. By the 1970s, a new social emphasis on looking and dressing "naturally" and the introduction of the "Clean Make-up" campaign created a new advertising focus on the wholesome glamour of the "girl next door," a blue-eyed, blonde all-American image. Through the 1980s, the Cover Girl look was updated to include African-American and Hispanic models and images of women at work.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (AC0059)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life, Costume Collection holds eighty-six cosmetic items and one computer that were also donated by the Noxell Corporation in 1990 in conjunction with the oral history project. These artifacts include lipstick, manicure sets, brushes, make-up, eye shadow, blush, powder puffs, eyelash curler, nail polish, and mascara. See accession number 1990.0193.
Provenance:
Most of the materials in the collection were donated to the Center for Advertising History by the Noxell Corporation, 1990. All storyboards and videoscripts, and a large collection of business records and proofsheets were donated by George Poris in June 1990. All mechanicals were donated by Art Weithas in June 1990. (These contributions are noted in the finding aid).
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Women in advertising  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
Cosmetics -- advertising  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
Beauty culture  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
African American women -- Beauty culture  Search this
Modelling -- 1950-1990  Search this
Sex role in advertising  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Bumper stickers
Annual reports
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Press releases
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Television scripts
Videotapes
Tear sheets
Citation:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History & Documentation Project, 1959-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0374
See more items in:
Cover Girl Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0374
Additional Online Media:

The California Shop Records

Creator:
California Shop.  Search this
Kemp, Helen Misch, 1894-1948 (store owner/manager)  Search this
Kemp, Barbara  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Photographs
Place:
California -- Fashion -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- Fashion -- 1930-1940
Date:
1938-1942.
Scope and Contents note:
Collection consists of photographs, typed manuscripts and a guest/scrapbook of materials relating to the history and social events of the California Shop located in New York., N.Y.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series. Unarranged.
Biographical/Historical note:
add
Provenance:
Barbara Kemp
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown or uncertain.
Topic:
Women in business -- 1930-1940  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- History -- 1930-1940 -- New York  Search this
advertising -- 1930-1940 -- California  Search this
advertising -- Clothing and dress -- 1930-1940  Search this
advertising -- Clothing trade -- 1930-1940  Search this
advertising -- Fashion -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Citation:
The California Shop Records, 1938-1942, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Barbara Kemp.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0572
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0572
Additional Online Media:

Arnold D. Kates Film Collection

Creator:
Kates, Arnold D.  Search this
Names:
Advertising Federation of America  Search this
Association of Young Advertising Men  Search this
Bush Terminal Building  Search this
Railway Express Agency.  Search this
Extent:
1 film reel
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Film reels
Motion pictures (visual works)
Cityscapes
Place:
Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.)
White House (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1929-1931, undated
Summary:
Arnold D. Kates was an officer in the Association of Young Advertising Men of New York in the 1930s. As an officer, he visited Washington, D.C., to attend the annual meeting of the Advertising Federation of America and took home movies of the capital, including a formal reception at the White House, the Washington Monument, and the Lincoln Memorial. Additional film footage includes scenes on a ship, cityscapes and industrial landscapes of New York City.
Scope and Contents:
Four small reels, combined into a single compilation reel by Archives Center staff, of 16mm black and white, silent, camera original reversal motion picture film. One film depicts scenes of Washington, D.C., including a receiving line at the White House for the annual meeting of the Advertising Federation of America. A second film shows people on a boat, people in a car, and a woman with a calf. The third depicts a Manhattan, New York cityscape, docks and ships, industrial buildings, rail yards and railcars, and shipping trucks. Trucks from the Railway Express Agency and the Bush Terminal Co. appear, as well as buildings possibly owned and/or operated by the Bush Terminal Co. Lastly, the fourth film contains images of automobiles and individuals outside of a building possibly identified as the Cypress Hills Hotel Abbey.

Arnold D. Kates dated the film contents to 1931 based on writing on the boxes the films were contained in when he donated the films. An examination of the Eastman Kodak film stock codes gives dates of 1929 and 1930 for the actual film stock. The four films have been combined into a single compilation reel based on the film stock chronology. The first three films have stock dating 1929 and the final film's stock on the compilation reel dates 1930. No other chronological linkages could be determined.
Biographical / Historical:
Arnold D. Kates was an officer in the Association of Young Advertising Men of New York in the 1930s. As an officer, he visited Washington, D.C., to attend the annual meeting of the Advertising Federation of America and took home movies of the capital, including a formal reception at the White House, the Washington Monument, and the Lincoln Memorial. Additional film footage includes scenes on a ship, cityscapes and industrial landscapes of New York City.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Arnold D. Kates, 1983.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
United States Capitol (Washington, D.C.) -- 1880-1890  Search this
Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Urban Life  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc.  Search this
Automobiles -- 1920-1930  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Ships -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Boats -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Harbors -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Monuments -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Cityscapes
Citation:
Arnold D. Kates Film Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0259
See more items in:
Arnold D. Kates Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0259

Katherine Joseph Papers

Creator:
Joseph, Katherine  Search this
Hertzberg, Suzanne  Search this
Names:
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
1 sound disc (33 1/3 RPM)
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sound discs
Photographs
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1962 - 1962
1938-1944
bulk 1941-1941
Summary:
Papers document Katherine Joseph's career as staff photographer for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. The papers contain negatives and prints taken in Mexico, and some photographs of a White House event in 1938, featuring Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt; and images of American workers on the home front during World War II.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of negatives and photographs from Ms. Joseph's career as staff photographer for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. There are also images taken in Mexico, and some photographs of a White House event in 1938, featuring Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt; images of American workers on the home front during World War II; correspondence and travel notes.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1941, undated, consists of correspondence and travel notes from a photojournalistic trip to Mexico in 1941.

The correspondence is organized into three sections, Tayoltita in Northwest Mexico, the 1941 Colima, Mexico earthquake, and Thelma Goldman. In addition to the correspondence there are typescript captions for some of the photographs and annotated drafts of travel notes detailing the Mexico trip.

Series 2, Photographic Negatives and Prints, [1941?] and undated, consists of negatives and prints for garment workers and the photojournalistic trip to Mexico. The negatives and prints are housed together in 4" x 5" envelope enclosures. Captions and other information about the negative/print is provided on the envelope. The majority of negatives and prints are undated, and there is no arrangement.

Series 3, Photographic Prints, 1938, 1941 and undated, is further divided into four subseries topically: Subseries 1, International Ladies Garment Workers Union; Subseries 2, Labor; Subseries 3, Mexico and Subseries 4, Subjects. The photographs are 8" x 10" black-and-whites taken by Katherine Joseph and some by Harry Rubenstein, another journalist. The photographs are arranged topically. Some of the photographs have captions and/or annotations, and almost all bear a stamp "photo by Katherine Joseph."

Series 4, "Pins and Needles" (audio disc), 1962, consists of one (1) 33 1/3 RPM audio disc from the Pins and Needles twenty-fifth anniversary. Pins and Needles was originally produced by the Cultural Division of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union under the leadership of Louis Schaffer. The music and lyrics for Pins and Needles was composed by Harold Rome in 1936–1937. The revue had its public debut on November 27, 1937 at the New York Labor Stage, which had been created when the ILGWU leased the Princess Theater and renovated the space for union cultural performances. Because of their factory jobs, cast and crew could rehearse only at night and on weekends, and initial performances were presented only on Friday and Saturday nights. The original cast was made up of cutters, basters, and sewing machine operators. Pins and Needles satirized current events and cultural trends from a pro-union standpoint. Pins and Needles went on to become the longest-running musical of the 1930s, with 1108 New York performances and multiple national tours.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1941, undated

Series 2, Photographic Negatives and Prints, 1941 and undated

Series 3, Photographic Prints, 1938, 1941 and undated

Subseries 3.1, International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU), undated

Subseries 3.2, Labor, undated

Subseries 3., Mexico, undated

Subseries 3.4, Subjects, 1938, 1941, 1944 and undated

Series 4: Sound Recording, 1962
Biographical / Historical:
Katherine Joseph (1909-1990) was active as a professional photographer from approximately 1937 to 1944. Much of her time was spent as a staff photographer for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) in New York City. Her photographs documented workers on the shop floors and union, community, political, and cultural activities. One of Joseph's most notable assignments was a 1938 visit to the White House where she photographed the cast of ILGWU's Broadway revue, "Pins and Needles," performed for President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the invitation of Eleanor Roosevelt. After the Second World War, Joseph left her photographic career to look after her family. In 1941, Joseph undertook a photojournalistic tour of Mexico with two friends, Thelma Goldman, and Andrée Vilas Graham, made possible by the gift of a Willys-Overland Americar to Joseph and her two friends as part of of publicity campaign for the Americar.

Willys-Overland Motors, was an American automobile company founded by John North Willys in 1908 and best known for its design and production of military Jeeps during World War II.

The Americar that Joseph and her friends drove to Mexico was a powder blue Model 441 which they nicknamed "Willy.". Their south-of-the-border road trip held only one obligation, to send back to the United States photographs featuring themselves and "Willy" against the Mexico landscape. Katherine Joseph took photographs and Thelma Goldman and Andrée Vilas-Graham wrote about their travels using a portable typewriter. When the women arrived in Mexico City they secured press passes from the Minister of Information.

Joseph returned to New York as America was gearing up to enter the war and resumed working for the ILGWU in 1942. Her New York images from this period chronicle the Home Front contributions of the garment industry to the war effort. In July 1944 Joseph covered the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, where Franklin D. Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth-term nomination and Harry S. Truman was chosen as his running mate over the incumbent vice-president, Henry Wallace. This was to be Joseph's last professional assignment before, like millions of American women, she gave up her career to devote herself to family life.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

A master's thesis written by Suzanne Herzberg is available through the University of Southern California's Digital Library. The thesis does not form part of the Katherine Joseph Papers held by the Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Author retains sole copyright; use of copyrighted material requires author's permission.

Herzberg, Suzanne. "Photo by Katherine Joseph." (master's thesis, University of Southern California, 2002), 217 pages.

Hertzberg, Suzanne. Katherine Joseph Photographing an Era of Social Significance. Bergamot Books, 2016.

When Katherine Joseph died in 1990, her daughter discovered a trove of memorabilia from her mother's life as a Roosevelt-era photographer for the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU). Ms. Joseph's photographs celebrate the golden age of organized labor, from her iconic image of the ILGWU's Pins and Needles White House performance to her sensitive portraits of men and women at work. Her images from a 1941 journey to Mexico reveal a nation caught in the high-stakes political crossfire between the superpowers of the day. She photographed marketplaces, artists' colonies, and Acapulco's posh set as well as a secret gold mine, a historic labor convention, American movie stars on a "Goodwill Fiesta" tour, and a devastating earthquake. Returning to New York, Ms. Joseph documented labor's home front efforts and the historic 1944 Democratic Convention that put Harry Truman on the ballot. Hertzberg's book tells a remarkable story that preserves a legacy of historical, artistic, and feminist significance.
Separated Materials:
Materials in National Museum of American History, Division of Political History

Division holds some materials related to the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
Provenance:
Donated by Suzanne Hertzberg and Richard Hertzberg, daughter and son of Katherine Joseph, February 20, 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by donor. Written permission required prior to obtaining reproductions. Consult with Archives Center staff for contact information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Textile industry  Search this
Labor unions  Search this
Labor  Search this
Photographers -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Katherine Joseph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0944
See more items in:
Katherine Joseph Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0944
Additional Online Media:

Brooklyn Edison Company, Edison Wonder House Records

Creator:
Brooklyn Edison Company  Search this
Donor:
Hall, Gretchen T.  Search this
Hall, Gretchen T.  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Articles
Photographs
Guidebooks
Date:
1936
Summary:
The collection consists of newspaper clippings, a guidebook titled Edison Wonder House, and photographs documenting the Edison Wonder House, a demonstration home created by the Brooklyn Edison Company in 1936 to showcase the wonders of electricity.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of newspaper clippings, a guidebook titled Edison Wonder House, and photographs documenting the Edison Wonder House, a demonstration home created by the Brooklyn Edison Company in 1936 to showcase the wonders of electricity.

There are ten 8" x 10" black-and-white photographs that depict the interior of the Wonder House. All of the photographs were taken by the Brooklyn Edison Company, Inc., with the exception of one which was taken by the General Electric Company. There is one 11" x 17" photograph that depicts the hostesses/guides/ who conducted tours explaining the features of the home. The photograph is annotated with the names of all sixteen women.

The guide titled The Edison Wonder House, details by home section (entrance, bathroom, kitchen, living room, and so on) the comforts of electricity. Included is a supplemental insert listing the cooperating firms that provided the building materials and accessories. The stick figure Reddy Kilowatt features prominently in the guide. Reddy Kilowatt was a cartoon figure trademark created in 1926 by Ashton B. Collins, Sr. More than 150 investor-owned electric utilities in the United States and at least twelve foreign countries licensed the use of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged topically.
Biographical / Historical:
The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn was founded in 1887 to provide electricity to the homes and businesses of Brooklyn. it merged in 1919 with Kings County Electric Light and Power Company to form Brooklyn Edison. Brooklyn Edison merged with Consolidated Edison and other companies between 1936 and 1960.

In the early 1930s, the Brooklyn Edison Company created a 10 room house called the Edison Wonder House in the lobby of its showroom at Pearl Street in Brooklyn, New York. The house demonstrated the possibilities of electricity in the home. The demonstration home was not intended to be copied, but to provide future homeowners with ideas. Some special features of the house included lighting that was a sight saver, unusual clocks, a built-in aquarium, and a magic door that opened through the operation of an electrical eye.

The architect of the Wonder House was Albert Hart Hopkins of Buffalo, New York. Hopkins practiced architecture with Edward B. Green and Sons in Buffalo.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Reddy Kilowatt Records (AC0913)

Louisan E. Mamer Rural Electrification Administration Papers (AC0862)

Materials in the National Museum of American History, Division of Work and Industry

Brooklyn Edison Company Collection, 1926-1935

Collection contains annual reports of the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Brooklyn Edison Company, photographs, drawings, and graphs; and a 1926 pamphlet on the Hell Gate and Sherman Creek Generating Stations of the United Electric Light and Power Company.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Gretchen T. Hall in 2011.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric lighting  Search this
Electricity  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Guidebooks -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Brooklyn Edison Company Collection, 1936-1937, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1237
See more items in:
Brooklyn Edison Company, Edison Wonder House Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1237

Exhibition Files

Collection Creator:
Washburn Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
7.4 Linear feet (Boxes 37-45)
0.724 Gigabytes (57 computer files)
Type:
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Date:
1921-2014
bulk 1972-2014
Scope and Contents:
Exhibition files document the gallery's four decade exhibition history and date from 1921-2014, bulk 1972-2014. Files contain correspondence, price lists, floor plans, loan agreements, shipping receipts, invoices, sales records, photographic material of artworks and installations, digital images, and printed material including press releases, reviews, and exhibition brochures. The exhibition files reflect the Washburn Gallery's history of mounting both solo exhibitions for their stable of artists as well as group exhibitions highlighting significant movements and themes in art history, including American abstract art, abstract expressionism, folk art, genre scenes, women artists, Federal Art Project artworks, art from the 1930s-1940s, and many other categories. The gallery has also mounted several reinterpretations of historically significant exhibitions and exhibition spaces including The Museum of Non-Objective Painting (1972-1973), Seven Americans (1974 and 1982), and From the Intimate Gallery (1978), which featured artists from the Stieglitz Group. Two files of exhibitions schedules are filed at the end of the series. Material that dates prior to the Gallery's founding includes collected printed material and research relating to provenance.
Arrangement:
Files are arranged in chronological order by the date of exhibition.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Access to original papers, with permission, requires an appointment.
Collection Citation:
Washburn Gallery records, 1906-2017, bulk 1971-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.washbgall, Series 4
See more items in:
Washburn Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-washbgall-ref4

Alma Thomas papers

Creator:
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Names:
Art in Embassies Program (U.S.)  Search this
Martha Jackson Gallery  Search this
Bader, Franz, 1903-1994  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Johnson, Nathalie J. Cole  Search this
Sarg, Tony, 1882-1942  Search this
Tarbary, Celine  Search this
Taylor, Joshua Charles, 1917-  Search this
Thomas, J. Maurice (John Maurice), 1900 or 1901-  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Date:
circa 1894-2001
Summary:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas, date from circa 1894-2001 and measure 5.5 linear feet. The papers document Thomas's work as a teacher, and her development and success as a painter of the Washington Color School, through biographical material, letters, notes and writings, personal business records, exhibition files, printed materials, scrapbooks, photographs, an audio recording, and two video recordings.

Biographical material includes identity cards, chronologies, an audio recording including a biographical account, and scattered documentation of Thomas's education and teaching careers with D.C. Public Schools, Howard University, and Thomas Garrett Settlement in Wilmington, Delaware. Also found are records relating to Thomas's participation in a summer marionette class taught by Tony Sarg in 1934, and a tour of European art centers which Thomas took in 1958.

Letters relate primarily to the exhibition of Thomas's work and related events and are from galleries, museums, other art institutions, colleagues, and friends including Franz Bader, Adelyn Breeskin, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Howard University Gallery of Art, Martha Jackson Gallery, Nathalie J. Cole Johnson, Vincent Melzac, Celine Tabary, and Joshua Taylor.

Notes and writings include four notebooks and autobiographical writings by Thomas, a "Birthday Book," and an annotated engagement calendar. J. Maurice Thomas's writings about Alma Thomas, her research for a bibliography on James Weldon Johnson, and writings by others, including Jacob Kainen, about Alma Thomas, are also found here.

Exhibition files contain a wide variety of documentation for many group and solo exhibitions of Thomas's work from the early 1950s through a 1998-2000 traveling retrospective exhibition, including solo exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in 1972. The records include letters from Franz Bader Gallery, David Driskell at Fisk University, and Vincent Melzac. Photographs include Thomas with individuals including William Buckner, Jeff Donaldson, David Driskell, James W. Herring, and Vincent Melzac. Also found is a photograph of the 1951 Little Paris Studio Group picturing Lois Mailou Jones, Celine Tabary, Alma Thomas, and others. Two video recordings are of events related to the 1998-2000 retrospective at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art and the Columbus Museum of Art. Records documenting a 1981-1982 exhibition at the Smithsonian National Museum of American Art, A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, includes the script of a video written by Adolphus Ealey.

Personal business records include price lists, gift and loan receipts, and files concerning the Art in Embassies Program, the Martha Jackson Gallery, a benefit auction for the Corcoran School of Art, and the designation of the Thomas family home in Washington, D.C. as a historic property.

Eleven scrapbooks document Thomas's teaching career through the activities of the art classes she taught at Shaw Junior High School.

Printed materials include announcements and catalogs for exhibitions and other events; clippings which document Thomas's career and subjects of interest to her; Christmas cards featuring block prints designed by Thomas; and other programs and publications featuring Thomas.

Photographs are of Alma Thomas, family, and friends and colleagues including Sam Gilliam, James V. Herring, and Nathalie V. Cole Johnson; art classes taught by Thomas; Thomas's homes in Columbus, Georgia and Washington, D.C.; and exhibitions not documented in Series 4: Exhibition Files, including photographs of Alma Thomas at an opening at Barnett Aden Gallery with Alonzo Aden and others.
Arrangement note:
The papers have been arranged into 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1911-2001 (Box 1; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Letters, circa 1930-2001 (Boxes 1-2; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, circa 1920s-circa 1998 (Box 2; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1951-2000 (Boxes 2-3, OV 7; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Personal Business Records, circa 1950s-1994 (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1908-2000 (Boxes 3-5, OV 7; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, 1930-1946 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1894-2001 (Boxes 5-6; 0.6 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Washington, D.C. painter and art educator Alma Thomas (1891-1978) was known for her abstract paintings filled with dense patterns of color, and was considered a major artist of the Washington Color School.

Thomas was born in Columbus, Georgia, in 1894, and was the eldest of the four daughters of John Harris Thomas and Amelia Cantey Thomas. The family moved to Washington, D.C. in 1906 and Thomas was first introduced to art classes at Armstrong Technical High School. Following her graduation in 1911 she took a course in kindergarten teaching at the Miner Normal School, and subsequently worked as a substitute teacher in the Washington, D.C. public school system until 1914, when she took a teaching position on the Eastern shore of Maryland. From 1916 to 1923 she taught kindergarten at Thomas Garrett Settlement House in Wilmington, Delaware.

Thomas originally enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. as a home economics major in 1921, but after studying under Lois Mailou Jones amd James V. Herring in Herring's newly established art department, she earned a Bachelor's degree in Fine Art in 1924, and became the first person to graduate from the program. Thomas then began her teaching career at Shaw Junior High School in Washington, D.C. that lasted from 1924, until her retirement in 1960. During this time she established community arts programs that would encourage her students to develop an appreciation of fine arts. Activities included marionette programs, distribution of student-designed holiday menu cards for dinners given for soldiers at the Tuskegee Veterans' Hospital, art clubs, lectures, and student exhibitions. In 1943 she became the founding vice president of Barnett Aden Gallery, which was established by James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden and was the first integrated gallery in Washington, D.C.

In 1934 Thomas earned an M.A. degree in Art Education from Columbia University. At American University in Washington, D.C., she studied creative painting under Joe Summerford, Robert Gates, and Jacob Kainen from 1950 to 1960, and began to break away from representational painting and experiment more seriously with Abstract Expressionism. In 1958 she participated in a tour of the art centers of Western Europe under the auspices of the Tyler School of Fine Arts at Temple University in Philadelphia.

Following her retirement from teaching in 1960, Thomas devoted herself full-time to painting, and continued to develop her signature style. She was inspired by nature and the desire to express beauty through composition and color, and refused to be constrained by societal expectations related to her race, gender, and age, achieving her greatest success in the last decade of her life. Her work was exhibited at the Dupont Theatre Art Gallery, Franz Bader Gallery, and the Howard University Gallery of Art, before she was honored in 1972 with exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Thomas's work has been exhibited at the White House and can be found in the permanent collections of major museums, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the National Museum of Women in the Arts, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Separated Materials note:
In 1979, J. Maurice Thomas loaned papers for microfilming. Most, but not all, of the loaned material was later donated and is described in this finding aid. Loaned materials not donated at a later date are available on reels 1541-1543 and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
J. Maurice Thomas, the artist's sister, loaned portions of the collection for microfilming in 1979. Most, but not all of this material was then later donated in several accretions by J. Maurice Thomas, between 1979 and 2004. Charles Thomas Lewis, Thomas' nephew, gave additional papers in 2010.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Alma Thomas papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women painters -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Art teachers -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
African American artists -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Audiocassettes
Video recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Alma Thomas papers, circa 1894-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.thomalma
See more items in:
Alma Thomas papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-thomalma
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Additional Online Media:

Rev. Divine [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, orRev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Job Number: 25695
Group portrait of Divine with three other men and two women. Ink ident. on film edge. Signed "Scurlock / Photo" in ink, bottom right.
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist&#x2014he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination&#x2014has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
General:
#150 on original envelope? From box D.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits, Group -- African Americans  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref16

Rev. Divine [acetate film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, orRev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Job Number: 25695
Group portrait of Divine with fourteen other men and women, seated around a table; man in left foreground is writing on a pad and a woman is writing on the table. A sign on the wall behind them reads simply, "Abundance." Ink ident. on film edge, plus "15- Prints". Signed "Scurlock / Wash. D.C." in ink, bottom left.
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist&#x2014he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination&#x2014has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). -- The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
Addison Scurlock probably photographed Father Divine in 1932, according to research by Professor Leonard Primiano, Cabrini College (e-mail Aug. 6, 2010).
General:
#151 on original envelope, from box D.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits, Group -- African Americans  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref21

Stump [or Stumpy? Stumpie?] and Stello [man and woman, male figure seated] [acetate (or nitrate?) film photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Hartman, Eddie  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 34
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Retouching
Photographs
Date:
[1930s.]
Scope and Contents:
Job Number: 18790
Male is in blackface, possibly Eddie Hartman. However, in a March 30, 2012 interview with Dr. Harold Corwin, who played "Stumpy" from 1938, curator David Haberstich was told that the male was neither Hartman nor Corwin. Possibly the Stump or Stumpy shown here was part of a Washington act inspired by the Stump and Stumpy of New York. Corwin furrther stated that he had no knowledge of a Stello or Stella in this connection. Title in ink on base side at top edge. No maker's edge imprint. Numbers on original envelope, A206 and 155. Faces retouched. In a
General note:
Notes: In nitrate box
General:
See also framed print from negative in collection, 1998.0011.
From negative box D, now in Freezer Box 34.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Minstrel shows -- 1900-1960  Search this
Blackface entertainers  Search this
Vaudeville -- 1930-1940  Search this
Portraits -- Men -- 1930-1940  Search this
African American entertainers -- 1930-1950.  Search this
Dancers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Retouching -- Pencil
Photographs -- 19th-20th century -- Black-and-white negatives -- Nitrate
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref793

Multiplex operating department, 60 Hudson St. [photoprint]

Collector:
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.8" x 9.3")
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
[Circa 1930]
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unidentified.
Arrangement:
In Series ?, Box ?, Folder ?
Local Numbers:
AC0205-0000074.tif

89-12929 (OPPS Neg.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Offices -- 1930-1940  Search this
Collection Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Western Union Telegraph Company Records / Series 15: Engineering Department Records / 15.8: Miscellaneous Materials / Multiplex systems including foreign
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0205-ref11301

[Tube Center at Western Union's 60 Hudson Street, New York, New York building, with women employees : black-and-white photoprint.]

Collector:
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Collection Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 7.5" x 9.4")
Container:
Box 711, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographs
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Date:
Circa 1940
Scope and Contents:
Caption (on negative) : "Tube Center / 60 Hudson St. / New York." Shown are four female employees and three male employees.
Local Numbers:
AC0205-0000019.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Labor  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Telegraph, Wireless  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Western Union Telegraph Company Records / Series 23: Photographs / 23.1: Western Union Buildings and Property / Post 1900
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0205-ref11315

[Fr. Divine (?) in group photo, with woman writing : acetate film photonegative.]

Pht:
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Names:
Divine, Father, orRev. (George Baker), ca. 1882-1965  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Extent:
1 Items
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Portraits
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1950 -- Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Ink on negative edge: "25695 R.W. [Divine ?] 15 prints". No manufacturer's mark on film edge.
Biographical / Historical:
African-American religious leader, founder of the Peace Mission movement, b. probably near Savannah, Ga. and named George Baker. After preaching in the South, he moved to Harlem (1915) in New York City, became one of the neighborhood's biggest landlords, acquired wealth through other businesses, including restaurants and grocery stores, and began styling himself Major M. J. Divine, later Father Divine. Although once dismissed as a cult leader, he built the largest religious movement in northern ghettos during the Great Depression. His role as an early civil rights activist&#x2014he led anti-lynching campaigns, instituted economic cooperatives, and organized political action against racial discrimination&#x2014has come to be more appreciated. The movement spread beyond New York City to other places in the United States and abroad, sometimes after the group sent whites to purchase property in segregated areas. During the 1940s, his health and influence declined, but his movement symbolized the progressive spirit in the black church and helped define the church's active role in the civil rights movement. See Sara Harris, Father Divine (rev. ed. 1971); Kenneth E. Burnham, God Comes to America (1979); Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine (1984); Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A. (1992). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright ©1994, 1995 Columbia University Press.
Addison Scurlock probably photographed Father Divine in 1932, according to research by Professor Leonard Primiano, Cabrini College (e-mail Aug. 6, 2010).
General:
From negative storage Box D.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Offices  Search this
Organizations  Search this
Cults and nonconventional religious groups  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Portraits -- African American men
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.2: Black and white negatives in freezers arranged by job number
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-02-aspace-ref27230

[Doughnut making machine: black-and-white photoprint]

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 9.4" X 7.5".)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
A woman in a white smock stands behnd the machine, apparently operating it. The machine is shown outside the bakery window. Signage in the window indicates that the scene might be in Brooklyn, N.Y. Photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0439-0000004.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bakeries  Search this
Doughnut making machine  Search this
Food  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Food habits -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0439-ref577

Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints

Creator:
Ostroff, Eugene, d. 1999 (NMAH Curator)  Search this
Salo, Matt, Dr.  Search this
Haberstich, David E., 1941-  Search this
Ahlborn, Richard E.  Search this
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Names:
China Daily News -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
China Daily News -- Photographs  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Davis, Earl  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Oral history
Interviews
Audio cassettes
Place:
Virgin Islands -- 1930-1940
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Bowery (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Chinatown (New York, N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
St. Thomas (Virgin Islands) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1985 - 1986
1930 - 1943
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 273 silver gelatin photoprints (Series 1), most of which apparently were made during the 1930s and early 1940s, contemporaneously with the original negatives. All are 8" x 10" or slightly smaller, unmounted except for flush mounted linen on the backs of some prints. The photographs were made primarily in two locations, New York City and the Virgin Islands. The Virgin Islands pictures were made as part of a special documentary project in 1939, as described above, whereas the New York photographs stem from Mr. Alland's largely self assigned documentation of various ethnic and religious groups in New York from approximately 1932 to 1943. The projects include photographs of the "Red Bandanna" Romany Gypsy group in the Bowery, a black Jewish congregation, Mohawk Indians in Brooklyn, and other groups, which required extensive exploration, research, and photographing over periods of many days or weeks. A variety of miscellaneous ethnic and religious groups are covered in the general "Other Religions" and "Nationalities" folders. The contents of the "Judaism" folder include primarily New York sites and people, but there are also additional views of a synagogue from the Virgin Islands project.

Series 2 of the collection contains four cassette tape recordings of two interviews with Mr. Alland, three made by Richard Ahlborn (with Eugene Ostroff and Matt Salo) in 1985, and one by David Haberstich and Richard Ahlborn, June 2-3, 1986 (at which time the photographs were donated). The tapes include readings from his autobiography, personal reminiscences on his experiences as an immigrant and a photographer, and commentary on the photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photoprints, 1930-1943

Series 2: Audiotape Cassettes, 1985-1986

The photographs are arranged topically and by nationality.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Alland, Sr., was born in Sevastopol, Crimea (formerly in the Soviet Union) on 6 August 1902. His last name originally was Landschaft, but he legally changed it to Alland following the birth of his son. Alland's interest in photography began at the age of twelve, when he helped a local photographer with darkroom work. He constructed his own camera from cardboard with a simple meniscus lens and exposed glass plate negatives with the device.

Toward the end of the Civil War in Russia in 1920, Alland relocated in Constantinople, Turkey, where he was hired as an apprentice by a graduate of the Vienna Academy of Photography. When the Union Nationale des Combatants Francais went on a pilgrimage to Gallipoli, a former battle zone on the Dardanelles, he was asked to accompany them in order to document events. After having his request for a pay increase refused, he left his employer two years later and opened his own portrait studio, "Photo d'Art Russe." When civil unrest threatened Constantinople in 1923, he decided to emigrate to the United States.

During his first years in the United States he worked in photo finishing businesses while engaged in home portraiture independently. He married in 1929 and a son, Alexander, Jr., was born. In the 1930s he became one of the best known photographers portraying the life of immigrants and various ethnic groups in New York. (1) In 1936 he was appointed supervisor of the Photo Mural section of the W.P.A. Federal Art Project, and worked as a free lance photographer for magazines and periodicals featuring the activities of various ethnic groups living in New York City. He specialized in making photomurals with montage techniques. (2)

In 1937 Alland became photography instructor at the American Artists' School and joined the American Artists Congress. In 1939, his first book, Portrait of New York, was published and he became president of the "Exploration Photo Syndicate" and went to the U.S. Virgin Islands as part of a project to produce a pictorial record of the West Indian Islands. His photographs appeared in publications and were exhibited at the New School for Social Research and at the Schomberg Collection. In 1942 he joined the staff of Common Ground magazine as photography editor and was appointed by the National Youth Administration to supervise their photography workshop. His book American Counterpoint appeared in 1943 and was selected as "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year." The original prints from that book were exhibited at the Museum of the City of New York, which also exhibited a portfolio of his work on American Gypsies. In 1944 he became director of an agency, "Pictures for Democracy," and in 1945 his book The Springfield Plan was proclaimed another "One of the Fifty Best Books of the Year."

During World War II Alland did technical photography for the War Department, receiving a commendation for this work. After another book My Dog Rinty was published, he left New York City to establish a school of photography, combined with a school of dance directed by his wife, Alexandra, a professional dancer and choreographer. (3) He then began to exhibit his own photographs and to collect glass plate negatives and vintage prints by significant photographers. He is perhaps best known for locating a collection of Jacob Riis negatives and making them available. In 1974 Aperture published his biography, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen4. Because of his efforts in providing the Riis negatives to the Museum of the City of New York, that institution awarded a special commemorative medal to him in 1973. The Riis book was followed by two more studies of photographers, Jessie Tarbox Beals, First Woman News Photographer (5) and Heinrich Tonnies, Cartes de Visite Photographer Extraordinaire. (6)

Retrospective exhibitions of Alland's work were held in two major Danish museums in summer 1979 and he was honored for contributions to the cultural history of Denmark. In 1991 studies for his photomural work were included in an historical survey exhibition of American photomontage at the University of Maryland at College Park. (7).

Sources

1. My text is based upon the biographical information recorded on my taped interviews with Mr. Alland in this collection, but see also Bonnie Yochelson, The Committed Eye: Alexander Alland's Photography. New York: The Museum of the City of New York, Inc., 1991.

2. Merry A. Foresta, "Art and Document: Photography of the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project," in Official Images: New Deal Photography (essays by Foresta, Pete Daniel, Maren Stange, and Sally Stein), Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987, p. 153, based on an interview with Alland, January 1987.

3. Photographic historian Anne Peterson, contractor for three Archives Center photographic collection projects between 1986 and 1982, reports that she studied ballet as a child with Mrs. Alland.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid

7. See catalog by Cynthia Wayne, Dreams, Lies, and Exaggeration: Photomontage in America. The Art Gallery, University of Maryland at College Park, 1991 (exhibition at the gallery Oct. 21 Dec. 20, 1991).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Carlos de Wendler Funaro Gypsy Research Collection (AC0161)

Contains additional Alland photographs. De Wendler Funaro also photographed Steve Kaslov, his family, and his Bowery coppersmith workshop.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Alexander Alland, June 3, 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyrighted material: photographs may not be reproduced without written permission from the Estate of Alexander Alland, Sr.
Topic:
Synagogues -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York, N.Y.  Search this
Newspapers -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Muslims -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Minorities -- Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Judaism -- Customs and practices  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Immigrants -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Housing -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Buddhism -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Catholic Church -- Liturgy  Search this
Chinese drama -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Clergy -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Ethnic costume  Search this
Ethnic groups -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Falashas -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Fortune-tellers -- Gypsies -- 1930-1940 -- United States  Search this
Pluralism  Search this
Poverty -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Printing -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Protestant churches -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Religious and ecclesiastical institutions -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- New York N.Y.  Search this
Singers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Synagogues -- 1930-1940 -- Virgin Islands  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints, 1932-1943, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0204
See more items in:
Alexander Alland, Sr., Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0204
Additional Online Media:

[Rom woman (Pupa Kaslov?), standing outside house, near doorway, New York City : photoprint.]

Photographer:
Wendler-Funaro, Carlos de, 1898-1985 (language teacher, also known as Carl Funaro)  Search this
Names:
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Collection Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Collection Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (unmounted, Silver gelatin on paper., 4.5 X 3.5 in)
Container:
Box 5, Folder 4
Culture:
Rom  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
ca. 1939-1942
Biographical / Historical:
See collection register for information Steve and Pupa Kaslov.
Local Numbers:
86-10463 (OPPS Neg. No.)

AC0161-0000036 (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0161-ref904

[Steve Kaslov with woman and little girl, standing on sidewalk, New York City : photoprint]

Photographer:
Wendler-Funaro, Carlos de, 1898-1985 (language teacher, also known as Carl Funaro)  Search this
Names:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Collection Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Collection Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (unmounted, Silver gelatin on paper, 6-5/8 x 4-3/4 in. image on 6-7/8 x 5 in.)
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Culture:
Rom  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1939-1942
Scope and Contents:
Kaslov, wearing hat and overcoat and smiling, looks at little girl while he seems to be exchanging an object, possibly a cigarette, with an old woman slightly behind him.
Biographical / Historical:
See collection register for information about Steve Kaslov, etc.
Local Numbers:
AC0161-0000044 (AC Scan No.)
General:
Stamped number 039 and light pencil notations, including "Kaslov", on verso.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Cigarettes -- 20th century  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0161-ref906

[Rom Gypsy woman fortune-teller in a booth at a fair, Mineola, Long Island, New York], [photoprint]

Photographer:
Wendler-Funaro, Carlos de, 1898-1985 (language teacher, also known as Carl Funaro)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Collection Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (unmounted, Silver gelatin on paper., 10 x 8 in. (image size 9-1/2 x 7-1/2 in.)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 7
Culture:
Rom  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1932
Scope and Contents:
Woman with braids sitting in chair before sign: "Phrenologist / Have your head read / Speak several languages / Russka - Polska - Worozka ..."
Biographical / Historical:
See collection record or register for information on photographer.
Local Numbers:
86-10481 (OPPS Neg. No.)

AC0161-0000033 (AC Scan No.)
General:
Pencil on verso "Return to / Funaro" in center, presumably in Funaro's hand; "copied -- Clark", lower left, and "4/7-", upper right. Ink at top left verso: "86 / Mineola Fair 1932".
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Fairs  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Sideshows  Search this
Phrenology  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0161-ref909

Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album

Photographer:
Stauffer, Clyde Weaver, 1899-1984 (policeman)  Search this
Stauffer, Clyde Weaver, Mrs.  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940)  Search this
Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States -- 1930-1940  Search this
Anderson, Eddie "Rochester"  Search this
Robinson, Bill, 1878-1949  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Tickets
Albums
Photographs
Postcards
Place:
Bryce Canyon National Park -- photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Utah
Wyoming -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Colorado -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Los Angeles (Calif.) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
South Dakota -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Florida -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Georgia -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Tennessee -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Zion National Park (Utah) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Kentucky -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Mt. Rushmore S.D. -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Badlands National Park (S.D.) -- 1930-1940 photographs
Date:
1935 - 1940
Summary:
The collection consists of a disassembled photograph album, featuring images from the travels of Stauffer and his wife.
Scope and Contents:
This album consists of 109 loose pages, bearing a total of 134 black and white silver gelatin photoprints, some postcards, and a photomechanical reproduction clipped from a publication, with a 1939 World's Fair ticket stub. The subjects of the photographs include: Lincoln's birthplace and other sites in Kentucky; Tennessee; Georgia; Florida; Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts; the 1939 New York World's Fair, ships in Battery Park and Manhattan buildings; the ships The Normandie, The Queen Mary, and The U.S.S. Constitution and the Southern Clipper airplane; the Badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, Cathedral Spires and Mount Rushmore portrait busts during construction; Yellowstone National Park and Wyoming; Rocky Mountain National Park, Pikes Peak and Denver, Colorado; Bryce Canyon, the Mormon Temple, Zion National Park, Salt Lake City and other areas of Utah; Boulder Dam; Santa Catalina Island; Carlsbad Caverns; and celebrities Bill Robinson and Eddie "Rochester" Anderson at a barbecue in Los Angeles. There are also photographs of the Stauffers and of friends whom they visited during their travels.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Alliance, Ohio on November 28, 1899, Clyde Stauffer served in the U.S. Navy from November 8, 1917 to July 31, 1919. He later worked as a police officer in Detroit, Michigan. He and his wife were active in the Veterans of Foreign Wars police post in Detroit, serving terms as post commander and president of the Women's Auxiliary, respectively. They traveled extensively throughout the United States to attend VFW meetings, and the album forms a record of their travels during the years 1935-1940. After retirement from the Detroit police force, the Stauffers moved to Oscoda, Michigan, and he worked at Wurtsmith Air Force Base. Later they lived in Tucson, Arizona. Stauffer died in August, 1984.

Album forms a record of vacation travel by Mr. and Mrs. Clyde W. Stauffer, 1935-1940. Their travels were occasioned by Mr. Stauffer's position as commander of the Veterans of Foreign Wars police post of Detroit, Michigan, and the need to attend V.F.W. meetings around the country. Mrs. Stauffer was president of the V.F.W. auxiliary. Mr. and Mrs. James H. Stern met the Stauffers in Oscoda, Michigan, and both families eventually relocated in Tucson, Arizona.
Provenance:
This collection was bequeathed by Clyde W. Stauffer in August 1984. Mr. Stern, as administrator of the estate, sent the album to the Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile travel -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
National parks and reserves  Search this
Vacations -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Parks -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
Recreation -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
Veterans -- societies, etc -- United States  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Veterans -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York  Search this
Entertainers -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tickets -- World's Fair, 1939 -- New York (N.Y.)
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Postcards
Citation:
Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album, 1935-1940, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0139
See more items in:
Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0139
Additional Online Media:

[Women polishing billiard balls in Albany Billiard Ball factory]

Creator:
Albany Billiard Ball Company (Albany, New York)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Albany Billiard Ball Company (Albany, New York)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper, 4.6" x 6.4")
Container:
Box 24, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1930
Local Numbers:
AC0011-0000001.tif (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protecte by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Billiards -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Billiards  Search this
Plastics industry and trade  Search this
Collection Citation:
Albany Billiard Ball Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Albany Billiard Ball Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0011-ref674

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