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Maceo Jefferson Papers

Creator:
Jefferson, Yvonne Runtz  Search this
Jefferson, Maceo  Search this
Donor:
Cargill, Thomas  Search this
Cargill, Darlene Johnson  Search this
Names:
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (26 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Hymnals
Programs
Correspondence
Legal records
Marriage certificates
Business records
78 rpm records
Passports
Sheet music
Music
Photographs
Contracts
Clippings
Birth certificates
Date:
1800s-1974
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life and career of jazz musician, arranger, songwriter, and bandleader Maceo Jefferson. It includes biographical documents such as birth and marriaige certificates and passports; letters, mostly relating to the music business and including carbon copies of letters sent by Jefferson; photographs, many inscribed, including photographs of performers from the early jazz era; a hymnal used by Jefferson; several pieces of published sheet music written by Jefferson; concert programs, including a hand-made one for a concert given inside a Nazi internment camp where Jefferson was detained for two years; lyrics to songs; some business records, many in French; legal records; recordings, including 78 rpm records; and music manuscripts, which comprise roughly three fourths of the collection. Additionally, Jefferson's wife, Yvonne Runtz Jefferson, was a costume designer, and there are photographs relating to her work in the collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1891-1978, undated

Series 2: Correspondence, 1909-1976, undated

Series 3: Business Records and Performance Materials, 1932-1971, undated

Series 4: Legal Records, 1920s-1970s, undated

Series 5: Music Manuscripts, Published Sheet Music, and Folios, 1891-1972, undated

Subseries 5.1: Jefferson Compositions, 1920-1972, undated

Subseries 5.2: Compositions by Oother Composers, 1921-1971, undated

Subseries 5.3: Sheet Music, 1891-1970, undated

Subseries 5.4: Folios, Songbooks and Instruction, 1870s-1950s

Series 6: Photographs, 1800s-1960s

Series 7: Recordings, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Maceo Buchannan Jefferson was born on July 14, 1898 in Beaufort, South Carolina to Reverend Paul William Jefferson and Julia Rose Singleton. The oldest of five children, Jefferson showed an early aptitude for both banjo and guitar. He enlisted in the Navy on April 6, 1917 and was released from service on December 24, 1919. According to the 1920 census, Jefferson lived in Portsmouth Monroe Ward, Portsmouth, Virginia as a laborer with the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. During this time, he played with Gus Perry at the Limelight's Nightclub. Jefferson then moved to Norfolk, Virginia for two years before moving to Washington, DC. As noted in his resume, while in the District of Columbia Jeffersone, he performed with the J. R. Branson Orchestra in a dance hall on U Street and the Roscoe Lee Orchestra at the Better Old Club. He married Riccolin E. Sutherland on October 21, 1922. Jefferson spent another two years in a nightclub in Washington, where he met Duke Ellington and joined his band, the Washingtonians. By early 1923, Jefferson had joined Wilber Sweatman, and worked in a succession of nightclubs and theaters in New York, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. He also accompanied singer Ethel Waters on a recording session for Columbia Records. In 1926, he joined the Lew Leslie Blackbirds Plantation Orchestra and went on a European tour in 1927 with the band and singer Florence Mills. Jefferson joined Leon Abbey's band in 1928, and eventually relocated to Paris, France. During this time, he performed with several jazz bands and musicians including Louis Armstrong before returning to New York where he played in Willie "The Lion" Smith's band and toured with W. C. Handy. The late 1930s and 1940s found him back in France where he married a Parisian woman, Yvonne Josephine Stephanie Runtz, in 1937. Jefferson toured with different bands in France, England, Scotland, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, and Italy until the end of May 1940. In June, he drove a truck for the American Hospital of Paris to the base hospital of Angouleme for which he received no salary. From August to November, Jefferson worked for the American Red Cross as a driver transporting the sick and, injured, and distributing medicine and food. Jefferson resumed his musical career arranging, composing, copying, and playing music from December 1940-December 1941. His career took a dramatic turn when the Nazis, under the Vichy government, imprisoned him, three days after the United States declared war on Germany. Jefferson spent twenty-seven months in prison camp stalag 122 in Compiegne, France and while imprisoned led an orchestra. In 1944, the Nazis released and sent Jefferson back to the United States where he lived in New York before relocating to Bridgeport, Connecticut. In the latter part of his life and musical career, he focused on composition and developing new arrangements for old songs. He never fully regained his health after his time in the concentration camp. Jefferson died on June 15, 1974 in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Duke Ellington Collection (AC0301)

Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection (AC1323)

W. C. Handy Collection (AC0132)

Gottlieb and Bodansky Family Papers (AC1245)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015 by Jefferson's grand-nephew Thomas Cargill and his wife Darlene Johnson Cargill.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Concentration camps -- France  Search this
Composers  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Banjoists  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Hymnals
Programs -- Concerts -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Legal records -- 20th century
Marriage certificates
Business records -- 20th century
78 rpm records
Passports
Sheet music -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Contracts -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Birth certificates
Citation:
Maceo Jefferson Papers, 1898-1974, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1370
See more items in:
Maceo Jefferson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1370
Additional Online Media:

African Immigrant Folklife

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Across the Washington metropolitan region, African immigrants actively redefine their ideas of tradition and community by creating institutions and events that draw on African expressive forms. African-born area residents establish language and culture schools where their American-born children learn the social and artistic skills of their ancestral homes. Family and friends come together to celebrate births, weddings, and other rites of passage. African immigrant entrepreneurs employ their knowledge of personal adornment and of the social needs of their home communities to serve fellow immigrants and other Washingtonians.

The Festival program explored several cultural dimensions: the use made of knowledge, skills, values, and expressive forms brought from home to construct new communities and identities; and the new traditions, growing from encounters with groups in the African Diaspora and in American society as a whole, that contribute to the rich cultural landscape of the United States.

As continental Africans living in the nation's capital region have increased in number, they have stamped their presence on the ethnic map and cultural calendar of the area. Africans present cultural programs, conferences, and forums about their communities. Using traditional skills and knowledge, African-born entrepreneurs develop services for immigrants and the community at large. African immigrants bring to America ideas of ethnic and region-based organizations that were devised when Africans flrst migrated from rural towns to urban centers in Africa. These patterns of organization continue in the United States. Community institutions sometimes use traditional forms of social organization like tontines - revolving credit and savings societies - other kinds of investment groups, burial societies, and town associations to get things done.

As African expatriates become immigrants, and as immigrants become citizens, they use aspects of traditional culture to maintain connections with their roots, affirm their identity, maintain positive self-images for their children, express their links to other African world people, and assert their unique contribution to their land of adoption. The multi-year Festival program sought to contribute, through its research and public presentations (see also the 1995 concert series that inaugurated the project), to greater understanding of the cultures and experiences of continental Africans living in the United States, and in particular to promote connection and collaboration between Africans in America and African Americans, between Washington's immigrants and its long-established populations.

Betty Belanus and Diana Baird N'Diaye were Curators, and Khadijah Mann was Program Coordinator. Community Scholars and Curators included: Dagnachew Abebe, Veronica Abu, Ebo Ansa, Nomvula Cook, Abdirahman Dahir, T.V. Erekosima, Florence Guindo, Tesfaye Lemma, Nabil Makar, Mumia Shimaka Mbasu, Gorgui N'Diaye, Kwaku Ofori-Ansa, Gilbert Ogunfiditimi, Ann Olumba, Dorothy Osei-Kuffuor, and Aristide Pereira.

Project Advisors included: Raymond Almeida, Hayelom Ayele, Camilla Bryce-Laporte, Roy Bryce-Laporte, Laura Bigman, Olivia Cadaval, Anna Cisse, Qamar Dahir, Yosef Ford, Ena Fox, John Franklin, Hassan Gure, Wellella Hirpassa, Rukia Hussein, Philippa Jackson, Portia James, Hermele Kebede, Niani Kilkenny, Mama Konta, Michael Licht, Deborah Mack, Kinuthia Macharia, Phyllis May-Machunda, Fekadu Mergessa, Sulayman Nyang, Sharon Ogunfiditimi, Peter Pipim, Nenzi Plaatjies, Sharon Reinken, John Roberts, Beverly Robinson, Fath Ruffins, Yane Sangare, Osama El Sayed, Peter Seitel, Nana Sheshibe, Marie-Therese Thomas, and Addissu Tolessa.

Support for this program came from the Smithsonian Institution Educational Outreach Program and the Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds.
Researchers:
Researchers

Photographer/Researcher -- Harold Dorwin

Photographic Advisor/Researcher -- Roland Freeman

Research Consultants -- Abiodun Adepoju, Kofi Kissi Dompere, Makale Faber, Cece Modupé Fadopé, Michael Licht, Kinuthia Macharia, Sulayman Nyang, Reverend Frederick Ogunfiditimi, Peter Pipim, Diana Sherblom, Molly Uzo
Presenters:
Foodways & Home Life Presenters

Veronica Abu, Raymond Almeida, Nomvula Cook, Mumia Shimaka Mbasu, LaDena Schnapper

Garden Presenter

John Franklin

Music & Dance Presenters

Dagnachew "Dany" Abebe, Kofi Kissi Dompere, Tonye Erekosima, Ibrahim Kanja Bah, Hamid Mernissi, Kwaku Ofori- Ansa, Gilbert Ogunfiditimi, Peter Pipim

Palaver Place/Community Social Hall Presenters

Abdirahman Dahir, Makale Faber, Tesfaye Lemma, Nabil Makar, Aristide Pereira

Narrative Presenters

Charles Elegalem, Cece Modupé Fadopé, Abiyi Ford, Dominic N'Tube

Teaching & Learning Culture Presenters

Remi Aluko, Hassan Gure

Enterprise Area Presenter

Kinuthia Macharia
Participants: Music & Dance:
AFRICAN MUSIC AMBASSADORS, juju, soukous

Itunu Olu Abaiko, Nigerian, drummer, Langley Park, Maryland

Saubana Adekunle, Nigerian, conga, Langley Park, Maryland

Sami Agagu, Nigerian, lead vocals, Langley Park, Maryland

Ayalere Alajede, Nigerian, talking drum, Langley Park, Maryland

Tope Aregbesola, Nigerian, vocals, Langley Park, Maryland

Samuel Ebidighi, Nigerian, bass, Langley Park, Maryland

Russel Lyle, Nigerian, saxophone, Langley Park, Maryland

Frank Martins, Nigerian, lead rhythm guitar, Langley Park, Maryland

AKWA IBOM ASSOCIATION, traditional music & dance

Eventus Akai, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Emmanuel Akpa, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Ekerete Akpaete, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Isaiah Akpaete, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Grace Akpan, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Imo Akpan, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Regina Akpan, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Vivian Bassey, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Edemekong Esema, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Ibok Esema, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Samuel Esema, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Idongesit Eshie, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Mfon Eyo, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Idorenyin Ikpim, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Jus tina Ikpim, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Mfonobong Ikpim, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Florence Inwang, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Helen Inwang, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Paul Inyang, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Benjamin Obong, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Nse Obong, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Uwem Obong, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Eno Okon, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Louisa Okon, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Wilson Oduk, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Roland Udo, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Utibe Udo, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Aniekeme Udofia, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Sam Udofia, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

Unyime Udofia, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Beatrice Udonsen, Nigerian, dancer, Forestville, Maryland

Michael Ukpong, Nigerian, dancer, drummer, Forestville, Maryland

ASANTE KOTOKO ASSOCIATION

Sandy Osei Achampong, drummer

Kingsley Addai, drummer

Yaw Fobi Agyapong, drummer

Vera Agyeiwaa, drummer

Yaw Ofori Ahenkorah, drummer

Rad Akorli, drummer

Mammyaa Pokua Amoah, dancer

Nana B. Amoah, Jr., dancer

Jennifer Anokye, dancer

Maureen Anokye, dancer

Angie Boadu, dancer

Yaw Boakye, leader, drummer

John Kankam, dancer

Georgina Nsiah, leader, dancer

Michelle Nsiah, dancer

Cecilia Ntim, dancer

Daniel Ntim, drummer

Margaret Ntim, drummer

Matilda Ntim, dancer

Alice Osei, drummer

Nickie Osei, dancer

Sandra Osei, drummer

Albert Poku-Sarkodie, drummer

Joseph Yeboah, leader, dancer, drummer

BAKULA, HIGHLIFE & SOUKOUS

Bilo Ray Adoye, Ghanaian, vocals, Washington, D.C.

Juju Amegavi, Togolese, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Kosua Amegavi, Togolese, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Francis Asorigda, Nigerian, rhythm guitar, Washington, D.C.

Itadi Bonney, Togolese, lead guitar, vocals, Washington, D.C.

George Kwaku, Ivoirian, keyboard, Washington, D.C.

Gerti Selina Mwaro, South African, vocals, Washington, D.C.

Samba N'Diaye, Senegalese, bass, Washington, D.C.

Jean Papy Ramazani, Congolese, Democratic Republic, vocals, Washington, D.C.

EWI PRAISE POETRY

Abiodun Adepoju, Nigerian, vocals, Lanham, Maryland

Kemi Anazia, Nigerian, dancer, vocals, Lanham, Maryland

Kemi Oriowo, Nigerian, dancer, vocals, Lanham, Maryland

Tayo Oriowo, Nigerian, drummer, Lanham, Maryland

KANKOURAN, traditional dance & drumming (Senegambian, Pan-African)

Ateya Ball, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Paula Coleman, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Antionette Connell, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Sue Ann Forde, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Randee L. Grant, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Medoune Gueye, drummer, Washington, D.C.

Wilhelmina Joseph, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Assane Konte, leader, Washington, D.C.

Steve Mcallister, drummer, Washington, D.C.

Malari Moore, drummer, Washington, D.C.

Joseph Soh Ngwa, drummer, Washington, D.C.

Babatunde Pyne, drummer, Washington, D.C.

Kevin Waller, dancer, Washington, D.C.

THE KASBAH BAND, chaabi and rai music

Lahsen Azzar, Moroccan, percussion, Alexandria, Virginia

Mohamed Djebbour, Moroccan, lead guitar, Alexandria, Virginia

Karim El Hamti, Moroccan, lead vocalist, Alexandria, Virginia

Kamal Essalhi, Moroccan, violin, background vocals, Alexandria, Virginia

Ismail Haddou, Moroccan, bass, background vocals, Alexandria, Virginia

Abdel Kader Rhanime, Moroccan, saxophone, keyboards, background vocals, Alexandria, Virginia

Abderhahman Rhanime, Moroccan, drums, background vocals, Alexandria, Virginia

Anis Rhanime, Moroccan, keyboards, Alexandria, Virginia

Mohamed Rhanime, Moroccan, percussion, Alexandria, Virginia

KENGMO, traditional music & dance

Terril K. Dongmo, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Pernell D. Fongan, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Kengmo, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Agnes Koutchieu, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Patrick Kwankam, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Mitchell Lamont, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

Linda Machekou, Cameroonian, Washington, D.C.

KOKOMOS, juju, makossa, Yoruba gospel

Layo Ajibade, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

Nathaniel Ajibari, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

Titus Ogungbe, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

John Okanlawon, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

Tayo Oriowo, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

Gabriel Osanyingbemi, Nigerian, Washington, D.C.

DJIMO KOUYATE & MAMAYA, African jazz (Senegalese, Pan-African), Washington, D.C.

Alex Holland, saxophone, Washington, D.C.

John Holland, keyboard, Washington, D.C.

Aisha Jackson, vocals, Washington, D.C.

Amadou Kouyate, -- djembe -- drums, Washington, D.C.

Djimo Kouyate, kora, vocals, Washington, D.C.

Tom Newman, guitar, Washington, D.C.

Greg Phillips, trap drums, Washington, D.C.

Jay Turner, bass, Washington, D.C.

Joe Yanovitch, guitar, Washington, D.C.

MAHALA, township music

James Levy, South African, keyboards, Bethesda, Maryland

Richard Lynch, South African, drums, Bethesda, Maryland

Steve McGovern, South African, bass guitar, Bethesda, Maryland

Apry'al McNeil, South African, vocals, Bethesda, Maryland

Thembi Mtshali, South African, vocals, Bethesda, Maryland

Tabetha Mueller, South African, vocals, Bethesda, Maryland

Mongezi "Chris" Ntaka, South African, lead guitar, music director, Bethesda, Maryland

Jean Francis Varre, South African, percussion, Bethesda, Maryland

MEMORY OF AFRICAN CULTURE, traditional music & dance (Senegambian, Pan-African), Washington, D.C.

Afia Akoto, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Akosua Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Akua Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Fofie Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Kofi Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Kweku Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Osei Akoto, Washington, D.C.

Mahiri Edward, lead drummer, Washington, D.C.

Malik Hooks, Washington, D.C.

Awura-Akua Johari, Washington, D.C.

Akua Femi Kouyate, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Amadou Kouyate, Washington, D.C.

Bintou Kouyate, Washington, D.C.

Djimo Kouyate, -- kora -- , Washington, D.C.

Makini Niliwaambieni, dancer, Washington, D.C.

Diallo Sumbry, Washington, D.C.

Nkenge Sumbry, Washington, D.C.

MURIDULAH MALE AND FEMALE CHORAL GROUPS, Sufi music (Senegambian)

DAHIRATUL JAMIATU SALAAM OF WASHINGTON, D.C. -- DAHIRATUL JAMIATU SALAAM OF WASHINGTON, D.C.Cheikh Dieng, vocals, Washington, D.C.Ndiounga Dieng, vocals, Washington, D.C.Marne Diokhane, vocals, Washington, D.C.Rassul Fall, vocals, Washington, D.C.Mamadou Mountaga, Washington, D.C.Gueye, vocals, Washington, D.C.Mokhtar Gueye, vocals, Washington, D.C.Mamadou Kane, vocals, Washington, D.C.Cheikh Kebe, vocals, Washington, D.C.Marne Mor Mbacke, vocals, Washington, D.C.Abdou Lahat Mbaye, vocals, Washington, D.C.Lamine Mbaye, vocals, Washington, D.C.Malick Mbothe, vocals, Washington, D.C.Fallou Samb, vocals, Washington, D.C.Mamadou Samb, vocals, Washington, D.C.Moustapha Sankhare, vocals, Washington, D.C.Abdoulaye Pele Seck, vocals, Washington, D.C.Talla Seye, vocals, Washington, D.C.Elhadj Thiam, vocals, Washington, D.C.Mbaye Thiam, vocals, Washington, D.C.

DAHIRA SOKNA MAME DIARRA BOUSSO -- DAHIRA SOKNA MAME DIARRA BOUSSOKaty Ba, vocalsFatou Dia, vocalsMariame Diagne, vocalsAdja Diop, vocalsAissatou Diop, vocalsNdeye Diop, vocalsSosse Gassama, vocalsAdja Guine, vocalsAissatou Koundoul, vocalsLika Ndiaye, vocalsSoda Ndiaye, vocalsNdoumbe Niang, vocalsAdja Seck, vocalsAtta Seck, vocalsAdja Thiam, vocalsMarne Penda Thiam, vocalsMaty Thiam, vocals

NORTH AFRICAN ENSEMBLE, traditional music -- NORTH AFRICAN ENSEMBLE, traditional musicMajed Alsaray, Falls Church, VirginiaKhaled Baldi, Falls Church, VirginiaCorina Bouzghia, Falls Church, VirginiaMohammed Bouzghia, Falls Church, VirginiaMahmoud Hassanein, Falls Church, VirginiaSayed Issmeal, Falls Church, VirginiaMahmoud Tutu, Falls Church, Virginia

NORTHERN SUDANESE COMMUNITY, traditional music & dance -- NORTHERN SUDANESE COMMUNITY, traditional music & danceHadia M. Abdel-Mageed, Sudanese, vocals, Springfield, VirginiaAli Elsigaid, Sudanese, vocals, Washington, D.C.Tabaruk Gibreel, Sudanese, dancer, Washington, D.C.Amira Yousif, Sudanese, dancer, Washington, D.C.

PA ALEX AND GENERATIONS, dance hall music -- PA ALEX AND GENERATIONS, dance hall musicPa Alex, Ghanaian, lead vocals, Chevy Chase, MarylandBilly Da, Ghanaian, trumpet, Chevy Chase, MarylandPapa Louis, Ghanaian, lead guitar, Chevy Chase, MarylandKwasi Michael, Ghanaian, keyboard, Chevy Chase, MarylandSammy, Ghanaian, saxophone, Chevy Chase, MarylandKwame Seth, Ghanaian, bass guitar, vocals, Chevy Chase, MarylandFrances Tawa, Ghanaian, congas, Chevy Chase, MarylandNan Willi, Ghanaian, rhythm guitar, Chevy Chase, Maryland

THE VOLTA ENSEMBLE, traditional music & dance -- THE VOLTA ENSEMBLE, traditional music & danceCynthia Aku, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandDavid Aku, Jr., Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandDavid Aku, Sr., Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandJosephine Aku, Ghanaian, musician, Rockville, MarylandGideon Allotey, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandGordon Allotey, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandAmanda Azuma, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandEric Azuma, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandEvelyn Azuma, Ghanaian, musician, Rockville, MarylandLynda Azuma, Ghanaian, musician, Rockville, MarylandSefe Azuma, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandSelom Azuma, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandEnyonam Blege, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandByram Blege, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandFelly Blege, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandNana Blege, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandSitsofe Blege, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandJeff Kriebel, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandAlexandra Nuwame, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandGeorgina Nuwame, Ghanaian, musician, Rockville, MarylandPascal Nuwame, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandSharon Nuwame, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandEmmanuel Sawyer, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandAfi Vodi, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandAma Vodi, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, MarylandGladys Vodi, Ghanaian, drummer, Rockville, MarylandMawuli Vodi, Ghanaian, dancer, Rockville, Maryland

Church of the Living God, West African Gospel Chorus, Hyattsville, Maryland

Cheikh Amala Diabate, Malian, -- ngoni -- musician, Silver Spring, Maryland

Eritrean Cultural and Civic Center, Eritrean, Washington, D.C.

Nana Ernest Frimpong, Ghanaian, drummer, Silver Spring, Maryland

Hassan Gure, Somali, oud, vocals, Washington, D.C.

The International House of Prayer for All People (Nigerian), Washington, D.C.

Kyaga, Ugandan, traditional music & dance

Liziba, Congolese, Democratic Republic, Central African, -- soukous -- , Silver Spring, Maryland

Nile Ethiopian Ensemble, Ethiopian, traditional music & dance, Washington, D.C.

Rivers State Forum, Nigerian, traditional music & dance, Baltimore, Maryland

Simba Wanyika & Virunga, Soboso (Swahili pop)

Zumunta Association, Nigerian, traditional music & dance
Participants: Enterprise Area:
Enterprise Area

AFRICAN BRAIDS AND ACCENTS -- AFRICAN BRAIDS AND ACCENTSAgnes Diouf, Senegalese, Silver Spring, MarylandSainabou Sallah, Senegalese, Silver Spring, Maryland

TOUBA BRAIDING CENTER -- TOUBA BRAIDING CENTERMama Keita, SenegaleseFatou Thiam, SenegaleseIssa Thiam, Senegalese

Thony Anyiam, Nigerian, owner, designer, Anyiam's Creations International, Langley Park, Maryland

Bukola Babalola, Nigerian, owner, manager, Oyingbo Market, Hyattsville, Maryland

Gloria Cole, Sierra Leonean, importer, Hyattsville, Maryland

Tamiru Degefa, Ethiopian, owner, manager, Merkato Market, Washington, D.C.

Dame Gueye, Senegalese, glass painter, Greenbelt, Maryland

Namory Keita, Malian, woodcarver, Washington, D.C.

Maurice Kinyanjui, Kenyan, owner, Simba Records, Langley Park, Maryland

Esther Mahlangu, South African, Ndebele painter, beadworker

Nabil Makar, Egyptian, visual artist, Wheaton, Maryland

Rabel Mekuria, Ethiopian, owner, manager, Addissu Gebeya, Washington, D.C.

Abdirahman Mohammed, Somali, visual artist, Riverdale, Maryland

Omar Nyang, Senegalese, tailor, Mt. Rainier, Maryland

Nwangaji "Gihgi" Ogbonna, Nigerian, dressmaker, Gihgi's African Fashions, Washington, D.C.

Ann Olumba, Nigerian, braider, Washington, D.C.

Dorothy Osei-Kuffuor, Ghanaian, dressmaker, Sarpong, Osei Enterprises, Riverdale, Maryland

Patrick Owusu-Afriyie, Ghanaian, shoemaker, Langley Park, Maryland

John Rutayaga, Tanzanian, traditional medicine, Washington, D.C.

Muna Salih, Sudanese, henna artist, Falls Church, Virginia

Olubanke Sekoni, Nigerian, owner, Levirop's Lagos Fashions 'n Fabrics, Langley Park, Maryland

Mamo Tessema, Ethiopian, potter, New Carrollton, Maryland

Mahmoud Tutu, Egyptian, owner, butcher, Tutu Market and Butcher, Falls Church, Virginia

Rome Yitbarek, Ethiopian, basket weaver, Alexandria, Virginia
Participants: PALAVER AREA, COMMUNITY CELEBRATIONS:
PALAVER AREA, COMMUNITY CELEBRATIONS

ALL NGWA CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, Washington, D.C. -- ALL NGWA CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, Washington, D.C.Christiana Abengowe, Washington, D.C.Innocent Abengowe, Washington, D.C.Agnes Akwarandu, Washington, D.C.Festa Anyatonwu, leader, Washington, D.C.Ego Atulobi, leader, Washington, D.C.Cecelia Irondi, Washington, D.C.Chinyere Nwachukwu, Washington, D.C.Udo Nwatu, Washington, D.C.Uloma Nwatu, Washington, D.C.Nnenna Ogbonna, Washington, D.C.Nwangaji Ogbonna, leader, Washington, D.C.Comfort Wosu, Washington, D.C.

GHANAIAN DURBAR

Asanteman Kuo Organization

NORTHERN SUDANESE NAMING CEREMONY, COMING OF AGE

Ali Dinar

Ahmed E. Elbashir

Zeinab Hag El Safi, Arlington, Virginia

Tamador Gibreel, Washington, D.C.

Muna Salih, Falls Church, Virginia

OROMO STORYTELLING

Dhaba Wayessa, Washington, D.C.

PALAVER HUT

Joe Ngwa

Vera Oye Yaa-Anna (Liberian), Washington, D.C.

SENEGAMBIAN SABAR EVENT

Gambian Association, Silver Spring, Maryland

Mar Gueye with Sing Sing Rhythym (Senegalese)

Senegalese Support Society, Silver Spring, Maryland

SOMALI COMMUNITY BURAANBUR

Asha Adem, Somalian, -- buraanbur -- ,Riverdale, Maryland

Fadumo Dheel, Somalian, -- buraanbur

Hassan Gure, Somalian, oud, Washington, D.C.

Halima Hayi, Somalian, -- buraanbur

lbado Hirmoge, Somalian, -- buraanbur -- , Fairfax, Virginia

Maryam Hussein, Somalian, -- buraanbur -- , Washington, D.C.

Rukia Hussein, Somalian, -- buraanbur -- , Alexandria, Virginia

Jawahir Noor, Somalian, -- buraanbur

SOUTH AFRICAN BRAAI

Felleng Kalema, South African, braai, Burke, Virginia

Bongani Mabaso, South African, braai, Essex, Maryland

Selloane Makhetha, South African, braai, Washington, D.C.

Ranjawe M. Mahlangu, South African, braai, Baltimore, Maryland

Sibusiso Matsinye, South African, braai, Baltimore, Maryland

Vuyiswa Mwerinde, South African, braai, Temple Hills, Maryland

STREET THEATER

Tanya Dallas, African American street theater, Richmond, Virginia

Makale Faber, Guinean street theater, Washington, D.C.

Florencia Gonzalez, Honduran street theater, Centreville, Virginia

Emma Thembani, Ghanaian street theater, Arlington, Virginia

Eric Waller, African American street theater, Halifax, Virginia

Mark Williams, Guyanese street theater, Alexandria, Virginia
Participants: TEACHING & LEARNING CULTURE:
TEACHING & LEARNING CULTURE

ANANSEGROMMA STORYTELLING THEATRE COMPANY -- ANANSEGROMMA STORYTELLING THEATRE COMPANYKwame Ansah Brew, Springfield, VirginiaKofi Roger Dennis, Springfield, VirginiaAnioma Association, Washington, D.C.

CAMP AFRICA -- CAMP AFRICARemi Aluko, Burtonsville, Maryland

ETHIOPIAN CENTER FOR ARTS AND CULTURE, Washington, D.C. -- ETHIOPIAN CENTER FOR ARTS AND CULTURE, Washington, D.C.Seleshe Damessae

ETHIOPIAN COMMUNITY CENTER, Washington, D.C. -- ETHIOPIAN COMMUNITY CENTER, Washington, D.C.Hailu FulasHermela Kebede

ISOKAN YORUBA SCHOOL, Washington, D.C. -- ISOKAN YORUBA SCHOOL, Washington, D.C.Sharon OgunfiditimiOgbu Okiri

SIERRA LEONE COMMUNITY SCHOOL -- SIERRA LEONE COMMUNITY SCHOOLChidi Augu-Jones, Springfield, VirginiaHariette Tucker, Burtonsville, Maryland

SOMALI SATURDAY SCHOOL -- SOMALI SATURDAY SCHOOLFawsiya Abdi, Arlington, VirginiaAsha Ali, Riverdale, MarylandAmina Amin, Silver Spring, MarylandHassan Gure, Washington, D.C.Mohammad Musse, Riverdale, MarylandBarlin Noor, Centerville, Virginia

SOUTHERN SUDANESE COMMUNITY, Washington, D.C. -- SOUTHERN SUDANESE COMMUNITY, Washington, D.C.Christo AdongrechPeter BolOsman BongoAngong Kout DengPeter KarloNicholas Deng KurDaniel LeekElonai MasunguJimmy MullaJuana ObdhiahPeter SundayOliver Tunda

SWAHILI LANGUAGE & STORYTELLING

Mkamburi Mayaa Mshila Lyabaya, College Park, Maryland
Participants: FOODWAYS:
FOODWAYS

Veronica Abu, Ghanaian foodways, Silver Spring, Maryland

Nomvula Cook, Lesotho foodways, Fort Washington, Maryland

Qamar Dahir, Somali foodways, Falls Church, Virginia

Lola Dawodu, Nigerian foodways, Largo, Maryland

Tshion Debbs, Ethiopian foodways, Silver Spring, Maryland

Basse Dieng, Senegalese foodways, Mt. Rainier, Maryland

Liberata Ehimba, Senegalese foodways, Washington, D.C.

Osama El-Sayed, Egyptian foodways, Fairfax Station, Virginia

Mirelle Green, Nigerian foodways, Oxon Hill, Maryland

lbado Hirmoge, Somali foodways, Fairfax, Virginia

Samir Labriny, Moroccan foodways, Alexandria, Virginia

Maria Augusta Faria Lima, Cape Verdean foodways, Gaithersburg, Maryland

Lakech Jezequel, Ethiopian foodways, Washington, D.C.

Jane Musonye, Kenyan foodways, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

Juliana Row, Sierra Leonean foodways, Odenton, Maryland

Ifeyinwa "Iffy" Tagbo-Ogbuagu, Nigerian foodways, Vienna, Virginia

Cecelia Vilakazi, South African foodways, Washington, D.C.

Sara Workeneh, Ethiopian foodways, College Park, Maryland
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1997, Series 2
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1997-ref18

Duke Ellington Collection

Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 ((musician))  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies

Websites

Billy Strayhorn Website

Duke Ellington Society
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Additional Online Media:

[Duke Ellington and the Washingtonians : black-and-white photoprints.]

Names:
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Collection Collector:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper.)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unidentified. Possibly a copy print.
Arrangement:
Series 7, Box 6, Folder 9a.
Local Numbers:
AC0301-0000009.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Topic:
Jazz musicians  Search this
Big bands  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Duke Ellington Collection / Series 7: Photographs, Duke Ellington Collection / 7.7.37: Orchestra
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref53233

Sept[ember] 3, 1933 [group of people aboard the excursion ship E. Madison Hall alongside a jetty : cellulose acetate photonegative, banquet camera format]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
E. Madison Hall (Ship)  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Rice, Moses P.  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., 12" x 20".)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 27
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Banquet camera photographs
Panoramas
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1930-1950 -- Photographs
Potomac River (Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1933 September 3
Scope and Contents:
Scan Number: AC0618.004.0001312.tif
A large number of passengers are dressed in white robes and caps (baptismal garb). Ink on negative: caption and "Scurlock Photo". No edge imprint, no Scurlock number.
Biographical / Historical:
"The E. Madison Hall excursion boat, owned and operated by a black man, Captain J. O. Holmes, is a steamer 160 feet long that seats 800 and has 20 staterooms. The excursion season begins about the first Sunday in May and lasts through September. Two or three trips down the Potomac to River View resort are made each day", from "The Black Washingtonians. The Anacostia Museum Illustrated Chronology," The Smithsonian Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hokoben, N.J., 2005).
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 8: Business Records, Subseries 8.1: Studio Session Registers are restricted. Digital copies available for research. See repository for details.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baptism -- 1930-1950  Search this
Excursion boats  Search this
Ships -- 1930-1940  Search this
Boats and boating  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Banquet camera photographs -- 1930-1940
Panoramas
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.12: Banquet Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-12-ref381

For Washingtonians, the Global Gets a Local Welcome: Four Artists Intersect at Washington D.C.’s Korean Cultural Center

Author:
Taylor, Paul Michael  Search this
Kwon, Myoung-won  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2011
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Anthropology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_108246

The Black Washingtonians: the Anacostia Museum illustrated chronology

Author:
Smithsonian Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Cultur  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2005
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_59920

Sally Quinn (2 of 4)

Artist:
Andy Warhol, 6 Aug 1928 - 22 Feb 1987  Search this
Sitter:
Sally Quinn, born 1941  Search this
Medium:
Serigraph, collage and mixed media
Dimensions:
Frame: 91.4 x 71.1cm (36 x 28")
Type:
Print
Date:
1986
Topic:
Sally Quinn: Female  Search this
Sally Quinn: Literature\Writer  Search this
Sally Quinn: Society and Social Change\Hostess  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Journalist\Reporter  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Broadcast Journalist\Television  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Private collection
Object number:
EXH.CP.126
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.CP.126

Sally Quinn (3 of 4)

Artist:
Andy Warhol, 6 Aug 1928 - 22 Feb 1987  Search this
Sitter:
Sally Quinn, born 1941  Search this
Medium:
Serigraph, collage and mixed media
Dimensions:
Frame: 91.4 x 71.1cm (36 x 28")
Type:
Print
Date:
1986
Topic:
Sally Quinn: Female  Search this
Sally Quinn: Literature\Writer  Search this
Sally Quinn: Society and Social Change\Hostess  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Journalist\Reporter  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Broadcast Journalist\Television  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Private collection
Object number:
EXH.CP.127
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.CP.127

Sally Quinn (4 of 4)

Artist:
Andy Warhol, 6 Aug 1928 - 22 Feb 1987  Search this
Sitter:
Sally Quinn, born 1941  Search this
Medium:
Serigraph, collage and mixed media
Dimensions:
Frame: 91.4 x 71.1cm (36 x 28")
Type:
Print
Date:
1986
Topic:
Sally Quinn: Female  Search this
Sally Quinn: Literature\Writer  Search this
Sally Quinn: Society and Social Change\Hostess  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Journalist\Reporter  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Broadcast Journalist\Television  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Private collection
Object number:
EXH.CP.128
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.CP.128

Sally Quinn (1 of 4)

Artist:
Andy Warhol, 6 Aug 1928 - 22 Feb 1987  Search this
Sitter:
Sally Quinn, born 1941  Search this
Medium:
Serigraph, collage and mixed media
Dimensions:
Frame: 91.4 x 71.1cm (36 x 28")
Type:
Print
Date:
1986
Topic:
Sally Quinn: Female  Search this
Sally Quinn: Literature\Writer  Search this
Sally Quinn: Society and Social Change\Hostess  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Journalist\Reporter  Search this
Sally Quinn: Communications\Broadcast Journalist\Television  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Private collection
Object number:
EXH.CP.94
Restrictions & Rights:
© Andy Warhol
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_EXH.CP.94

The Black Washingtonians : the Anacostia Museum illustrated chronology / the Smithsonian Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture

Author:
Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 388 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Chronology
Biography
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
2005
C2005
Topic:
African Americans--History  Search this
African Americans  Search this
African Americans--Social life and customs  Search this
History  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_771211

Woodward & Lothrop : a store worthy of the nation's capital / Michael J. Lisicky ; introduction by Tim Gunn

Author:
Lisicky, Michael J  Search this
Subject:
Woodward & Lothrop  Search this
Physical description:
158 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
2013
Topic:
Department stores--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1030367

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