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Wampum Strings

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Collector:
J. N. Hewitt  Search this
Dr. William N. Fenton  Search this
Culture:
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)  Search this
: Onondaga  Search this
Object Type:
Wampum
Place:
Six Nations, Ontario, Canada, North America
Accession Date:
1952-Jun-04
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
192830
USNM Number:
E391950-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8422277

Wampum Belt

Donor Name:
Howard W. Elkinton  Search this
Collector:
Huldah H. Bonwill  Search this
Culture:
Wyandot  Search this
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)  Search this
: Seneca  Search this
Object Type:
Wampum
Place:
Not Given, Oklahoma, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1952-May-07
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
194468
USNM Number:
E391891-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8422227
Additional Online Media:

Wampum Strings, Miniature Set

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Collector:
J. N. Hewitt  Search this
Dr. William N. Fenton  Search this
Culture:
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)  Search this
: Cayuga  Search this
Object Type:
Wampum
Place:
Six Nations, Ontario, Canada, North America
Accession Date:
1952-Jun-04
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
192830
USNM Number:
E391951-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8422278

Necklace Of Old Wampum Beads

Donor Name:
Otis T. Mason  Search this
Length:
15cm ca
Culture:
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)  Search this
: Mohawk  Search this
Object Type:
Necklace
Place:
Not Given, New York, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1885-Sep-19
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
016450
USNM Number:
E76402-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8479569
Additional Online Media:

MS 3127 Treaty wampum belts

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Informant:
Buck, John Sr, Chief  Search this
Extent:
7 items (1/2 pages)
Culture:
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- treaty wampum  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1896
Scope and Contents:
English translation.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3127
Topic:
Wampum -- Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3127, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3127
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3127

MS 3197 Notes on Wampum- ReQuickening Address

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Informant:
Hess, Jacob  Search this
Skye, David, Chief  Search this
Extent:
10 Sheets
Culture:
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- Wampum  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga -- requickening address  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sheets
Date:
ca. 1919
Scope and Contents:
Prepared by Jacob Hess.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3197
Topic:
Wampum -- Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3197, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3197
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3197

MS 4383 Memorandum describing the several sets of wampum collected from the Iroquois of the Six Nations Reserve, Canada

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Culture:
Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Iroquois -- Cayuga  Search this
Iroquois -- Six Nations Reserve -- Wampum  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cayuga Indians  Search this
Onondaga Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4383
Local Note:
Wampum Transferred to the National Museum on November 27, 1951, by Dr Fenton.
Topic:
Wampum -- Iroquois  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4383, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4383
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4383

Copy of James N. Edy photograph of Chiefs of the Six Nations explaining their wampum belts

Creator:
Edy, James N.  Search this
Collector:
Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005  Search this
Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896  Search this
Extent:
1 copy print
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Onondaga Indians  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
1871
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of a copy of a studio portrait of Onondaga, Mohawk, and Seneca Indians with wampum belts, made on September 14, 1871, for Horatio Hale. Includes Joseph Snow (Hahriron), Onondaga Chief; George H. M. Johnson (Deyonhehgon), Mohawk chief, government interpreter and son of John Smoke Johnson; John Buck (Skanawatih), Onondaga chief and hereditary keeper of the wampum; John Smoke Johnson (Sakayenkwaraton), Mohawk chief and speaker of the council; Isaac Hill (Kawenenseronton), Onondaga chief and fire keeper; John Seneca Johnson (Kanonkeredawih), Seneca chief.
Biographical/Historical note:
Horatio Emmons Hale (1817-1896) was an American-Canadian philologist, ethnologist, author, and businessman who studied American Indian languages as a key to their origins. He published the Iroquois Book of Rites in 1883, which documented the history and rituals of the Iroquois Confederacy based on interpretations of the group's wampum belts. In September 1871, he requested that six Iroquois chiefs, with whom he had worked on the wampum belts, come to the Brantford, Ontario, studio of James N. Edy, where this photograph was made.

Hale later sent the photograph to his colleagues with variations on the following inscription: "The wampum belts were explained to me on the reserve, at the residence of Chief G. H. M. Johnson; and at my request the chiefs afterwards came with me to Brantford, where the original photograph . . . was taken.--H. Hale, Clinton, Ont." The photograph from which this copy print was made originally belonged to J. N. B. Hewitt.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 86-58
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional James N. Edy photographs can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4751 and the BAE historical negatives.
Vocabularies and correspondence by Horatio Hale can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7235, MS 7236, MS 4558, MS 772-c, MS 4797, MS 4800, MS 7439, MS 7440, MS 7441, MS 3436, MS 1072, the Bureau of American Ethnology Letters Received, and the J.C. Pilling Papers.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Wampum  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 86-58, Copy of James N. Edy photograph of Chiefs of the Six Nations explaining their wampum belts, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.86-58
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-86-58
Additional Online Media:

MS 4610 Notes and photographs relating to the Chief Matron's wampum credentials

Creator:
Hatt, Robert T. (Robert Torrens), 1902-  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
2 Photographs
Culture:
Iroquois -- Wampum  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Pages
Photographs
Date:
1930-1944
Scope and Contents:
2 photographs of wampum strings.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4610
Topic:
Wampum -- Iroquois  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 4610, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4610
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4610

Photo Lot.155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, circa 1897-circa 1937

Creator:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Names:
Abram, Charles Chief  Search this
Buck, Emeline  Search this
Buck, John, Chief  Search this
Buck, Joshua  Search this
Buck, Susan  Search this
General Mrs  Search this
General, Myrtle  Search this
Gibson, Simeon, 1889-1943  Search this
Hill, George  Search this
Hill, Simon  Search this
Jamieson  Search this
Jamieson, Clara Miss  Search this
Jamieson, James Mrs  Search this
Sandy, William  Search this
Sandy, William Mrs  Search this
Extent:
307 photographs (2 document boxes)
305 negatives (3 negative boxes, nitrate)
Culture:
Iroquois -- Six Nations Reserve -- Wampum  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Onondaga Indians  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Iroquois -- Tuscarora  Search this
Iroquois -- Cayuga  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Cayuga Indians  Search this
Iroquois -- Seneca  Search this
Iroquois -- Mohawk  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Iroquois -- Six Nations  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Tutelo Indians  Search this
Iroquois -- Oneida  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1897-circa 1937
Summary:
Photographs documenting Iroquois people made circa 1897-circa 1937 on and near the Six Nations Reserve by J.N.B. Hewitt, linguist with the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology.
Scope and Contents note:
Hewitt's photos primarily depict Mohawk, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, Tuscarora, Oneida, and Tutelo Indians. There are also a few images of Iroquois houses and other structures, Hewitt's mask collection, and Onondaga Chief John Buck and family, Seneca Chief John Arthur Gibson and family, Cayuga Chief James Jamieson and family, and Cayuga-Seneca Chief Simeon Gibson. Most of the photographs were taken during several trips between 1897 and 1937, on and near the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, including in New York (Niagara Falls, Nedrow, and Syracuse) and Ontario (Oshweken, Deseronto, and Brantsford).
Arrangement note:
For Photo Lot 155 Hewitt's original arrangement and numbering has been maintained. The order of the photographs does not follow the chronology that they were taken; for instance there are often several photographs of an individual that were clearly made in different years. The original negatives also represent a variety of film and camera types.

The arrangement and numbering for MS 4596, established at an unknown time, was maintained.
Biographical note:
J.N.B. (John Napoleon Brinton) Hewitt (December 6, 1859-October 14, 1937) was a linguist and ethnographer who specialized in Iroquoian and other Native American languages. Born on the Tuscarora Indian Reservation near Lewiston, New York, his mother was of Tuscarora, French, Oneida, and Scottish descent. His father's heritage was English and Scottish, but he was raised in a Tuscarora family. Hewitt spoke English growing up, but when he left the reservation to attend schools in Wilson and Lockport, he learned to speak the Tuscarora language from other students. Hewitt grew up planning to become a physician, like his father. However, the course of Hewitt's interests changed when, in 1880, he was hired by Erminnie A. Smith of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of Ethnology (now the Bureau of American Ethnology) as an assistant ethnologist tasked with collecting myths among the Iroquois tribes of New York. He continued this work from 1880-1884, and then was briefly employed by the Jersey City Railways Co. (1884-1885) and Adams Express Co. (1885-1886). Upon Smith's death in 1886, Hewitt returned to the BAE to continue her work, remaining employed there until his death.

Over the course of his career, Hewitt became the leading authority on the organization of the Iroquois League and the ceremonials, customs, and usages of the tribes composing it. He acquired an intimate knowledge of the languages of the League, including a speaking knowledge of Mohawk and Onondaga, and also became acquainted with several Algonquian dialects. On February 28, 1914, in recognition of his services in preserving for posterity a knowledge of the history and ethnology of the Indians of New York state, he was awarded the Cornplanter medal for Iroquois Research.

Additionally, he was a founder of the American Anthropological Association and an active member of the Anthropological Society of Washington and the American Museum of Natural History, serving as both treasurer (1912-1926) and president (1932-1934) of the latter. Hewitt also contributed over one hundred articles for the Handbook of American Indians (Bulletin 30) and published the two volume Iroquoian Cosmology (1903 and 1928).
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Wampum  Search this
Trade, gifts and other exchanges -- Wampum  Search this
Wampum -- Iroquois  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.155
See more items in:
Photo Lot.155, J.N.B. Hewitt photographs of Iroquois Indians on the Six Nations Reservation, circa 1897-circa 1937
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-155

Mezzotint Engraving of Painting by John Verelst of Tee-Yee-Neen-Ho-ga-Row (He Who Holds The Door Open) Holding Wampum Belt n.d

Physical description:
1 008 in x 010 in photograph
Culture:
Iroquois Mohawk  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
nd
Local number:
NAA INV 06207600
OPPS NEG 00965 B
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_10531

Three Iroquois wampum records

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Physical description:
1 8x10 in photograph
Culture:
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1931
Local number:
NAA INV 9384300
OPPS NEG 987 E
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_93812

[Iroquois Wampum Belts]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970-1971
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref5152

Iroquois

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
The Iroquois were the one tribe of Native American people besides the Seminole whom Sturtevant studied intensely. This subseries documents his major Iroquois projects including studies of false face masks, wampum belts, the Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma, and the Lewis Henry Morgan ethnographic collection at the Rochester Museum and Science Center in Rochester, NY.
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-24, Subseries 2.4
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref4968

Object n.d

Physical description:
1 photograph 007 in x 009 in
Culture:
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
nd
Local number:
NAA INV 06454100
OPPS NEG 02860 ZZ15B
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_13172

[Morgan Wampum Research Notes]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 159
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1988-1989
Scope and Contents note:
wampum, repatriation, research schedule, NYHS, NYSL, Morgan
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref5386

[Wampum Belts of NYSM]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 160
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Scope and Contents note:
wampum (Morgan project)
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref5448

[Iroquois Wampum Belts-NY State Museum]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1989
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref5155

Wampum belts of the Iroquois / by Tehanetorens

Author:
Tehanetorens  Search this
Physical description:
128 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Juvenile literature
Date:
1999
Topic:
Wampum belts  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_663741

[Iroquois Confederacy Request Regarding two Wampum Items]

Collection Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Container:
Box 407
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1995
Collection Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2008-24-ref10994

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