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Volume 1, 1860-1868

Alternate Title:
Journal of Facts in Natural History  Search this
Collection name:
Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 1 Folder 1
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Illustrations
Clippings (information artifacts)
Place:
United States
Illinois
Date Range:
1860-1866
Start Date:
1860
End Date:
1866
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007123
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
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Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869
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Walsh, B. D. (Benjamin Dann), 1808-1869
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI7263
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Volume 2, 1867-1869

Alternate Title:
Journal of Facts in Natural History  Search this
Collection name:
Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 1 Folder 2
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Illustrations
Clippings (information artifacts)
Place:
United States
Illinois
Date Range:
1867-1869
Start Date:
1867
End Date:
1869
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007123
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Benjamin Dann Walsh Field Notebooks, 1860-1869
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Walsh, B. D. (Benjamin Dann), 1808-1869
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI7264
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Hydrographic sheet no. 1118, 1871

Collection name:
National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology Research Records, 1856-1891, 1913, 1963, 1975, 1993-1944, 1999
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 1 Folder 32
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Place:
United States
Vermont
New York
Champlain, Lake
Date Range:
1871
Start Date:
1871
End Date:
1871
Topic:
Marine Invertebrates  Search this
Accession #:
SIA Acc. 16-122
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
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National Museum of Natural History, Department of Paleobiology Research Records, 1856-1891, 1913, 1963, 1975, 1993-1944, 1999
See more records associated with this person:
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI8257

Field notes and maps, various years between circa 1931 and 1955

Collection name:
G. Arthur Cooper Papers, 1923-1993 and undated
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 34 Folder 1
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Place:
United States
Canada
Tennessee
Oklahoma
Virginia
Georgia
Alabama
Minnesota
Quebec
Texas
Kansas
New Mexico
Date Range:
1931-1955
Start Date:
1931
End Date:
1955
Topic:
Paleontology  Search this
Geology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007318
Access Information:
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G. Arthur Cooper Papers, 1923-1993 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Cooper, G. Arthur (Gustav Arthur) 1902-
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI2045
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Journal of Richard E. Blackwelder, West Indies, vol. 6

Collection name:
Richard E. Blackwelder Papers, 1926-1964
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 1 Folder 11
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Diary
Maps
Place:
Puerto Rico
Jamaica
Saint Croix
Virgin Islands of the United States
El Yunque
Date Range:
1936-1937
Start Date:
19361028
End Date:
19370307
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Beetles  Search this
Accession #:
SIA Acc. 96-099
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
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Richard E. Blackwelder Papers, 1926-1964
See more records associated with this person:
Blackwelder, Richard E.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI2406
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Travelog of 1962-1963 South American trip

Collection name:
Doris Mable Cochran papers, circa 1891-1968
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 12 Folder 3
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Diary
Place:
Brazil
Colombia
Panama
Isla Barro Colorado
Rio de Janeiro
Bogotá
Peru
Argentina
São Paulo
Date Range:
1962-1963
Start Date:
19621203
End Date:
19630222
Topic:
Herpetology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007151
Access Information:
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Doris Mable Cochran papers, circa 1891-1968
See more records associated with this person:
Cochran, Doris M. (Doris Mable), 1898-1968
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI3804
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Camping in the Adirondacks

Alternate Title:
Account of a canoe trip through the Adirondacks : my first travelogue  Search this
Collection name:
Ellsworth Paine Killip Papers, 1914-1950
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 2 Folder 10
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
United States
New York
Adirondack Mountains
Raquette Lake
Mountain Pond
Black Bear Mountain
Date Range:
1948
Start Date:
19480712
End Date:
19480712
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007375
Access Information:
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Ellsworth Paine Killip Papers, 1914-1950
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Killip, Ellsworth Paine, 1890-
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI3923
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Field notes, Grand Canyon, Arizona, April 22-July 9, 1939, Pennsylvania, New York, and Kentucky, July 15-October 3, 1939

Collection name:
Vernon Bailey Papers, 1889-1941 and undated, field notes and journals, 1889-1941
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 5 Folder 8
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Place:
United States
Grand Canyon
Arizona
House Rock Valley
Saddle Canyon
South Canyon
Saddle Mountain
Jacob Lake
Bright Angel Canyon
New York
Albany
Glens Falls
Date Range:
1939
Start Date:
19390422
End Date:
19361003
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Mammologists  Search this
Botany  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007267
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Vernon Bailey Papers, 1889-1941 and undated, field notes and journals, 1889-1941
See more records associated with this person:
Bailey, Vernon, 1864-1942
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI1194
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Field notes, 1880 (1 of 2)

Alternate Title:
Notebook No. 1, 1880  Search this
Collection name:
William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 24 Folder 7
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Place:
Alaska
Sitka
Bering River
United States
Mount Fairweather
Kachemak Bay
Date Range:
1880
Start Date:
18800513
End Date:
18800822
Topic:
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey  Search this
Natural history  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007073
Access Information:
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William H. Dall Papers, circa 1839-1858, 1862-1927
See more records associated with this person:
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI529
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A - M

Collection name:
Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 2 Folder 9
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Correspondence
Receipts (financial records)
Timetables
Place:
Virginia
Potomac
Maryland
Patuxent
Canada
Nomini Cliffs
United States
Chesapeake Beach
Date Range:
1886-1908
Start Date:
18860425
End Date:
19081110
Topic:
Miocene  Search this
Cetaceans  Search this
Mammalogy  Search this
Paleontology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007181
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
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Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910
See more records associated with this person:
True, Frederick William, 1858-1914
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI699
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N - Z

Collection name:
Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910
Physical Description:
1 field book
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 2 Folder 10
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Correspondence
Place:
United States
Chesapeake Beach
Maryland
Date Range:
1904-1908
Start Date:
19040701
End Date:
19081021
Topic:
Paleontology  Search this
Cetaceans  Search this
Miocene  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007181
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Frederick William True Papers, circa 1886-1910
See more records associated with this person:
True, Frederick William, 1858-1914
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI703
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South American trip, 1939

Collection name:
William M. Mann and Lucile Quarry Mann field books, 1914-1940
Physical Description:
1 folder
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 24
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Scrapbooks
Place:
Brazil
Argentina
Rio de Janeiro
Córdoba
Buenos Aires
La Plata
Nahuel Huapí, lago
Date Range:
1939
Start Date:
19390400
End Date:
19391212
Topic:
Zoos  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Wild animal collecting  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007293
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
William M. Mann and Lucile Quarry Mann field books, 1914-1940
See more records associated with this person:
Mann, Lucile Quarry, 1897-1986
Mann, William M., 1886-1960
Shippen, William H.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI75
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Western Union Telegraph Company Records

Creator:
United Telegraph Workers.  Search this
Western Union Telegraph Company  Search this
Extent:
452 Cubic feet (871 boxes and 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Scrapbooks
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Technical documents
Date:
circa 1820-1995
Summary:
The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into twenty-six (26) series and consists of approximately 400 cubic feet. The collection documents in photographs, scrapbooks, notebooks, correspondence, stock ledgers, annual reports, and financial records, the evolution of the telegraph, the development of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and the beginning of the communications revolution. The collection materials describe both the history of the company and of the telegraph industry in general, particularly its importance to the development of the technology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The collection is useful for researchers interested in the development of technology, economic history, and the impact of technology on American social and cultural life.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into twenty-six series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Information, 1851-1994

Series 2: Subsidiaries of Western Union, 1844-1986

Series 3: Executive Records, 1848-1987

Series 4: Presidential Letterbooks and Writings, 1865-1911

Series 5: Correspondence, 1837-1985

Series 6: Cyrus W. Field Papers, 1840-1892

Series 7: Secretary's Files, 1844-1987

Series 8: Financial Records, 1859-1995

Series 9: Legal Records, 1867-1968

Series 10: Railroad Records, 1854-1945

Series 11: Law Department Records, 1868-1979

Series 12: Patent Materials, 1840-1970

Series 13: Operating Records, 1868-1970s

Series 14: Westar VI-S, 1974, 1983-1986

Series 15: Engineering Department Records, 1874-1970

Series 16: Plant Department Records, 1867-1937, 1963

Series 17: Superintendent of Supplies Records, 1888-1948

Series 18: Employee/Personnel Records 1852-1985

Series 19: Public Relations Department Records, 1858-1980

Series 20: Western Union Museum, 1913-1971

Series 21: Maps, 1820-1964

Series 22: Telegrams, 1852-1960s

Series 23: Photographs, circa 1870-1980

Series 24: Scrapbooks, 1835-1956

Series 25: Notebooks, 1880-1942

Series 26: Audio Visual Materials, 1925-1994

Series 27: Materials for Interfile (Series 1; Series 3; Series 13; Series 15-23; Series 25-26)
Biographical / Historical:
In 1832 Samuel F. B. Morse, assisted by Alfred Vail, conceived of the idea for an electromechanical telegraph, which he called the "Recording Telegraph." This commercial application of electricity was made tangible by their construction of a crude working model in 1835-36. This instrument probably was never used outside of Professor Morse's rooms where it was, however, operated in a number of demonstrations. This original telegraph instrument was in the hands of the Western Union Telegraph Company and had been kept carefully over the years in a glass case. It was moved several times in New York as the Western Union headquarters building changed location over the years. The company presented it to the Smithsonian Institution in 1950.

The telegraph was further refined by Morse, Vail, and a colleague, Leonard Gale, into working mechanical form in 1837. In this year Morse filed a caveat for it at the U.S. Patent Office. Electricity, provided by Joseph Henry's 1836 "intensity batteries", was sent over a wire. The flow of electricity through the wire was interrupted for shorter or longer periods by holding down the key of the device. The resulting dots or dashes were recorded on a printer or could be interpreted orally. In 1838 Morse perfected his sending and receiving code and organized a corporation, making Vail and Gale his partners.

In 1843 Morse received funds from Congress to set-up a demonstration line between Washington and Baltimore. Unfortunately, Morse was not an astute businessman and had no practical plan for constructing a line. After an unsuccessful attempt at laying underground cables with Ezra Cornell, the inventor of a trench digger, Morse switched to the erection of telegraph poles and was more successful. On May 24, 1844, Morse, in the U.S. Supreme Court Chambers in Washington, sent by telegraph the oft-quoted message to his colleague Vail in Baltimore, "What hath God wrought!"

In 1845 Morse hired Andrew Jackson's former postmaster general, Amos Kendall, as his agent in locating potential buyers of the telegraph. Kendall realized the value of the device, and had little trouble convincing others of its potential for profit. By the spring he had attracted a small group of investors. They subscribed $15,000 and formed the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Many new telegraph companies were formed as Morse sold licenses wherever he could.

The first commercial telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the spring of 1846 by the Magnetic Telegraph Company. Shortly thereafter, F. O. J. Smith, one of the patent owners, built a line between New York City and Boston. Most of these early companies were licensed by owners of Samuel Morse patents. The Morse messages were sent and received in a code of dots and dashes.

At this time other telegraph systems based on rival technologies were being built. Some companies used the printing telegraph, a device invented by a Vermonter, Royal E. House, whose messages were printed on paper or tape in Roman letters. In 1848 a Scotch scientist, Alexander Bain, received his patents on a telegraph. These were but two of many competing and incompatible technologies that had developed. The result was confusion, inefficiency, and a rash of suits and counter suits.

By 1851 there were over fifty separate telegraph companies operating in the United States. This corporate cornucopia developed because the owners of the telegraph patents had been unsuccessful in convincing the United States and other governments of the invention's potential usefulness. In the private sector, the owners had difficulty convincing capitalists of the commercial value of the invention. This led to the owners' willingness to sell licenses to many purchasers who organized separate companies and then built independent telegraph lines in various sections of the country.

Hiram Sibley moved to Rochester, New York, in 1838 to pursue banking and real estate. Later he was elected sheriff of Monroe County. In Rochester he was introduced to Judge Samuel L. Selden who held the House Telegraph patent rights. In 1849 Selden and Sibley organized the New York State Printing Telegraph Company, but they found it hard to compete with the existing New York, Albany, and Buffalo Telegraph Company.

After this experience Selden suggested that instead of creating a new line, the two should try to acquire all the companies west of Buffalo and unite them into a single unified system. Selden secured an agency for the extension throughout the United States of the House system. In an effort to expand this line west, Judge Selden called on friends and the people in Rochester. This led, in April 1851, to the organization of a company and the filing in Albany of the Articles of Association for the "New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company" (NYMVPTC), a company which later evolved into the Western Union Telegraph Company.

In 1854 there were two rival systems of the NYMVPTC in the West. These two systems consisted of thirteen separate companies. All the companies were using Morse patents in the five states north of the Ohio River. This created a struggle between three separate entities, leading to an unreliable and inefficient telegraph service. The owners of these rival companies eventually decided to invest their money elsewhere and arrangements were made for the NYMVPTC to purchase their interests.

Hiram Sibley recapitalized the company in 1854 under the same name and began a program of construction and acquisition. The most important takeover was carried out by Sibley when he negotiated the purchase of the Morse patent rights for the Midwest for $50,000 from Jeptha H. Wade and John J. Speed, without the knowledge of Ezra Cornell, their partner in the Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company (EMTC). With this acquisition Sibley proceeded to switch to the superior Morse system. He also hired Wade, a very capable manager, who became his protege and later his successor. After a bitter struggle Morse and Wade obtained the EMTC from Cornell in 1855, thus assuring dominance by the NYMVPTC in the Midwest. In 1856 the company name was changed to the "Western Union Telegraph Company," indicating the union of the Western lines into one compact system. In December, 1857, the Company paid stockholders their first dividend.

Between 1857 and 1861 similar consolidations of telegraph companies took place in other areas of the country so that most of the telegraph interests of the United States had merged into six systems. These were the American Telegraph Company (covering the Atlantic and some Gulf states), The Western Union Telegraph Company (covering states North of the Ohio River and parts of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Minnesota), the New York Albany and Buffalo Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company (covering New York State), the Atlantic and Ohio Telegraph Company (covering Pennsylvania), the Illinois & Mississippi Telegraph Company (covering sections of Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois), and the New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Company (covering the southern Mississippi Valley and the Southwest). All these companies worked together in a mutually friendly alliance, and other small companies cooperated with the six systems, particularly some on the West Coast.

By the time of the Civil War, there was a strong commercial incentive to construct a telegraph line across the western plains to link the two coasts of America. Many companies, however, believed the line would be impossible to build and maintain.

In 1860 Congress passed, and President James Buchanan signed, the Pacific Telegraph Act, which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to seek bids for a project to construct a transcontinental line. When two bidders dropped out, Hiram Sibley, representing Western Union, was the only bidder left. By default Sibley won the contract. The Pacific Telegraph Company was organized for the purpose of building the eastern section of the line. Sibley sent Wade to California, where he consolidated the small local companies into the California State Telegraph Company. This entity then organized the Overland Telegraph Company, which handled construction eastward from Carson City, Nevada, joining the existing California lines, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Sibley's Pacific Telegraph Company built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. Sibley put most of his resources into the venture. The line was completed in October, 1861. Both companies were soon merged into Western Union. This accomplishment made Hiram Sibley leader of the telegraph industry.

Further consolidations took place over the next several years. Many companies merged into the American Telegraph Company. With the expiration of the Morse patents, several organizations were combined in 1864 under the name of "The U.S. Telegraph Company." In 1866 the final consolidation took place, with Western Union exchanging stock for the stock of the other two organizations. The general office of Western Union moved at this time from Rochester to 145 Broadway, New York City. In 1875 the main office moved to 195 Broadway, where it remained until 1930 when it relocated to 60 Hudson Street.

In 1873 Western Union purchased a majority of shares in the International Ocean Telegraph Company. This was an important move because it marked Western Union's entry into the foreign telegraph market. Having previously worked with foreign companies, Western Union now began competing for overseas business.

In the late 1870s Western Union, led by William H. Vanderbilt, attempted to wrest control of the major telephone patents, and the new telephone industry, away from the Bell Telephone Company. But due to new Bell leadership and a subsequent hostile takeover attempt of Western Union by Jay Gould, Western Union discontinued its fight and Bell Telephone prevailed.

Despite these corporate calisthenics, Western Union remained in the public eye. The sight of a uniformed Western Union messenger boy was familiar in small towns and big cities all over the country for many years. Some of Western Union's top officials in fact began their careers as messenger boys.

Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century the telegraph became one of the most important factors in the development of social and commercial life of America. In spite of improvements to the telegraph, however, two new inventions--the telephone (nineteenth century) and the radio (twentieth century)--eventually replaced the telegraph as the leaders of the communication revolution for most Americans.

At the turn of the century, Bell abandoned its struggles to maintain a monopoly through patent suits, and entered into direct competition with the many independent telephone companies. Around this time, the company adopted its new name, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

In 1908 AT&T gained control of Western Union. This proved beneficial to Western Union, because the companies were able to share lines when needed, and it became possible to order telegrams by telephone. However, it was only possible to order Western Union telegrams, and this hurt the business of Western Union's main competitor, the Postal Telegraph Company. In 1913, however, as part of a move to prevent the government from invoking antitrust laws, AT&T completely separated itself from Western Union.

Western Union continued to prosper and it received commendations from the U.S. armed forces for service during both world wars. In 1945 Western Union finally merged with its longtime rival, the Postal Telegraph Company. As part of that merger, Western Union agreed to separate domestic and foreign business. In 1963 Western Union International Incorporated, a private company completely separate from the Western Union Telegraph Company, was formed and an agreement with the Postal Telegraph Company was completed. In 1994, Western Union Financial Services, Inc. was acquired by First Financial Management Corporation. In 1995, First Financial Management Corporation merged with First Data Corporation making Western Union a First Data subsidiary.

Many technological advancements followed the telegraph's development. The following are among the more important:

The first advancement of the telegraph occurred around 1850 when operators realized that the clicks of the recording instrument portrayed a sound pattern, understandable by the operators as dots and dashes. This allowed the operator to hear the message by ear and simultaneously write it down. This ability transformed the telegraph into a versatile and speedy system.

Duplex Telegraphy, 1871-72, was invented by the president of the Franklin Telegraph Company. Unable to sell his invention to his own company, he found a willing buyer in Western Union. Utilizing this invention, two messages were sent over the wire simultaneously, one in each direction.

As business blossomed and demand surged, new devices appeared. Thomas Edison's Quadruplex allowed four messages to be sent over the same wire simultaneously, two in one direction and two in the other.

An English automatic signaling arrangement, Wheatstone's Automatic Telegraph, 1883, allowed larger numbers of words to be transmitted over a wire at once. It could only be used advantageously, however, on circuits where there was a heavy volume of business.

Buckingham's Machine Telegraph was an improvement on the House system. It printed received messages in plain Roman letters quickly and legibly on a message blank, ready for delivery.

Vibroplex, c. 1890, a semi-automatic key sometimes called a "bug key," made the dots automatically. This relieved the operator of much physical strain.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Additional moving image about Western Union Telegraph Company can be found in the Industry on Parade Collection (AC0507). This includes Cable to Cuba! by Bell Laboratory, AT & T, featuring the cable ship, the C.S. Lord Kelvin, and Communications Centennial! by the Western Union Company.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Delaware.

Western Union International Records form part of the MCI International, Inc. Records at the First Data Corporation, Greenwood Village, Colorado.

Records of First Data Corporation and its predecessors, including Western Union, First Financial Management Corporation (Atlanta) and First Data Resources (Omaha). Western Union collection supports research of telegraphy and related technologies, and includes company records, annual reports, photographs, print and broadcast advertising, telegraph equipment, and messenger uniforms.

Smithsonian Institution Archives

Western Union Telegraph Expedition, 1865-1867

This collection includes correspondence, mostly to Spencer F. Baird, from members of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, including Kennicott, Dall, Bannister, and Elliott; copies of reports submitted to divisional chiefs from expedition staff members; newspaper clippings concerning the expedition; copies of notes on natural history taken by Robert Kennicott; and a journal containing meteorological data recorded by Henry M. Bannister from March to August, 1866.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts (apparatus and equipment) were donated to the Division of Information Technology and Society, now known as the Division of Work & Industry, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Western Union in September of 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements must be made to view some of the audio visual materials. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric engineering  Search this
Electric engineers  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Communication -- International cooperation  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Electrical science and technology  Search this
Communications equipment  Search this
Telegraphers  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Articles
Administrative records
Clippings
Books
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters
Photograph albums
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 19th century
Technical documents
Citation:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0205
See more items in:
Western Union Telegraph Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0205
Additional Online Media:

A Preliminary Study on the Suitability of Instrumental Neurton Activation Analysis (INAA) for Identifying Hathaway Formation Chert from the Northern Champlain Valley of Vermont

Author:
Hathaway, Allen D.  Search this
Speakman, Robert Jeff  Search this
Glascock, Michael D.  Search this
Boulanger, Matthew T.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2005
Topic:
Museum conservation methods  Search this
Museum techniques  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_56622

1855 - 1885 Laura Clark's Silk Patchwork Table Cover

Quilter:
Clark, Laura A. Baldwin  Search this
Physical Description:
fabric, silk, velvet, taffeta, ribbon, cotton (overall material)
thread, silk, cotton (overall material)
filling, cotton (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 64 in x 64 in; 163 cm x 163 cm
Object Name:
table cover, pieced
table cover, log cabin
Object Type:
quilts
Date made:
1855-1865
Subject:
Quilting  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Chester Wells Clark
ID Number:
TE.T10972
Accession number:
191408
Catalog number:
T10972
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Textiles
Domestic Furnishings
Quilts
Textiles
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_556359
Additional Online Media:

49th Annual Fair at Rutland, Rutland, Vermont, 1894

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Container:
Oversize 102, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Fairs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Fairs
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Fairs / Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other / 1: AMERICAN, 1880s-1950s
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-fairs-ref560

Two Americas, One Place: Grandma Moses and Shirley Jackson

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2017-04-07T23:57:09.000Z
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_iAh4BY6T3xY

Senator Justin Morrill at the 2012 Festival

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2013-04-25T18:58:57.000Z
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolklife
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolklife
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_oEoPhVM2db8

"Mother in the Graveyard" by Anna & Elizabeth [Official Music Video]

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-07T19:14:24.000Z
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolkways
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolkways
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_owl6pZc0zlI

Sedimentary Rock Clay Concretions

Discipline:
Mineral Sciences  Search this
Region:
US Northeast (NY, CT, RI, MA, VT, NH, ME)  Search this
Object Type:
Education and Outreach collections
Collecting Locality:
North America, United States, Vermont, Caledonia County
Topic:
Education & Outreach  Search this
Scientific Name:
Sedimentary Rock Clay Concretions
USNM Number:
EO45134-CON
See more items in:
Q?rius, The Coralyn W. Whitney Science Education Center
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnheducation_10880151

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