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Deaconess Harriet M. Bedell photographs

Creator:
Bedell, Harriet M., 1875-  Search this
Extent:
233 Photographic prints (black and white)
115 copy negatives (black and white)
Culture:
Gwich'in (Kutchin)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Alaska
Oklahoma
Florida
Date:
1910-1939
Summary:
Photographs in this collection include indoor and outdoor portraits, domestic scenes, landscapes of Gwich'in (Kutchin), Seminole and Cheyenne Indians taken by Deaconess M. Bedell from her work as missionary between 1907-1939.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs made by Deaconess Bedell while she worked as an Episcopal missionary among the Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Gwich'in (Kutchin), and Seminole peoples in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Florida respectively. Although Bedell work in Oklahoma from 1907 to 1916, the Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai photographs are dated from 1910 to 1915 and consist of informal group portraits of men, women, and children dressed in both traditional and Anglo American clothing; group pictures of school children--boys and girls--at the Whirlwind Mission school and the mission campus itself; and traditional and Anglo American dwellings of Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai individuals. Among these photographs are studio portraits collected but likely not made by Bedell. Bedell worked in Alaska from 1916 to 1931; the Alaska photographs in the collection date from 1926 to 1931. Among the photographs are informal, outdoor group portraits of Gwich'in men, women, and children, and photographs depicting the landscape, dog sled teams, and Gwich'in dwellings, summer camps, and men fishing and boxing.The Florida photographs date from 1933 to 1939 and depict informal, outdoor group and single portraits of Seminole men, women, and children in traditioanl clothing, photographs depicting men rowing dugouts, Seminole dwellings (chickees), camps, and baskets. Most of these photographs were made at the Glade Cross Mission in the Everglades. The negatives are primarily copy negatives.
Arrangement note:
Prints: organized in folders; arranged by print number

Negatives: organized in envelopes; arranged by negative number
Biographical/Historical note:
Harriet Mary Bedell was born on March 19, 1875, in Buffalo, New York, to Horace Ira Bedell and Louisa Sophia Oberist. Bedell was confirmed in the Episcopalian church and graduated from Normal School in 1894. Following graduation, Bedell worked as a school teacher before deciding to enroll in the New York City Training School for Deaconesses in 1906. She also spent several months in Buffalo at a local hospital learning the rudiments of nursing. Between 1907 and 1916 Bedell was sent to the Whirlwind mission in Blaine County, Oklahoma. There, she worked as a missionary-teacher among the Cheyenne alongside Deacon Oakerhater (Cheyenne). During her time in Oklahoma Bedell contracted Tuberculosis and spent some time in Denver, Colorado recovering. By 1916 plans were made to close the Mission and Bedell was told she was to be transferred to Alaska where her teaching skills were needed. She accepted the remote post in Stevens Village, Alaska, among the Gwich'in (Kutchin) people. In 1922, Bedell left Alaska briefly to be officially ordained as a Deaconess in Portland, Oregon. During her time in Alaska, Bedell also established a boarding school in nearby Tanana but due to the stock market crash of 1929 and the scarcity of funds the boarding facility was unable to remain open. In 1931, following an unsuccessful trip to Buffalo to try and raise money, it was decided that there was no reason for Bedell to return to Alaska.

In 1933, Bedell travelled to Florida by invitation to speak and was appalled by the living conditions she witnessed among the Seminole in southern Florida. Bedell worked to reopen the Glade Cross Mission in Everglades City which had closed in 1914 as well as opening a new Mission in Collier City. In addition to focusing on health and education, Bedell encouraged the Seminole women she worked with to revive traditional doll-making, basket-weaving and intricate patchwork designs. Bedell worked in South Florida until 1960 when hurricane Donna destroyed her home and the Glade Cross Mission and she decided to retire. Bedell lived to be 94 and spent her final years at the Bishop Gray Inn in Davenport, Florida until her death on January 8, 1969. In the year 2000 Bedell was named a "Great Floridian" and in the diocese of Southwest Florida celebrate Harriet Bedell Day annually on January 8th.
Related Materials:
The Harriet Bedell Collection of 126 prints of Bedell working among the Seminole Indians in South Florida from 1933 to 1960 is located at the State Library and Archives of Florida. Information can be found here: Harriet Bedell Collection.
Provenance:
In 1940 Harriet Bedell sent her negatives to the Museum of the American Indian, via William Stiles, to be made into prints. These prints are the bulk of the collection [P14817-P14911, P14955-P15050]. Later in 1940 Bedell presented the museum with an additional 29 prints [P14913-P14941] and in 1941and 1942 Bedell sent two additional gifts totaling 13 prints [P15328-P15330, P15355-P15364].
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Gwich'in Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Cheyenne Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Seminole Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Women missionaries -- United States  Search this
Women in the Episcopal Church  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Deaconess Harriet M. Bedell photographs, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.037
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-037
Additional Online Media:

Plains

Collection Creator:
Jenkins, Dale  Search this
Extent:
21 Postcards
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 25
Photo-folder 26
Photo-folder 27
Photo-folder 28
Photo-folder 29
Photo-folder 30
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Photographic prints
Date:
1890-1930
Scope and Contents:
This series contains 21 postcards and 1 cabinet card. The images include depictions of Apache, Arapahoe, Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kiowa, Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet), Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux), Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), and Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne) communities. Individuals specifically identified are Buffalo Calf (Jicarilla Apache), James A. Garfield (Jicarilla Apache), Wenona Turkey Legs (Arapahoe), Kicking Bird (Kiowa), Henry Between Lodge [Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)], Low Dog [Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)], Nellie Old Man [Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)], Black Eagle, Black Hawk, and Holy Eagle.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection, NMAI.AC.069, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.069, Series 7
See more items in:
Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-069-ref507

Chief Two Moons

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box B22 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Chief Two Moons wearing a shirt trimmed with ermine tails and a necklace decorated with bear claws and large bells. He stands in front of a tipi. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13683
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref539

Group portrait

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 246 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1910
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of men, women, and children [Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)] standing in front of a tipi. Photograph shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 possibly on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13699
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref554

Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection

Creator:
Evelyn, Douglas E.  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
42 printed pages
30 Postcards
25 Photographic prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Printed pages
Postcards
Photographic prints
Date:
1880-1960
Summary:
This collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs depicting indigenous peoples of North and Central America, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views.
Scope and Contents:
The Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The images depict indigenous peoples of the Americas, and spans a large geographical breadth extending from the Arctic in the north to El Salvador in Central America in the south. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views. Of particular note are the NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, marketed towards children from 1949 to 1952, which depict outdoor activities as romanticized constructions about American Indian identity and life.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 9 series, organized thematically and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, Series 2: Arctic/Subarctic, Series 3: Northwest Coast, Series 4: California, Series 5: Southwest, Series 6: Plains, Series 7: Northeast/Great Lakes, Series 8: Southeast, Series 9: Central America
Biographical / Historical:
Douglas E. Evelyn worked for several decades in senior-level management positions with the Smithsonian Institution, including the National Portrait Gallery, the National Museum of American History, and the National Museum of the American Indian. Evelyn is also the author of a number of scholarly articles and books, among them On This Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C., co-authored with Paul Dickson.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Douglas E. Evelyn in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
The following images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity: 226_pht_010_003; 226_pht_010_004; 226_pht_012_002; P33114; P33116; P33120.
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Central America -- El Salvador  Search this
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.226
See more items in:
Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-226
Additional Online Media:

Plains

Collection Creator:
Evelyn, Douglas E.  Search this
Extent:
9 Postcards
7 Stereographs
Container:
Photo-folder 9
Photo-folder 10
Photo-folder 14
Photo-folder 15
Photo-folder 16
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Photographs
Postcards
Stereographs
Date:
1900-1937
Scope and Contents:
Postcards: 226_pht_009_001; 226_pht_009_002; 226_pht_009_003; 226_pht_009_004; 226_pht_009_005; 226_pht_010_001; 226_pht_010_002; 226_pht_010_003 (Restricted); 226_pht_010_004 (Restricted); Stereographs: P33121; P33126; P33127; P33128; P33132; P33133; P33134

This series contains 9 postcards and 7 stereographs. The images include depictions of Kiowa, Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Niuam (Comanche), Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), and White Mountain Apache communities. Individuals specifically identified are Bald Eagle (Sioux), Ho-Wear [Niuam (Comanche)], Horseback [Niuam (Comanche)], and Min-nin-ne-wah or Whirlwind [Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)]. Also represented in this series are a landscape image of the Garden of the Gods in Colorado Springs, as well as an exterior view of the buildings at the Kickapoo Mission in Horton, Kansas.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
The following images in this series are restricted due to cultural sensitivity: 226_pht_010_003; 226_pht_010_004.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.226, Series 6
See more items in:
Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-226-ref6

Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian

Photographer:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
96 photomechanical prints (photogravure proofs)
184 printing plates (copper printing plates)
Culture:
Twana Indians  Search this
Hoh  Search this
Walla Walla Indians  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Suquamish Indians  Search this
Skokomish Indians  Search this
Quinault Indians  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Tolowa Indians  Search this
Hupa Indians  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Squaxon  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Achomawi Indians  Search this
Klamath Indians  Search this
Yurok Indians  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Cayuse Indians  Search this
Northern Paiute Indians  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Kalispel Indians  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Yakama Indians  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Serrano Indians  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Kupangaxwichem (Kupa/Cupeño)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Hualapai Indians  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Tohono O'Odham  Search this
Mojave  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Yokuts Indians  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Southern Mewuk (Southern Miwok)  Search this
Wailaki Indians  Search this
Pomo Indians  Search this
Wappo Indians  Search this
Maidu Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photomechanical prints
Printing plates
Photogravures
Photographs
Date:
1899-1927
circa 1980
Summary:
The Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian include photogravure printing plates and associated proofs made from Curtis photographs and used in the publication of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The bulk of the images are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps.
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises 183 photogravure plates (101 folio and 82 octavo) and 96 associated proofs used in the printing of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The original photographs used to make the photogravures were made circa 1903-1926 and the photogravure plates were made in 1907-1930. The bulk are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps. About half of the proofs in the collection are originals used for Curtis's publication, though the collection also includes proofs made in the process of later publication by the Classic Gravure Company (circa 1980). Vintage proofs include handwritten notes, likely made by Curtis Studio employees in Seattle and Los Angeles. Many of the photogravure plates do not have matching proofs; in particular, there are no proofs for the octavo plates.
Arrangement:
The plates and proofs are arranged by the volume of The North American Indian in which they were published. They are described in this finding aid by the caption and plate number with which they were published.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer best known for his monumental and now-controversial project, the twenty-volume publication The North American Indian. Here he sought to document in words and pictures the "vanishing race" of American Indians.

Born in Wisconsin in 1868, Edward Curtis grew up on his family's farm in Le Sueur County, Minnesota, from 1874 to 1887. In 1887, he and his father Johnson Curtis settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, and the rest of the family joined them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, the burden of providing for his mother and siblings fell to 20-year-old Edward, and Edward set out to do so through his photography. In 1891, Curtis moved to the booming city of Seattle and bought into a joint photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers" with Thomas Guptill; the enterprise quickly became a premier portrait studio for Seattle's elite. In 1895, Curtis made his first "Indian photograph" depicting Princess Angeline, daughter of the chief for whom Seattle had been named. The following year he earned his first medal from the National Photographic Convention for his "genre studies."

In 1899, Edward Curtis joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer, a position which allowed him to learn from anthropologists C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell while documenting the landscapes and peoples of the Alaskan coast. This expedition and the resulting friendship with Grinnell helped to foster Curtis's ultimate goal to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, The North American Indian). Curtis made several trips to reservations from 1900 to 1904, including a trip with Grinnell to Montana in 1900 and multiple trips to the Southwest, including the Hopi Reservation. He also hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank A. Rinehart, to manage the Curtis studio in his absence, a decision which would prove more and more fruitful as Curtis spent less and less time in Seattle.

In 1906, Curtis struck a deal with financier J. P. Morgan, whereby Morgan would support a company – The North American Indian, Inc. – with $15,000 for five years, by which time the project was expected to have ended. Systematic fieldwork for the publication began in earnest that summer season, with Curtis accompanied by a team of ethnological researchers and American Indian assistants. Arguably the most important member of Curtis' field team was William Myers, a former newspaperman who collected much of the ethnological data and completed most of the writing for the project. The first volume, covering Navajo and Apache peoples, was published at the end of 1907, but already Morgan's funding was incapable of meeting Curtis's needs. Despite heaping praise from society's elite, Curtis spent much of his time struggling to find people and institutions willing to subscribe to the expensive set of volumes. After the initial five years, only eight of the proposed twenty volumes had been completed. Fieldwork and publication continued with the support of J. P. Morgan, but Curtis's home life suffered because of his prolonged absences.

In 1919, Curtis's wife Clara was awarded a divorce settlement which included the entire Curtis studio in Seattle. Exhausted and bankrupt, Edward Curtis moved with his daughter Beth Magnuson to Los Angeles, where they operated a new Curtis Studio and continued work on the volumes; volume 12 was published in 1922. The constant financial strain forced Myers to leave the North American Indian team after volume 18 (fieldwork in 1926) and Curtis made his last trip to photograph and gather data for volume 20 in 1927. After the final volumes were published in 1930, Curtis almost completely faded from public notice until his work was "rediscovered" and popularized in the 1970s.

Curtis's "salvage ethnology," as scholar Mick Gidley describes it, was mildly controversial even during his life and has become ever more so as his legacy deepens. In his quest to photograph pre-colonial Indian life through a twentieth-century lens, he often manipulated and constructed history as much as he recorded it: he staged reenactments, added props, and removed evidence of twentieth-century influences on "primitive" life. Curtis's work continues to shape popular conceptions of American Indians and so, while problematic, his legacy--his vision of American Indian life--continues to be relevant.
Related Materials:
NMAI also holds Edward Curtis photographs documenting the Harriman Expedition (1899) as well as platinum prints and photogravures of the images published in The North American Indian.

The Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives holds Edward Curtis prints submitted for copyright (Photo Lot 59) as well as many of his original negatives, photographs, and papers.

Steve Kern donated photogravure plates to the Center for Creative Photography and the Seattle Art Museum at the same time that he donated this set to MAI.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Steven and Arlene Kern to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1984.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Salish Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photogravures
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.080
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-080
Additional Online Media:

Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs

Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
56 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1898-1901
Summary:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs were shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 and the Greater America Exposition, 1899, both held in Omaha, Nebraska.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs depict photographic portraits and scenes of sham battles shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska, from June 1 to October 31, 1898. Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) and his assistant Adolph F. Muhr were the official photographers. During the Indian Congress they photographed more than 500 individuals and groups representing the estimated thirty-six tribes represented at the Exposition. Rinehart shot the majority of the outdoor battles, dance scenes, and events, while Muhr photographed the majority of the delegate portraits. Rinehart copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899 and 1900.

Other photographs in this collection are photographic portraits of American Indian leaders that were photographed by Herman Heyn and James Matzen at the Greater America Exposition in Omaha in 1899. Heyn copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899.

Finally, the collection also contains 7 loose photomechanical prints depicting portraits by photographer William Henry Jackson. These prints were colorized and published under Jackson's company the Detroit Photographic Co. Other loose color photomechanical prints include portraits shot by photographer William H. Rau (1855-1920) for the Chicago Inter-Ocean Newspaper in 1901.

The photograph titles were assigned by the photographers.
Arrangement:
The photographs in the album are in original order. The loose prints are organized into 3 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Byron Harvey, III (1932-2005) was an anthropologist and collector specializing in southwestern American Indian tribes. He was the great-grandson of Frederick Harvey, best known as the founder of the Fred Harvey Company that ran a successful chain of gift shops, restaurants, and hotels known as Harvey Houses. The Company also amassed a collection of American Indian art and sold many collections to museums including the Museum of the American Indian (NMAI's predecessor museum).

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition World's Fair was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June 1 to October 1898. Over 500 Indian delegates from over thirty-five different tribes were present at the Fair. James Mooney (Bureau of Ethnology) and Captain William A. Mercer organized and managed the Indian Congress in conjunction with the Exposition. It included "living exhibitions," with mock Indian villages and demonstrations of dances, daily activities, and sham battles.

The official photographer of the U.S. Indian Congress was Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) with his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913). The Rinehart and Muhr photographs are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.

After the Trans-Mississippi Exposition ended, the Greater America Exposition opened on the same fair grounds from July 1, 1899 to October 31, 1899. Herman Heyn and James Matzen won the contract to be the official photographer of the new Exposition. This Exposition featured many of the same buildings and set up as the Trans-Mississippi Exposition of the previous year.
Related Materials:
The Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas has a large collection of Frank Rinehart photographs from U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including the original glass plate negatives.

The National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center also holds other photographs shot by Rinehart and Muhr at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including collection NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
Donated by Byron Harvey, III in 1966.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Greater America Exposition (1899 : Omaha, Neb.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-119
Additional Online Media:

Touch the Cloud, Cheyennes, No. 786

Collection Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1898
Scope and Contents:
Photographic portrait of delegate Touch the Cloud [Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)] in traditional clothing. Photographed by Frank Rinehart or his Assistant Adolph Muhr at the U.S. Indian Congress Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, 1898.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119, Item P27481
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-119-ref1

Chief Wolf Robe, Cheyenne

Collection Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1898
Scope and Contents:
Full length studio portrait of Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne) delegate Chief Wolf Robe (ca. 1840-1910), wearing a peace medal and holding a pipe and a beaded pouch. Photographed by Frank Rinehart or his assistant Adolph Muhr at the U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, 1898.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119, Item P27515
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-119-ref37

Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection

Photographer:
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Extent:
43 Photographic prints
0.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Southern Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Kitchai Wichita  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Oglala Lakota [Pine Ridge]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Date:
1882-1913
Summary:
This collection consists of 43 photographic prints of Native American peoples from throughout North America. Dating from 1882 to 1913, the images in this collection document a variety of Native American communities and events, including the U.S. Indian Congress which took place at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska. Photographers include Frank A. Rinehart, Adolph F. Muhr, and Roland W. Reed, as well as a series of images by an unknown photographer who also documented American Indian life.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection consists of 43 photographic prints of Native American peoples at the turn of the twentieth century. Dating from 1882 to 1913, the images in this collection document a variety of Native American communities and events, including the U.S. Indian Congress which took place at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska. This exposition, also referred to as the 1898 World's Fair, was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June through October, 1898. Attending the U.S. Indian Congress at the fair were over 500 American Indian delegates representing more than 35 Native communities from throughout the United States.

In addition to the Rinehart and Muhr 1898 photographs are also a number of staged portrait images created by Roland W. Reed in the early decades of the twentieth century. Traveling throughout the U.S. West and Canada, Reed photographed Native communities ranging from Minnesota to Montana and Canada, and extending to Arizona in the Southwest U.S.

This collection also consists of 18 photographs contemporary to those of Rinehart and Reed, dating approximately 1882 – 1904. The photographer(s) of these images is unknown. Although specific communities are not identified, many images appear to portray Northern Plains and Central Plains American Indian peoples.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series, organized by photographer, and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: Frank A. Rinehart photographs, Series 2: Roland W. Reed photographs, Series 3: Unknown photographer
Biographical / Historical:
Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) was born in Illinois, opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska in 1885 or 1886, and is best known for his work as the official photographer of the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha. In addition to portrait photographs of Native American delegates attending the U.S. Indian Congress of 1898, Rinehart as official exposition photographer also documented the broader exhibits and events that took place at the 1898 Omaha World's Fair.

Adolph R. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913) worked as Frank A. Rinehart's assistant at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, creating a photographic record of the events and attendees. While Rinehart documented many of the outdoor sham-battles, dance scenes, and other events related to the U.S. Indian Congress, Muhr was responsible for the majority of the posed delegate portraits. Muhr in later years worked with photographer Edward S. Curtis in Seattle, until Muhr's death in 1913.

Roland W. Reed (1864-1934) was born in Wisconsin, and is best known for traveling widely throughout the western United States and Canada, photographing Native American communities. Having apprenticed with photographer Daniel Dutro in 1890s Montana, Reed later ran photography studios in both Ortonville and Bemidji, Minnesota in the early 1900s. Over the next few decades he continued to document the lives and cultures of Native peoples, opening photography studios in Kalispell, Montana in 1909, and later in San Diego, California in 1915. Many of Reed's photographs are clearly staged, representing romanticized and stereotyped images of what Reed believed Native American life to be. He died in Colorado in 1934.
Related Materials:
The NMAI Archive Center collections also include an album of 18 photographic prints of Frank A. Rinehart's U.S. Indian Congress images: U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition photograph album, NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Dakota County Historical Society, South St. Paul, MN, in 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection, NMAI.AC.289; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.289
See more items in:
Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-289
Additional Online Media:

Roland W. Reed photographs

Photographer:
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Collection Photographer:
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Extent:
10 Photographic prints
Container:
Photo-folder 4
Photo-folder 5
Photo-folder 6
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1908-1913
Scope and Contents:
This series contains 10 photographic prints of Native American men and women photographed by Roland W. Reed between 1908 and 1913. Traveling throughout the U.S. West and Canada, Reed photographed Native communities ranging from Minnesota to Montana and Canada, and extending to Arizona in the Southwest U.S. Images of particular communities include Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa); Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan); Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne); Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood); Diné (Navajo); and Hopi Pueblo.

Photograph titles were written by Reed.

Numbers written on the verso of these photographic prints were supplied by the donor, (the Dakota County Historical Society), and do not necessarily correspond with the processing or organization of these materials as they are now presented.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection, NMAI.AC.289; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.289, Series 2
See more items in:
Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-289-ref17

Little Martin

Collection Photographer:
Reed, Roland, 1864-1934  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 5
Culture:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1913
Scope and Contents:
Photographic print of Little Martin [Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)]. Photographed by Roland W. Reed in Montana, in 1913.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection, NMAI.AC.289; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.289, Item 289_pht_005_004
See more items in:
Frank A. Rinehart and Roland W. Reed photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-289-ref24

Group of Native men at Fort Laramie for the treaty signing

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) and Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne) men Fire Thunder, Man Afraid of His Horses, and Pipe gathered at Fort Laramie for the treaty signing.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15384
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref94

Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition

Photographer:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Creator:
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear Feet
17 photographs
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Dakota -- Yanktonai  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Lakota -- Oglala  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Photographs
Date:
1909
Summary:
This collection consists of seventeen photogravures from Joseph K. Dixon's 1913 published book, The Vanishing Race. These images are part of the larger work of Rodman Wanamaker in his expeditions (1908-1913) to document the lives and cultures of Native American peoples.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of seventeen photogravures from Joseph K. Dixon's 1913 book, The Vanishing Race. Although published in 1913, the 80 photogravures in Dixon's work were taken in 1909. These images are part of the larger work of Rodman Wanamaker in his expeditions (1908-1913) to document the lives and cultures of Native American peoples, whom he viewed as a "noble, though vanishing race." Wanamaker's first and second expeditions (1908 and 1909) both took place in the Valley of the Little Bighorn, Montana, portrayed Native American men and women from throughout the United States, and included extensive photographic and moving picture footage. Wanamaker's third expedition (1913) was broader in scope, visiting and symbolically granting citizenship to over 250 Native American communities across the country. As with the first two expeditions, the third expedition, known as the "Rodman Wanamaker Expedition of Citizenship to the North American Indian," was photographed and filmed by Dixon.

Among the seventeen photogravures in this collection, many of note include portraits of tribal leaders Chief Koon-Kah-Za-Chy (Kiowa-Apache), Chief Two Moons (Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai [Cheyenne]), Chief Pretty Voice Eagle (Ihanktonwan Nakota [Yankton Sioux]), Chief Plenty Coups (Apsáalooke [Crow/Absaroke]), Chief Brave Bear (Southern Tsisistas/Suhtai [Cheyenne]), Chief Red Cloud (Oglala Lakota [Oglala Sioux]), and Chief Red Whip (A'aninin [Gros Ventre]). Other images include group portraits of the 1909 "Last Great Indian Council," as well as Native veterans of the 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn. Image titles created by Joseph K. Dixon.
Arrangement:
The photographs in this collection are organized into folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Rodman Wanamaker (1863-1928) was the sole surviving heir of Philadelphia-based department store magnate, John Wanamaker. Rodman, among his other philanthropic endeavors with the arts, believed that Native Americans were a "noble, though vanishing race," whose lives needed to be recorded before they disappeared. Because of this belief, he funded three expeditions (1908-1913) to "perpetuate the life stories of the first Americans." In addition, he also strove, and ultimately failed, to create a National Indian Memorial to be situated in New York City which would rival the Statue of Liberty.

Joseph K. Dixon (1858-1926) was born in New York, and received a bachelor of divinity degree from the Rochester Theological Seminary before becoming a lecturer for the Eastman Kodak photographic company in 1904. Two years later he was hired to work in Wanamaker's department store, and by 1908 he was chosen to lead the three Wanamaker expeditions (1908-1913) to document the lives and cultures of Native peoples of the United States. For the remainder of his life, Dixon frequently lectured on and continued to photograph the lives of Native Americans.
Related Materials:
Other photographic collections of Joseph K. Dixon's work and Rodman Wanamaker's expeditions exist in the Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives, and the Mathers Museum of World Cultures at Indiana University.
Provenance:
Museum Purchase, 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Montana  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.111
See more items in:
Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-111
Additional Online Media:

Chief Brave Bear

Collection Photographer:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic Print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic Prints
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents:
Portrait of Chief Brave Bear [Southern Tsisistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)] wearing headdress. Valley of the Little Bighorn, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-111-ref515

Chief Two Moons addressing the Council

Collection Photographer:
Dixon, Joseph K. (Joseph Kossuth)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Wanamaker, Rodman, 1863-1928  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic Print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic Prints
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents:
Chief Plenty Coups [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)] (on left) and Chief Two Moons [Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)] (on right) stand while addressing several men seated on ground before tipi. All wear war bonnets and war shirts, and several hold coup sticks. Valley of the Little Bighorn, Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Joseph K. Dixon photographs from the 1909 Wanamaker Expedition
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-111-ref521

George Bird and Elizabeth Curtis Grinnell photograph collection

Creator:
Tuell, Julia E.  Search this
Grinnell, George Bird, 1849-1938  Search this
Extent:
119 negatives (photographic) (119 glass plate negatives, black and white, 7 x 9 in.)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives (photographic)
Glass plate negatives
Place:
Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana
Rosebud County (Mont.)
Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma
Glacier National Park (Mont.)
Lame Deer (Mont.)
Washita County (Okla.)
Date:
1902-1910
Summary:
The core of this photographic collection (1902-1904) was taken during Grinnell's visits among the Northern (Montana, Rosebud County and Rosebud River, Lame Deer) and Southern (Washita County, Oklahoma) Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne). The photographs document domestic and daily life on the reservation (especially activies involving women), religious ceremonies, camps and dwellings, and important officials. The attributions of the photographs in this collection are far from certain. While many of these images appear to have been taken by Grinnell himself, a substantial portion were also taken by his wife Elizabeth Curtis Grinnell (b. 1876) and their friend Julia E. Tuell. A very small subset of these images (3) also depicts mountains and vistas in Glacier National Park (Flathead County, Glacier County) Montana.
Arrangement note:
negatives: organized in 6 boxes; arranged numerically by image number
Biographical/Historical note:
George Bird Grinnell, naturalist, conservationist and Indian rights activist, was born into a prominent family in Brooklyn, New York. He attended Yale University, receiving his B.A. in 1870 and a Ph.D. in paleontology in 1880. While at Yale, Grinnell participated in a paleontological expedition to the central Plains, Wyoming and Utah. In 1874 he served as naturalist and paleontologist in Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer's Black Hills expedition and, in 1875, was a member of William Ludlow's expedition surveying the Yellowstone. In 1899 Grinnell was a naturalist on Edward H. Harriman Expedition to Alaska. Grinnell's lifelong interest in the west was well established long before he left Yale. In 1876, four years before he earned his Ph.D., Grinnell became the editor-in-chief and soon-to-be owner of Forest and Stream magazine. Under his leadership, it became the country's foremost natural history magazine. Grinnell was the magazine's editor from 1876 until 1911, and he used its pages to help promote the creation of national parks. Grinnell played a pivotal role in the creation of Glacier National Park in 1910.

Grinnell's interest in the west extended to its native inhabitants. He was deeply interested in Plains Indians and, year after year, spent his summers visiting different reservations. He had befriended Frank North and his Pawnee scouts, and accompanied them on buffalo and elk hunts. Grinnell witnessed the destruction of game animals, brought about by commercial hunters, and was cognizant of its impact on Plains Indians' way of life. Grinnell, a prolific writer, authored several books and many articles on Cheyenne, Blackfoot, and Pawnee Indians, the most well-know of which was the two volume work entitled "The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Way of Life," first published in 1923. Until his death, he remained a staunch supporter of Cheyenne rights.

Grinnell was a founding member of both the Audubon Society and Boone and Crockett Club (with Theodore Roosevelt). He chaired the Council on National Parks, Forests and Wildlife, and was president of the National Parks Association. He was a trustee of the New York Zoological Society. Grinnell was also a prominent member of many other associations, such as the American Association of the Advancement of Science and New York Academy of Science. Grinnell was 89 years old when he died in New York City.
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
See manuscript items in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records at the NMAI Archive Center. See also the George Bird Grinnell photograph collection at the Braun Research Library, Southwest Museum, Autry National Center in Los Angeles.
Restrictions:
Researchers must contact the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Rights:
Some items restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Genre/Form:
Glass plate negatives
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.140
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-140

Double Trophy Roster Book

Photographer:
Sergeant Alexander Brown, Non-Indian, 1844-1884 and High Bull (Frank High Bull), Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), ca. 1848-1876  Search this
Culture/People:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
High Bull (Frank High Bull), Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), ca. 1848-1876 and Sergeant Alexander Brown, Non-Indian, 1844-1884  Search this
Previous owner:
Sergeant Alexander Brown, Non-Indian, 1844-1884  Search this
High Bull (Frank High Bull), Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), ca. 1848-1876  Search this
Sergeant James H. Turpin, Non-Indian, 1846-1893  Search this
Lieutenant Homer W. Wheeler (H.W. Wheeler), Non-Indian, 1848-1930  Search this
Military Service Institution of the United States, 1878-ca. 1916  Search this
John Jay White, Non-Indian, 1860-1923  Search this
Donor:
Grace Hoffman White (Virginia Grace Hoffman/Mrs. John Jay White), Non-Indian, 1862-1937  Search this
Title:
Double Trophy Roster Book
Object Name:
Book of ledger drawings
Media/Materials:
Paper, graphite, colored pencil, commercially tanned leather
Techniques:
Bound, written, drawn
Dimensions:
12.5 x 19 cm
Object Type:
Painting/Drawing/Print
Place:
Plains; USA, Canada (inferred)
Date created:
1876
Catalog Number:
10/8725
Barcode:
108725.000
See related items:
Northern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)
Painting/Drawing/Print
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, New York, NY
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_117473
Additional Online Media:

Pipebag

Culture/People:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Collector:
John W. Alder, Non-Indian, 1844-1919  Search this
Previous owner:
John W. Alder, Non-Indian, 1844-1919  Search this
Eugene C. Alder (Eugene Charles Alder), Non-Indian, 1876-1955  Search this
Seller:
Eugene C. Alder (Eugene Charles Alder), Non-Indian, 1876-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Pipebag
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, porcupine quills
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, overlay beadwork, quill-wrapped (flat)
Dimensions:
99 x 15 cm
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
Plains; USA, Canada (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/9285
Barcode:
109285.000
See related items:
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_117882
Additional Online Media:

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