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When Will History Repeat Itself?

Creator:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2007-11-06T19:29:34.000Z
Topic:
Astronomy  Search this
Youtube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
See more by:
cxcpub
YouTube Channel:
cxcpub
Data Source:
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_epuD4MEUnlA

Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection

Sponsor:
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (14 boxes )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1987-2003
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of oral history interviews conducted between 1993 and 2006 with individuals in the computing industry.
Biographical / Historical:
The Monticello Memoirs Program captured for posterity the story of the information technology revolution in the words of the men and women who are leading it. In private conversations and in public discussions at Thomas Jefferson's home at Monticello, on the grounds of the University of Virginia and at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the leaders of the information revolution reflected on its progress to date and their vision of the future. Captured for the research collections of the National Museum of American History, the dialogues of the Monticello Fellows will encourage others to follow in their footsteps, to learn from their mistakes and to emulate their innovative spirit and achievements.

The 1996 Monticello Memoirs Fellows included: Seymour Cray, founder Cray Research; Gordon Moore, co-founder, Intel Corporation; Gordon Bell, inventor of the minicomputer; Jay Forrester, system dynamics visionary; and Robert Metcalfe, founder, 3Com. The topics were explored in private conversations at Monticello and in public discussions on the grounds of the University of Virginia -- which Mr. Jefferson founded, designed and built.

The 1997 Monticello Memoirs Fellows included Eric Andersen, Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers; Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web; Danny Hillis, a pioneer of parallel processing; F. William Hoffman, Managing Partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers; Anita Jones, Director of Defense Research Engineering, U.S. Department of Defense; Henning Kagermann, Executive Board Member, SAP AG; Robert Kahn, co-creator of the Internet protocol; Roland Moreno, inventor of the smart card; Jacques Stern, an early pioneer in real-time computing; and Paul Wahl, President and Chief Executive Officer, SAP America Inc.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

In some instances reference (viewing) copies do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1303
See more items in:
Division of Information and Technology Computer Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1303

National Medal of Technology (nomination)

Collection Creator:
Woodland, N. Joseph, 1921-2012  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers, 1943-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
N. Joseph Woodland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1433-ref40

History of Smithsonian Folklife Oral History Interview

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (2 half document boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Audiotapes
Sound recordings
Oral history
Date:
2005-2006
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also reminiscences and interviews recorded by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Smithsonian predoctoral fellow, William S. Walker, of Brandeis University, conducted a series of oral history interviews on the history of folklife presentation at the Smithsonian, as part of his dissertation research.
Descriptive Entry:
The History of Folklife at the Smithsonian Oral History Interviews consist of 13.2 hours of analog and digital audio interviews, on 4 audiocassette tapes, 23 digital .wma and .mp3 audio files, and 369 pages of transcript. Each interview recording has two generations either an original and reference audiocassette or original digital audio files in Windows media audio or .mp3 format and .mp3 files for reference. The original analog cassettes and digital audio files are preserved in security storage with audiocassettes and .mp3 files available for reference.

Restrictions: Some of the interview sessions do not have deed of gift forms and permission must be secured from the interviewee or their heirs or assigns to use the interviews.
Historical Note:
Folklife studies are carried on in several organizational units of the Smithsonian Institution: the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), the Festival of American Folklife (FAF), and the National Museum of American History (NMAH), and the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). Dr. Walker began his project on the study and exhibition of folklife at the Smithsonian, focusing on the Folklife Festival and then expanded his interview scope to include other Smithsonian cultural scholars and solicit their views on the FAF and cultural studies, exhibition and public programming at the Smithsonian.

JoAllyn Archambault (1942- ), Director of the American Indian Program at the National Museum of Natural History, is an enrolled member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe. She earned her doctorate at the University of California in Berkeley in 1984. She was a faculty member of the Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukie, Wisconsin (1983-86), and the Director of Ethnic Studies, California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, California (1978-83). As curator of Anthropology at the NMNH since 1986, she organized various exhibitions, including Plains Indian Arts: Change and Continuity, 100 Years of Plains Indian Painting, Indian Baskets and Their Makers, and Seminole Interpretations.

Spencer Crew (1949- ) received the A.B. in history from Brown University in 1972 and holds a master's degree (1973) and a doctorate from Rutgers University (1979). He was assistant professor of African-American and American History at the University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1978-1981; historian, 1981-1987, curator 1987-1989, Department of Social and Cultural History, chair, 1989-1991, deputy director, 1991-1992, acting director, 1992-1994, director, 1994-2001 of NMAH. He then served as historical consultant to the National Civil Rights Museum, in Memphis, Tennessee, from 1987-1991; consultant to the Civil Rights Institute, in Birmingham, Alabama, 1991-1994; and executive director and chief executive officer for the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center from 2001-2008; and was appointed Clarence Robinson Professor at George Mason University in 2008. At the Smithsonian, Crew curated several exhibitions, most notably Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration, 1915-1940

William W. Fitzhugh (1943- ), an anthropologist, specialized in circumpolar archaeology, ethnology and environmental studies. He received his B.A. from Dartmouth College in 1964. After two years in the U.S. Navy, he attended Harvard University where he received his PhD in anthropology in 1970. He joined the Anthropology Department at NMNH in 1970. As director of the Arctic Studies Center and Curator in the Department of Anthropology, NMNH, he has spent more than thirty years studying and publishing on arctic peoples and cultures in northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia and Scandinavia. His archaeological and environmental research has focused upon the prehistory and paleoecology of northeastern North America, and broader aspects of his research feature the evolution of northern maritime adaptations, circumpolar culture contacts, cross-cultural studies and acculturation processes in the North, especially concerning Native-European contacts. He curated four international exhibitions, Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimos; Crossroads of Continents: Native Cultures of Siberia and Alaska; Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People; and Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga.

Rayna D. Green (1942- ) curator and Director of the American Indian Program at the NMAH, received the B.A. in 1963 and M.A. in 1966 from Southern Methodist University, served in the Peace Corps as a history instructor and library director for the Teacher Training School in Harar, Ethiopia, and the Ph. D. in Folklore and American Studies from Indiana University in 1973. A member of the Cherokee tribe, she administered National Native American Science Resource Center, Dartmouth College, before joining the staff of the Smithsonian in 1984. She has written extensively of Native American culture and foodways. Her research and exhibit projects include a documentary narrative with Julia Child, In the Kitchen with Julia, following on her co-curation of the long-running popular exhibition Bon App tit: Julia Child's Kitchen at the Smithsonian.

Thomas W. Kavanagh (1949- ), an anthropologist, received the B.A. from the University of New Mexico in 1971, the M.A. from The George Washington University in 1980, and the Ph.D. from University of New Mexico in 1986. He began his career at Indiana University and then joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution. A scholar of Comanche Indians of Oklahoma, he has published extensively on the Comanches and was appointed Consulting Anthropologist for the Comanche Nation. In the 2000s, he served as director of the Seton Hall University Museum. His publications include Comanche Ethnography (2008), Comanche Political History (1996), North American Indian Portraits: Photographs from the Wanamaker Expeditions (1996), and "Comanche" in the Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13 (Plains), Smithsonian Institution (2001).

Roger G. Kennedy (1926-2011) graduated from Yale University in 1949 and the University of Minnesota Law School in 1952, and pursued a diverse career in banking, television production, historical writing, foundation management, and museum administration. He was appointed Director of the National Museum of History and Technology (NMHT) in 1979, renamed it the National Museum of American History, and left in 1992 to become Director of the National Park Service. He focused on social and cultural history, and oversaw controversial exhibits including A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the American Constitution and Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration, 1915-1940.

Keith E. Melder (1932- ) studied American history at Williams College (B.A. 1954) and Yale University (M.A. 1957; PhD, 1964). He was an intern at the NMHT in 1958 and returned in 1961 as Curator of Political History until his retirement in 1996. His research focused on America political movements, especially the Women's Movement and the Civil Rights era. Melder was also interviewed for two other Smithsonian Institution Archives projects, Record Unit 9603, African American Exhibits at the Smithsonian, and Record Unit 9620, the American Association of Museums Centennial Honorees Oral History Project, as well as for the Ruth Ann Overbeck Capitol Hill History Project of the Capitol Hill Historical Society.

Clydia Dotson Nahwooksy (1933-2009), a Cherokee, and her husband Reaves, a Comanche Nation member, worked most of their lives to preserve American Indian tribal culture. Originally from Oklahoma, they spent 20 years in Washington, D.C., as cultural activists. In the 1970s, Clydia was director of the Indian Awareness Program for the Smithsonian Institution's Festival of American Folklife. In 1986 both Nahwooskys entered the seminary, and the Rev. Clydia Nahwooksy was an active pastor and a member of the Board of National Ministries and the American Baptist Churches USA General Board.

Ethel Raim (1936- ), Artistic Director of New York's Center for Traditional Music and Dance (CTMD), researched ethnic music and worked closely with community-based traditional for almost five decades. Raim also had a distinguished career as a performer, recording artist, music editor, and singing teacher. In 1963 she co-founded and was musical director of the Pennywhistlers, who were among the first to bring traditional Balkan and Russian Jewish singing traditions to the folk music world. Raim served as music editor of Sing Out! magazine from 1965 to 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, she developed ethnic programs for the Newport Folklife Festival and the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife. In 1975 Raim joined Martin Koenig as Co-Director of the Balkan Folk Arts Center, which developed into the CTMD in New York City.

Joanna Cohan Scherer (1942- ) received the B.A. from Syracuse University in 1963 and the M.A. from Hunter College, City University of New York in 1968. A specialist in visual anthropology especially of Native Americans, historical photography, women and photography, North American Indian photography, and cultural anthropology. She joined the staff of the Anthropology Archives of the National Museum of Natural History in 1966 and in 1975 advanced to served as anthropologist and illustrations editor for the Smithsonian's multivolume series Handbook of North American Indians.

Robert D. Sullivan (1949- ) was educated at St. John Fisher College with a B.S. in anthropology in 1970, the M.A. in education management from the University of Rochester in 1979, and pursued the Ph.D. in human studies (ABD) at The George Washington University until 2006. He served as Chief of Museum Education at Rochester Museum and Science Center from 1970 to 1980, Director at the New York State Museum from 1980 to 1990, and Associate Director for exhibitions at National Museum of Natural History from 1990 to 2007.

Peter Corbett Welsh (1926-2010) was a curator and historian at the Museum of History and Technology, now known as the National Museum of American History. He was born on August 28, 1926, in Washington, D.C. He received his B.A. from Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio, in 1950 and completed a post-graduate year of study at the University of Virginia. He received his M.A. from the University of Delaware where he was the first recipient of the Hagley Fellowship in 1956. Welsh served in the United States Army, 1951-1954. Prior to coming to the Smithsonian Institution, he was Research Assistant and Fellowship Coordinator at the Eleutherian-Mills Hagley Foundation, 1956-1959. Welsh was Associate Curator in the Smithsonian's Department of Civil History, 1959-1969, and served as editor of the Smithsonian's Journal of History in 1968. As Curator he played a major role in the development of the Growth of the United States hall for the opening of the Museum of History and Technology which depicted American civilization from the time of discovery through the mid-twentieth century. Welsh was Assistant Director General of Museums, 1969-1970, and assisted with the implementation of the National Museum Act through seminars on improving exhibit effectiveness. He also served as Director of the Office of Museum Programs, 1970-1971. After Welsh's tenure at the Smithsonian, he became the Director of both the New York State Historical Association and the Cooperstown Graduate Program, 1971-1974. He then served as Director of Special Projects at the New York State Museum in Albany, 1975-1976; Director of the Bureau of Museums for the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission; President of The Welsh Group, 1984-1986; and Curator (1986-1988) and Senior Historian (1988-1989) of the Adirondack Museum in Blue Mountain Lake, New York. In 1989, he became a full-time, independent museum consultant and lecturer, and was a visiting professor of the State University of New York (SUNY) in 1992. Welsh was a contributor to numerous scholarly journals. He authored Tanning in the United States to 1850 (1964), American Folk Art: The Art of the People (1967), Track and Road: The American Trotting Horse, 1820-1900 (1968), The Art of the Enterprise: A Pennsylvania Tradition (1983), and Jacks, Jobbers and Kings: Logging the Adirondacks (1994).
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Folklife studies  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Sound recordings -- Compact disks
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9619, History of Smithsonian Folklife Oral History Interview
Identifier:
Record Unit 9619
See more items in:
History of Smithsonian Folklife Oral History Interview
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9619

Computing History Photographs

Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1960s-1970s
Summary:
Collection consists of black and white and color photographs and some negatives documenting computing history Photographs document primarily individuals, equipment, and computers being used.
Scope and Contents:
Many of the photographs and negatives were used in Paul E. Ceruzzi's book, A History of Modern Computing, 1998, covering modern computing from the development of the first electronic digital computer through the dot-com crash. Ceruzzi is a curator at the National Air and Space Museum.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series alphabetically.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Paul Ceruzzi, 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Information technology  Search this
Computers  Search this
Computers -- History  Search this
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1416
See more items in:
Computing History Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1416
Additional Online Media:

Cephalopod video: Magnapinna sp.

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2012-12-04T20:43:10.000Z
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Youtube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ZScGZqQS1ps

Microelectronics Oral History Collection

Interviewee:
Madland, Glen  Search this
Goldstein, Andrew  Search this
Flaschen, Steward  Search this
Faggin, Frederico  Search this
Everitt, Bruce  Search this
Petritz, Richard  Search this
Nebeker, Frederik  Search this
Morten, David  Search this
Creator:
Finn, Bernard S., 1932-  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Morton, David  Search this
Names:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Date:
1996.
Summary:
Transcripts and audio cassettes of oral history interviews with pioneers in the field of microelectronics. The interviews document the spectrum of innovative activities in the microelectronics industry.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains transcripts and original audio cassettes of oral history interviews with pioneers in the field of microelectronics. Series 1, Transcripts, 1996 are arranged alphabetically and a table of contents and abstracts are available for each interview. Series 2, Audio Cassette Tapes, 1996 are arranged alphabetically. The interviews were conducted by Andrew Goldstein, David Morton, and Frederik Nebeker.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Transcripts, 1996

Series 2: Audio Cassette Tapes, 1996
Historical:
The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, in cooperation with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Center for the History of Electrical Engineering, conducted oral histories to document the spectrum of innovative activities in the microelectronics industry. These activities include, translation (people or companies instrumental in knowledge transfer between invention stage and commercialization); venture capital (entrepreneurs or financiers); applications (use of the basic form of microelectronics technology in entirely new, often unexpected applications) research management; legal issues; and chip design.
Provenance:
This collection was created by the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation with NMAH staff member, Barney Finn of the Division of Information, Technology and Communication and David Morton of the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering in 1996.
Restrictions:
Some oral histories are restricted; others unrestricted for research use on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Copyright status unknown or uncertain.
Topic:
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Microelectronics  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Microelectronics industry -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Citation:
Microelectronics Oral History Collection, 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0566
See more items in:
Microelectronics Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0566

Containerization Oral History Collection

Creator:
Harlander, Leslie  Search this
Gibson, Andrew  Search this
Donovan, Arthur  Search this
Cushing, Charles  Search this
Boylston, John  Search this
Seiberlich, Carl  Search this
Pfeiffer, Robert  Search this
Powell, Stanley  Search this
Richardson, Paul  Search this
Seaton, Bruce  Search this
Horvitz, Wayne  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Katims, Ron  Search this
Morrison, Scott  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Oral history
Interviews
Audio cassettes
Date:
1995-1998.
Scope and Contents note:
Original audio cassettes and transcripts of oral history interviews with individuals involved in the transportation industry known as containerization: Arthur Donovan, interviewer.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series: (1) Original audio cassettes; (2) Transcripts. Unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
This project consists of oral history interviews with individuals who initiated and implemented the post-World War II revolution in the transportation industry known as containerization. This technological and organizational revolution, a product of American innovation and entrepreneurship, has transformed the way cargos are loaded and moved on ships, trains, trucks, and barges. The introduction of trailer-sized containers as the units for loading cargo abroad ships has transformed commercial shipping. Loading items abroad ship in boxes, barrels, and bags, a system known as break-bulk, was replaced by containerization. Containerization is one of the fundamental technologies in modern society.
Provenance:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.,NMAH, Dept of History, 12th St. and Constitution Ave., N.W., Room 1016, MRC 604, Washington, D.C. 20560.,Made for NMAH.,00/00/00.,1999.3073.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Audio cassettes:,Original tapes not available to researchers.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Transportation -- 1990-2000  Search this
Transportation equipment industry -- 1990-2000  Search this
Ships -- Cargo -- 1990-2000  Search this
Shipping -- 1990-2000 -- United States  Search this
Shipment of goods -- 1990-2000  Search this
Containers -- 1990-2000  Search this
Containerization -- 1990-2000  Search this
Container ships -- 1990-2000  Search this
Container industry -- 1990-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1990-2000
Citation:
Containerization Oral History Collection 1995-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0639
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0639

Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project

Collector:
Maxey, H. David  Search this
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History  Search this
Inventor:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company  Search this
Bell Telephone Laboratories  Search this
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Search this
Klatt, Dennis  Search this
Kurzweil, Ray  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sound recordings
Diskettes
Dictograph
Date:
1939-1999
Summary:
The Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project, conducted by H. David Maxey from 1986 through 2002, created a collection of archival materials documenting the history and development of speech synthesis technology. Maxey collaborated with Dr. Bernard Finn, Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society.
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Original Website:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project website

This website was created by Dave Maxey in 2002 to document the history of the project and to provide extensive information about the collection materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents a project done by H. David Maxey in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution. The collection consists of administrative files containing correspondence, project reports, and other infomation about the Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project. The project files, arranged geographically and alphabetically contains information about specific speech synthesis projects and inventions. The reprints series consists of reprints of articles which Maxey collected and organized separately. This series is organized both numerically and alphabetically. The audiovisual materials contain the recordings of talks, meetings, and samples of speech synthesis described in the projects outlined in the project files.
Arrangement:
The original SSSHP numbers assigned by Dave Maxey are included in portions of the Container List. They are the basis for the organization of Maxey's original index to and description of the collection. Maxey assigned the numbers sequentially in the order he received each numbered item.

The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Administrative Files,1986-2002

Series 2, Project Files, 1939-1999

Series 3, Reprints, 1939-1999

Series 4: Audiovisual Materials,1939-1999

Subseries 1, ΒΌ" Open Reel Audiotape

Subseries 2, Audiocassettes

Subseries 3, Miscellaneous

Subseries 4, Reference and Protection Audiotapes and CDs
Biographical / Historical:
The Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project, conducted by H. David Maxey from 1986 through 2002, created a collection of archival materials including sound recordings documenting the history and development of speech synthesis technology. Maxey collaborated with Dr. Bernard Finn of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society. Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the same division served as Smithsonian liaisons with the project.

"Speech synthesis technology" refers to the results of a long, evolutionary process in which researchers learned to create artificial sounds that people would interpret as speech. As early as the eighteenth century scientists were inventing mechanical machines to create sounds similar to human speech. Later electronics led to additional developments, The Voder was one of the earliest examples which was demonstrated to wide acclaim at the 1939 New York World's Fair. However, it was the widespread use of computers that led to the greatest progress in the field of speech synthesis.

Speech synthesis is the process by which a computer speaks. By contrast, speech recognition is when a computer can interpret spoken language. The application of both of these capabilities has been important for creating assistive computer technology for the visually impaired (speech recognition) and for individuals unable to speak (speech synthesis).

Among the leading researchers and organizations involved with the development of speech synthesis technologies are the Anerican Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), Bell Telephone Laboratories, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Dennis H. Klatt, and Ray Kurzweil.

Today speech synthesis is a common feature of daily life from the cultured voice on the GPS saying exactly which road to take to making a train reservation on the telephone. However, many speech synthesis developers continue to explore and design methods to make the speech sound less mechanical, with the ultimate challenge being natural sounding speech that shows emotion.

Dave Maxey's dedication to the project, with support from members of the staff of the National Museum of American History, has ensured the preservation of materials documenting the early history of electronic and computer engineered synthetic speech.
Related Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Work & Industry, Electricity Collections.
Provenance:
The collection was created for the Smithsonian Institution from 1986-2002 by Dave Maxey in collaboration with Dr. Bernard Finn of the National Museum of American History's Division of Information, Technology, and Society, assisted by Elliot Sivowitch and Harold Wallace of the same division.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Computer sound processing  Search this
Voder  Search this
Speech synthesis  Search this
Speech  Search this
Computers  Search this
Assistive computer technology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Diskettes
Dictograph
Citation:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0417
See more items in:
Smithsonian Speech Synthesis History Project
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0417

Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology Records

Creator::
History of Science Society  Search this
Extent:
1.5 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (1 document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Manuscripts
Date:
1978-1984
Introduction:
These records were created and maintained by Joan Warnow-Blewett in her duties as chair of the Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology (JCAST) from 1978 through 1984. They were kept in the archives of the Niels Bohr Library at the American Institute of Physics after the project was completed until April 1999. The records of the Discipline History Centers Meeting (1981-1982) were created and maintained by Clark Elliott at Harvard University Archives until January 1997 when he transferred them to the Niels Bohr Library to be integrated with the other JCAST Records. In April 1999 all of the JCAST records were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) to become part of the official records of the History of Science Society.
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of the files of the Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology (JCAST). JCAST was comprised of three professional organizations - the History of Science Society (HSS), the Society for the History of Technology, and the Society of American Archivists. These records were created and maintained by Joan Warnow-Blewett, Chair of JCAST, and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) Archivist Emeritus. Per the request of HSS, these records were transferred from AIP and made part of the HSS collections at SIA. Materials include correspondence, notes, meeting minutes, grant proposals, reports, guidelines, position papers, outlines, and schedules.
Historical Note:
Concern for the documentation of modern science in the United States dates from the Conference on Science Manuscripts held in Washington in May 1960, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation to the History of Science Society (HSS). Other notable events of the 1960s were the establishment of the American Institute of Physics Center for the History of Physics (1960) and the work of the project on sources for the history of quantum physics (1961-1966). A number of events in the mid to late 1970s indicated a resurgence of interest in documentary questions including the development of strong archival programs in institutions such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

In 1978, three professional groups - the History of Science Society (HSS), the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT), and the Society of American Archivists (SAA) appointed representatives to a body that took the title of Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology (JCAST). The committee received a planning grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), and when a further grant from NHPRC was received beginning in 1981, the Association of Records Managers and Administrators (ARMA) joined the sponsoring societies.

A particularly significant aspect of JCAST and its activities was its success in bringing together the concerns of archivists and historians in a constructive evaluation of contemporary archival problems. Further, the methodologies the committee identified as well as some of its specific findings have value beyond science and technology.

The committee prepared a series of position papers on a variety of archival issues that drew on the resources and expertise of its members. Then, after four years of activity that included issuance of a preliminary report in May 1980, JCAST issued a final report, "Understanding Progress as Process: Documentation of the History of Post-War Science and Technology in the United States." *

Committee members included: Joan Warnow-Blewett, Center for History of Physics at the American Institute of Physics (Chair) (SAA); David Allison, Naval Research Laboratory (SHOT); David Bearman (HSS); Maynard Brichford, University of Illinois Archives (SAA); John Clayton, University of Delaware Archives (ARMA); Clark A. Elliott, Harvard University Archives (HSS); Robert Friedel, Center for History of Electrical Engineering (SHOT); Brooke Hindle, NMAH, Smithsonian (SHOT); Ann Campbell, Society of American Archivists; Sharon Gibbs, Center for Polar & Scientific Archives (HSS); David H. McCurdy, (ARMA); Alan Negus (ARMA); Helen Slotkin, MIT Archives (SAA); Richard Williams (SHOT).

*Adapted from: "Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology (JCAST): Summary from the Final Report," by Clark A. Elliott, 1984.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Professional associations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 99-120, History of Science Society, Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology Records
Identifier:
Accession 99-120
See more items in:
Joint Committee on Archives of Science and Technology Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa99-120

NACA/NASA Langley Photographic History

Creator:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
Names:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Langley Research Center  Search this
Extent:
6.75 Cubic Feet ((15 legal document boxes))
6.3 Linear Feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1917-1993
Scope and Contents:
These images, in conjunction with those of the follow-on National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which were taken at the Langley Research Center (NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory), comprise the images in this collection. There are slightly over 1,000 images, broken down into three groups. The first group is arranged by aircraft used by the NACA/NASA at Langley. The second group are images used in the book Engineer in Charge; these photos are of experiments and personalities associated with the NACA years at Langley, 1917-1958. (Note that aircraft photos from the book are found in the aircraft listings.) The third group covers the NASA years of 1958 to 1992 and feature experiments and personalities from that period. In addition to the photographs, most of the images have a corresponding negative which will be entered in the Smithsonian Institutions Office of Printing and Photographic Services negative numbering system.
Biographical / Historical:
Langley Research Center was established as the nation's first civilian aeronautics laboratory in 1917. Langley leads NASA initiatives in aviation safety, quiet aircraft technology, small aircraft transportation and aerospace vehicles system technology and supports NASA space programs with atmospheric research and technology testing and development.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
NASA Langley Research Center Office of External Affairs, Gift, 1992, 1993-0011, Public Domain
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0011
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0011

Oral history interviews with Robert P. Multhauf

Topic:
Isis (Serial)
Creator::
Multhauf, Robert P. interviewee  Search this
Extent:
3 audiotapes (Reference copies). 6 digital .mp3 files (Reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Date:
1974
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conducts interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Multhauf was interviewed for the Oral History Project because he made significant scholarly and administrative contributions to the Smithsonian during his career.
Descriptive Entry:
Multhauf was interviewed on May 29 and July 23, 1974, by Miriam S. Freilicher and Pamela M. Henson. The interviews cover his education, career as Curator of Engineering, work on the development of the National Museum of History and Technology, and his role as an administrator in the Museum.
Historical Note:
Robert P. Multhauf (1919-2004), a historian of science, received his Ph.D. in 1953 from the University of California at Berkeley. After postdoctoral work at The Johns Hopkins University, he was appointed Curator of Engineering at the U.S. National Museum in 1955. In 1957, he was appointed head Curator of the Department of Science and Technology. From 1966 to 1969, Multhauf served as Director of the new National Museum of History and Technology, now the National Museum of American History, and in 1969 he was appointed Senior Historian of Science. Multhauf also served as editor of Isis from 1964 to 1978.
Topic:
History of science and technology  Search this
Museum curators -- Interviews  Search this
Museum directors -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9502, Multhauf, Robert P. interviewee, Oral history interviews with Robert P. Multhauf
Identifier:
Record Unit 9502
See more items in:
Oral history interviews with Robert P. Multhauf
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9502

History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews

Extent:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Video recordings
Place:
Fullerton (Calif.)
Palo Alto (Calif.)
Date:
2007
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, National Museum of American History, conducted videotaped interviews at Spinco to document the history of ultracentrifuge technology. Interviewees included Phyllis, M. Browning, Michael Cahn, Robert Stanley Carey, Robert E. Cunningham, Noli L. de la Cruz, James D. Duty, Giancarlo Ernoli, Jack Finney, Robert C. Franklin, Robert Frederito, Scott Gammon, Brian George, Dean Hanquist, Robert Indig, Kenneth C. Johnson, Eva T. Juhos, Benson Kwan, C. Richard McEwen, Frank Meze, Patrick O. Moore, James C. Osborne, Mehmet Pamukco, Fred J. Pisturino, Frank Richards, Ron Ridgeway, Louis T. Rosso, Howard K. Schachman, Karen F. Shore, Robert Slocum, Carol Smith, Paul Voelker, Eugene B. West, and James Woodall, at Beckman Coulter, Spinco Division, in Palo Alto and Fullerton, California. Participants discussed the history and development of ultracentrifuge technology, research and development, the commercial manufacture of the equipment, drive and heat-sink assembly, optics assembly, business and marketing. Visual documentation included tours of research and manufacturing facilities.

This collection is comprised of 24 interview sessions, totaling approximately 14 hours of recording. There are one or more original videotapes for each session. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original analog and digital video tapes and transcripts. There are two generations of recordings for each session: analog and digital videotape originals and digital video reference copies.
Historical Note:
The Ultracentrifuge has played an important role in modern biotechnology. The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as 2,000,000 G (approx 19,600 km/s2). There are two kinds of ultracentrifuges, the preparative and the analytical ultracentrifuge. Both classes of instruments find important uses in molecular biology, biochemistry, and polymer science. The analytical ultracentrifuge was invented in 1925 by Theodor Svedberg, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on colloids and proteins using the ultracentrifuge.

Edward Greydon Pickles developed the vacuum ultracentrifuge which allowed a reduction in friction generated at high speeds and enabled the maintenance of constant temperature. In 1946, Pickles cofounded Spinco (Specialized Instruments Corporation) and marketed a vacuum ultracentrifuge. The original machine design was complicated to operate, so he developed a more user-friendly version, but initial use of the technology remained low. Spinco almost went bankrupt, but Pickles persisted, and in 1947 Spinco was the first to commercially manufacture ultracentrifuges. In 1949, Spinco introduced the Model L, the first preparative ultracentrifuge to reach a maximum speed of 40,000 rpm. In 1954, Beckman Instruments (now Beckman Coulter) purchased the company, forming the basis of its Spinco centrifuge division, which has developed both preparative and analytical centrifuges.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Science -- History  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Centrifuges  Search this
Technology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9625, History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9625
See more items in:
History of the Ultracentrifuge Videohistory Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9625

Sammy Ray Oral History Interview

Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Compact discs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Place:
Pacific Ocean
Date:
2011
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also reminiscences and interviews recorded by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Sammy Ray was interviewed for the Smithsonian Archives Oral History Collection because of his role as a collector for the Smithsonian during World War II.
Descriptive Entry:
The Ray interview was recorded in 2011 at the Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, while Dr. Ray viewed the bird specimens he collected during World War II as well as correspondence and documentation, accompanied by Pamela M. Henson and Courtney G. Bellizzi of the Smithsonian Institution Archives, Claudia Angle and Craig A. Ludwig of NMNH. His wife, Charlotte Ray, son, Charles Ray, and daughter-in-law, Marcella Ray were also present.

This Ray collection is comprised of 1 interview session, totaling approximately 1.25 hours of recordings. There is one original audio file and one original video file for this session. In total, this collection is comprised of 1 original digital audio file, 1 original digital video file, reference audio and video files, and a 29 page transcript.
Historical Note:
Sammy M. Ray (1919-2013), professor of biology at Texas A&M University at Galveston, collected for the Smithsonian while serving in the military in the Pacific during World War II. Ray received the B.A. from Mississippi Delta Junior College. During World War II he served as a U.S. Navy Pharmacists' Mate 1st Class in the Pacific. After the war, he attended Louisiana State University, where he received his M.A. in biology in 1952. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1954 from Rice University. His postgraduate career began with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a fishery research biologist, and he joined the Texas A&M staff in 1957 at the Research Foundation Laboratory on Grande Isle, Louisiana. He became an associate professor in 1963 in Oceanography and Wildlife and Fisheries Science and was named director of the marine laboratory at Galveston. He reached full professor in 1972 and was named head of the Department of Marine Sciences. He then held positions as dean of Texas A&M's Moody College of Marine Technology and interim president of Texas A&M University at Galveston.

In 2012, Smithsonian Institution Libraries presented an exhibit in the National Museum of Natural History, curated by historian Henson, titled When Time and Duty Permit: Smithsonian Collectors during World War II which featured the wartime contributions of Dr. Ray.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Birds  Search this
Specimens  Search this
Ornithologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9628, Sammy Ray Oral History Interview
Identifier:
Record Unit 9628
See more items in:
Sammy Ray Oral History Interview
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9628

History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews

Extent:
6 videotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
1997
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera or digital recorder as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were videotape recorded in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the National Museum of American History, documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of diagnostic ultrasound. Session One was recorded between January 20 through January 24, 1997 at Acuson Corporation located at Mountain View, California. Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and a patent attorney from Acuson. The session took place at several sites on the Acuson campus. Interviews focused on the history of the company, the development of ultrasound and transducer technologies, design and commercial development of the equipment, the manufacturing process, clinical applications, education of clinicians, and the patenting process.

Kondratas also interviewed several of the participants on audiotape. The tapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are also available through the Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 12:00 hours of recording and 203 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 24 original Betacam videotapes, 12 dubbing master U-matic videotapes, and 6 reference copy VHS videotapes. The collection has been remastered digitally, with 24 motion jpeg 2000 and 24 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 24 Windows Media Video and 24 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
Medical diagnostic ultrasound systems use high-frequency sound waves to produce images of soft tissues and internal body organs. First introduced to the medical world in the 1950s, it is a widely used diagnostic imaging modality today. Ultrasound exams are non-invasive and generally considered safe at the power levels used for diagnostic exams. Ultrasound is used in obstetrical, abdominal, urological, vascular and cardiac applications.

Sonar - the technique of sending sound waves through water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects - inspired early ultrasound investigators to explore ways to apply the concept to medical diagnosis. Early on, ultrasound was used to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. During the early 1970s, the technology advanced to gray scale ultrasound systems that produce static images of internal organs easily recognizable to physicians. Later in the 1970s, the development of real-time ultrasound imaging enabled physicians to see continuous live-action images of the area under investigation. The 1980s saw the introduction of spectral Doppler and later color Doppler which depicts blood flow in various colors to indicate speed of flow and direction.

In 1979, Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., began developing a new approach to medical ultrasound imaging. The scanners used in the existing ultrasound technology produced satisfactory diagnostic images from the returning echoes through sixty-four electrical channels, but the machines could not refine the images because computers for ultrasound imaging did not exist. Dr. Maslak's work in applying computer technology to ultrasound led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Acuson introduced its first product in 1983, the Acuson 128 Computed Sonography System which applied computer technology to diagnostic ultrasound. The 128 channel software-controlled image formation process provided black-and-white and color ultrasound images with high resolution and clarity.

Acuson continued to develop ultrasound technology. The introduction of the Sequoia 512 system in 1996 provided clinicians with twice the amount of image information in half of the time. Acuson's development of a new way to form ultrasound images called Coherent Image Formation used both the phase and the amplitude information from ultrasound echoes to produce images. Conventional ultrasound systems produced images based only on the amplitude information. This discovery offered the user increased spatial and temporal image resolution.

Bradford C. Anker was educated at Purdue University receiving the B.S. degree in industrial engineering in 1968. Anker joined the Hewlett-Packard Automatic Measurement Systems Division in 1968. During his six years there, Anker progressed through the materials management function and was master scheduling manager when he left Hewlett-Packard to join Spectra-Physics, where he held several senior manufacturing and management positions during his ten years at the company. Anker was Vice President, manufacturing, for Margaux Controls before joining Acuson in 1983, as Vice President, manufacturing.

Corinne Augustine was educated at the University of Florida where she received the B.S.I.E. degree in 1980, and the M.B.A. degree in 1991 at Stanford University. Augustine joined Frito Lay Company in 1980 as the Industrial Engineering Department Manager. She then joined Intel Corporation in 1984 as the Industrial Engineering and Production Manager. From 1986 through 1989, Augustine was the New Products Project Manager at Sun Microsystems. In 1991, Augustine joined Acuson Corporation as a project manager and was promoted to Director of manufacturing in 1994.

Amin Hanafy, Sc.D., was educated at Alexandria University in Egypt where he received the bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1965. He attended the New Jersey Institute of Technology receiving the M.S. in electrical engineering in 1971 and the Sc.D. in acoustical optical imaging in 1977. His professional experience included four years with Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering, where he was an instructor in the electrical engineering department. He spent six years as a design engineer at L & R Manufacturing Company. He then joined Hewlett-Packard Company as Technical Director of transducer activity, from 1975 until 1981. Hanafy was one of the founders, with Robert Younge and Samuel Maslak, of Acuson Corporation in 1981. He was the transducer division director at Acuson until 1988, and continued his association as Principal Fellow.

Thomas Jedrzejewicz received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Northeastern University in 1958. After ten years as a field application engineer with Raytheon Company, Jedrzejewicz worked as product development specialist at Corning Glass Works and then as product manager at American Optical. From 1975 to 1978, he served as Marketing Manager for ultrasound for Picker Corporation. Then, following two years at SmithKline Instruments and one year at Technicare, Jedrzejewicz became Marketing Manager for ultrasound and nuclear medicine at Toshiba America Medical Systems. From 1983 to 1989, he performed various tasks for Acuson, including the commencement of Acuson's marketing and communications plans. He then worked as Director of ultrasound marketing for Toshiba America Medical Systems for two years before again joining Acuson as Director of technical programs in 1992.

Hugh G. Larsen received the B.S.E.E. degree from Brown University in 1965. He received the M.S.E.E. at the University of Cincinnati in 1971 and the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Vermont in 1976. From 1976 to 1983, Larsen worked at Hewlett-Packard on their phased-array cardiac ultrasound system. In 1983, he joined Acuson working in a variety of technical and managerial roles to advance ultrasound technology. In 1991, he was promoted to Director of Imaging Technology on the Sequoia program and then served as Director of the Sequoia Engineering.

Samuel H. Maslak, Sc.D., was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), receiving the degree of Sc.D. in 1975 and the degrees of E.E., S.M. and S.B. in electrical engineering in 1971. Maslak's dissertation was on ultrasound design. His professional experience included four years with Hewlett-Packard Company, where he was a member of the technical staff and project manager at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. While at Hewlett-Packard, Maslak invented a unique scanner architecture which was subsequently patented and assigned to Hewlett-Packard. In 1979, Dr. Maslak began developing a new and proprietary approach to medical ultrasound imaging. This work led to the founding, with Robert Younge and Amin Hanafy, of Acuson Corporation in 1982. Maslak served as President and Chief Executive Officer from the inception of the company until June 1995, when he was elected to Chairman of the Board. Maslak retained his position as Chief Executive Officer.

After receiving her law degree from Ohio State University in 1982, Liza K. Toth first worked in the Chicago patent law firm of Hume Clement. She helped start the Intellectual Property group in the San Jose, California, law firm of Hopkins & Carley. After July 1994, Toth served as Acuson's Chief Patent Counsel responsible for the patent, trademark and copyright portfolio of the company.

J. Nelson Wright received the B.S. in 1976 and the M.S. in 1978 in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Acuson, Wright was a member of the technical staff at the MIT Lincoln Lab from 1976 to 1981. Wright joined Acuson as Project Manager during the development of the Acuson 128 ultrasound system. Beginning in 1987, Wright initiated and subsequently contributed to and managed the development of Sequoia ultrasound technology.

Additional interviewees included David Burris and Marketing Communication Manager Jackie Ferreira. Also included are Gelston Howell, Manager of transducer development, Alan Kirby, 128 XP Production Manager, Jon Knight, Production Manager of Sequoia manufacture, Vaughan Marian, Mechanical Engineering Senior Fellow, Rick Sperry, Process Engineer, and Worth Walters, New Products Development Engineer.
Topic:
Medicine  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
History of Medicine.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9593, History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9593
See more items in:
History of Acuson Ultrasound Machines Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9593

Space Astronomy Oral History Project

Creator:
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Space Astronomy Oral History Project (SAOHP) (U.S.)  Search this
Aaron, Jules  Search this
Baum, William  Search this
Behring, William  Search this
Bergstralh, Jay T.  Search this
Bleach, Richard  Search this
Brunk, William Edward, 1928-  Search this
Code, Arthur D.  Search this
Connor, Jerry  Search this
DeVorkin, David H., 1944-  Search this
Drake, Frank D.  Search this
Fastie, William  Search this
Fraser, Lorence  Search this
Friedman, Herbert  Search this
Frier, Phyllis  Search this
Frosch, Robert  Search this
Gianoplis, George  Search this
Gold, Thomas  Search this
Goldberg, Leo  Search this
Harwit, Martin, 1931-  Search this
Hibbs, Albert R.  Search this
Hinners, Noel W.  Search this
Hinteregger, Hans H.  Search this
Johnson, Charles Yothers, 1920-  Search this
Johnson, Francis  Search this
Jursa, Adolph S.  Search this
Kondracki, Henry  Search this
Krause, Ernst H.  Search this
Neugebauer, G. (Gerry)  Search this
Neupert, Werner  Search this
Newburn, R. L. (Ray L.)  Search this
Newkirk, Gordon Allen, 1928-  Search this
Ney, Edward  Search this
Nier, Alfred  Search this
O'Dell, Charles  Search this
Pickering, William  Search this
Porter, Richard W. (Richard William), 1913-1996  Search this
Purcell, J. DeWitt (James DeWitt), 1912-1986  Search this
Rense, William  Search this
Roberts, Walter  Search this
Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-  Search this
Rosen, Milton W.  Search this
Scheiderman, Dan  Search this
Schorn, Ronald  Search this
Schwarzschild, Martin  Search this
Silberstein, Richard  Search this
Simpson, John A. (John Alexander), 1916-  Search this
Spencer, Nelson  Search this
Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-  Search this
Strand, K. Aage (Kaj Aage), 1907-  Search this
Strong, John  Search this
Tape, Gerald  Search this
Tombaugh, Clyde William, 1906-  Search this
Tousey, Richard, 1908-1997  Search this
Tycz, Mona  Search this
Van Allen, James Alfred, 1914-  Search this
Wasserburg, Gerald  Search this
Webb, James E. (James Edwin), 1906-  Search this
Westphal, James  Search this
Whitsett, Charles  Search this
Wilshusen, Fred  Search this
Withbroe, G. L. (George L.)  Search this
Extent:
3.59 Cubic Feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Transcripts
Date:
1981-1991
Summary:
The collection consists of the transcripts for the Space Astronomy Oral History Project (SAOHP), which examined the early use of rockets and satellites to study the upper atmosphere and space for the period 1946 through the early 1960s. This project constitutes one of several oral history projects conducted within the Department of Space History, NASM. The principal investigator for the SAOHP was David H. DeVorkin, and the interview set contains 225 hours of interviews with 56 individuals. The central thread of this collection is how the availability of new technologies for research, first the rocket and later satellites, helped to create a new social matrix for research. The following were interviewed: Jules Aaron; Ball Brothers; William Baum, William Behring; Jay Bergstrahl; Richard Bleach; William Brunk; Arthur Code; Jerry Conner; Frank Drake; William Fastie; Lorence Fraser; Herbert Friedman; Phyllis Frier; Robert Frosch; George Gianoplis; Thomas Gold; Leo Goldberg; Martin Harwit; Ralph Havens; Albert Hibbs; Noel Hinners; Hans Hinteregger; Charles Johnson; Francis Johnson; Adolph Jursa; Henry Kondracki; Ernst Krause; Alfred Nier; Gerry Neugebauer; Werner Neupert; Ray Newburn; Gordon Newkirk; Edward Ney; Charles O'Dell; William Pickering; Richard Porter; James Purcell; William Rense;Walter Roberts; Nancy Roman; Milton Rosen; Dan Scheiderman; Ronald Schorn; Martin Schwarzschild; Richard Silberstein; John Simpson; Lyman Spitzer; Kaj Strand; Nelson Spencer; John Strong; Gerald Tape; Clyde Tombaugh; Richard Tousey; Mona Tycz; James Van Allen; Gerald Wasserburg; James Webb; James Westphal; Charles Whitsett; Fred Wilshusen; and George Withbroe.
Scope and Contents:
Audio cassettes and transcipts.
Arrangement:
The Space Astronomy Oral History Project interviews are arranged alphabetically by interviewee.
Historical Note:
This collection contains the interviews for the Space Astronomy Oral History Project. These interviews explore the early use of rockets and satellites over the period 1946 through the early 1960s to investigate the upper atmosphere and space. This project constitutes one of several oral history projects conducted within the National Air and Space Museum's (NASM) Department of Space History. The principal interviewer for this project was David H. DeVorkin and the interview set consists of 225 hours of interviews with 67 individuals. Please note that there are a few instances where audio cassette tapes of the interview subjects exist but without written transcripts while there are also a few cases of existing transcripts of the interviews without any audio cassette tapes. The following were interviewed for this project: Jules Aaron; Frank Bateson; William Alvin Baum; William Behring; Jay Thor Bergstrahl; Richard Bleach; William E. Brunk; Arthur Dodd Code; Jerry Conner; Fred Dolder; Frank Donald Drake; William G. Fastie; Lorence Fraser; Phyllis Freier; Herbert Friedman; Robert Frosch; Reuben H. Gablehouse; R.A.Gaiser; George Gianopolis; Thomas Gold; Leo Goldberg; Martin Otto Harwit; Ralph Havens; Albert Roach Hibbs; Noel Hinners; Hans Erich Hinteregger; Charles Yothers Johnson; Francis S. Johnson; Adolph Simon Jursa; Jerome Kohl; Henry Kondracki; Ernst Henry Krause; R.C. Mercure; Alfred O. Neir; Gerry Neugebauer; Werner Neupert; Ray Leon Newburn; Gordon Allen Newkirk; Edward P. Ney; Charles Robert O'Dell; William Hayward Pickering; Richard W. Porter; James D. Purcell; William A. Rense; Walter Orr Roberts; Nancy Grace Roman; Milton W. Rosen; Dan Schneiderman; Ronald A. Schorn; Martin Schwarzschild; Richard Silberstein; John Simpson; Nelson W. Spencer; Lyman Spitzer, Jr.; Kaj Strand; John Strong; Gerald Tape; Clyde William Tombaugh; Richard Tousey; Mona Tycz; James Van Allen; Gerald Joseph Wasserburg; James Edwin Webb; James A. Westphal; Charles Edward Whitsett; Fred Wilshusen and George Withbroe.
Provenance:
Space History, NASM, Transfer, 1999, 1999-0034, Varies
Restrictions:
The audio cassette tapes of these interviews have yet to be remastered and, due to their fragility, are unavailable to researchers. Transcripts are available to researchers though, there are restrictions placed on a number of them. A NASM staff member will advice the patron which transcripts are available for copying or viewing and how to order copies of transcripts and/or CDs.
Rights:
Permissions Requests
Topic:
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Atmosphere, Upper -- Rocket observations  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Artificial satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Citation:
Space Astronomy Oral History Project, Acc. 1994-0034, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0034
See more items in:
Space Astronomy Oral History Project
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0034
Additional Online Media:

Oral history interviews with John C. Ewers

Creator::
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997 interviewee  Search this
Extent:
7 audiotapes (reference copies). 11 digital .mp3 files (reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Date:
1974-1975
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Ewers was interviewed for the Oral History Program because of his significant scholarly and administrative contributions to the Smithsonian Institution during the prior thirty years.
Descriptive Entry:
Ewers was interviewed by Pamela M. Henson on 17 December 1974, 15 and 18 January and 4 February 1975. The interviews consist of reminiscences of his education, career with the National Park Service, Museum of the Plains Indian, and Smithsonian Institution, especially his work in exhibits modernization, the development of the National Museum of History and Technology, and ethnological research.
Historical Note:
John C. Ewers (1909-1997) was an ethnologist for the National Museum of Natural History. After pursing his graduate work in anthropology at Yale University, Ewers was a field Curator for the National Park Service from 1935 to 1940 and developed exhibits for many National Park Service sites. From 1941 to 1944, he was Curator at the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning, Montana, under the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In 1945 Ewers was appointed Associate Curator of Ethnology in the United States National Museum and worked on the Museum's Exhibits Modernization Program. From 1956 to 1959, Ewers served as Planning Officer for the development of the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History, as Assistant Director of the Museum of History and Technology from 1959 to 1964, and as Director from 1964 to 1965. Ewers was Senior Ethnologist in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History from 1965 to 1997. Ewers' research concentrated on Plains Indian ethnology and art depicting American Indians.
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Museum techniques  Search this
Museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Museum directors -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9505, Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997 interviewee, Oral history interviews with John C. Ewers
Identifier:
Record Unit 9505
See more items in:
Oral history interviews with John C. Ewers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9505

Oral history interviews with Cynthia Adams Hoover

Creator::
Hoover, Cynthia A. (Cynthia Adams)  Search this
Extent:
2 audiotapes (reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Date:
1986
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also interviews conducted by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Curator of Musical Instruments at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History from 1961 to 2004, was interviewed in 1986 by Richard Binfield, a student in an oral history seminar at the University of Maryland, to document her long and distinguished career as a scholar of American music and her role in engaging the scholarly community at the Smithsonian.
Descriptive Entry:
Cynthia Adams Hoover was interviewed in 1986 by Richard Binfield, a student at the University of Maryland, as part of a seminar project that focused on interviews of Smithsonian staff members, taught by Smithsonian Institution Archives Historian Pamela M. Henson. This interview of Hoover covers her youth, education, and career at the Smithsonian, including the development of a musical instruments division, her special interest in the keyboard collection, her work on various publications, programs, and exhibits, and reminiscences of colleagues and administrators. The collection consists of 1.5 hours of recording: 2 original 5" reel-to-reel audiotape recordings, which are in security storage; 3 digital preservation files; 2 cassette audiotapes and 3 digital reference files, as well as 28 pages of transcript, and occupies 0.5 cubic feet of shelf space. Box 1 contains transcripts of the interviews and reference copies of the audio recording.
Historical Note:
Cynthia Adams Hoover (1934- ) received her B.A. from Wellesley College in 1957, the M.A.T. from Radcliffe College in 1958, and the M.F.A. from Brandeis University in 1961. She was appointed an Assistant Curator of Musical Instruments in the Division of Cultural History, National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) in 1961. In 1964, she advanced to Associate Curator and in 1975 she advanced to Curator of Musical Instruments. Upon her retirement in 2004, she was named Curator Emeritus. Hoover was instrumental in creating the Yale-Smithsonian Seminar Series which focused on material culture research, was the founder of the Material Culture Forum at the Smithsonian Institution, and was involved in several professional societies, including the American Musicological Society. Her research specialties include the cultural, social, and technological history of musical instruments, especially the piano, made and used in America; music in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American life; and interpretation of American material culture. Her work has resulted in exhibitions and publications on such subjects as Music in Early Massachusetts, Nineteenth-Century American Ballroom Music, 1840-1860; Music Machines-American Style, and PIANO 300: Celebrating Three Hundred Years of People and Pianos. Hoover received a Guggenheim Fellowship to research the changing intersections of technology, culture, and commerce of the piano, work that resulted in the PIANO 300 exhibition and related programs in 2000 2001.
Restrictions:
The recordings are available for research use, but the transcripts of the interviews of Cynthia Hoover do not have prefaces. Researchers may submit a written request to interviewee, heirs, or assigns for written permission to use the transcript.
Topic:
Musical instruments  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Historic preservation  Search this
Musicology  Search this
Pianos  Search this
Museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Women museum curators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Audiotapes
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9608, Oral history interviews with Cynthia Adams Hoover
Identifier:
Record Unit 9608
See more items in:
Oral history interviews with Cynthia Adams Hoover
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9608

Sea-Level Canal Oral History Interviews

Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Compact discs
Sound recordings
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Date:
2010
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) began its Oral History Program in 1973. The purpose of the program is to supplement the written documentation of the Archives' record and manuscript collections with an Oral History Collection, focusing on the history of the Institution, research by its scholars, and contributions of its staff. Program staff conduct interviews with current and retired Smithsonian staff and others who have made significant contributions to the Institution. There are also reminiscences and interviews recorded by researchers or students on topics related to the history of the Smithsonian or the holdings of the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Christine Keiner, Research Associate, Institutional History Division, Smithsonian Institution Archives, and Associate Professor of Science and Technology Studies at Rochester Institute of Technology, conducted oral history interviews in 2010 and 2012 about the Smithsonian's role in evaluating plans for a sea-level canal in Meso-America in the 1970s, especially the contributions of staff at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama.
Descriptive Entry:
The Sea-Level Canal Interviews consist of nine recording sessions totaling 13:26:01 hours of interview in 11 original digital audio files, 11 digital .mp3 reference files, and no transcripts are available.

Restrictions: Some of the interviews are restricted so researchers must contact Smithsonian Institution Archives in advance to secure permission to use the interviews.
Historical Note:
Interviewers discussed STRI staff roles in preparing a report that was not supportive of building a sea-level canal because of potential environmental damage. Interviewees included Ira Rubinoff, director emeritus of STRI; Harilaos A. Lessios, STRI senior staff scientist in evolution, ecology, and marine biology; Stanley Heckadon-Moreno, STRI staff scientist emeritus in anthropology, sociology, and history of natural history; Egbert Giles Leigh, Jr., STRI staff scientist emeritus in evolution and ecology; Mark E. Torchin, STRI staff scientist in marine ecology, disease and parasite ecology; Hector M. Guzman, STRI staff scientist in marine biology; Rachel Collin, STRI staff scientist and director of the Bocas del Toro Research Station studying evolution and marine biology; and a recording of howler monkey sounds on Barro Colorado Island.
Rights:
Restricted. Contact reference staff for details.
Topic:
Tropical biology  Search this
Canals, Interoceanic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9626, Sea-Level Canal Oral History Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9626
See more items in:
Sea-Level Canal Oral History Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9626

The History of the Cell Sorter Interviews

Extent:
files (Reference copies).
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Date:
1991
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the history, development, commercialization and applications of fluorescence activated cell sorting instrumentation. Sessions were recorded January 30, 1991 at San Jose, California; February 1, 1991 at Palo Alto, California; April 19, 1991 at Washington, D.C.; and June 28, 1991 at Providence, Rhode Island.

Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. They include Bach, Christiaanse, Fulwyler, Leonard Herzenberg, Leonore Herzenberg, Kudravcev, Mhatre, Recktenwald, Rotman, Shoor, and Van Dilla. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History. Inventing the Cell Sorter, an edited program on the history of the machine, accompanies the collection as supplemental material. This tape, Inventing the Cell Sorter, may not be copied without the permission of Ramunas Kondratas.

This collection consists of four interview sessions, totalling approximately 10:20 hours of recordings, and 203 pages of transcript. There are three generations of tape for each session: originals, dubbing masters, and reference copies. In total, this collection is comprised of 31 original videotapes (31 Beta videotapes), 12 dubbing master videotapes (12 U-matic videotapes), and 7 reference copy videotapes (7 VHS videotapes).

Audiotapes: Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape session, and are available through the Division of Medical Sciences, National Museum of American History.

Restrictions: Inventing the Cell Sorter, an edited program on the history of the machine, dated April 16, 1992 [U-matic videotape, (00:36:52)], accompanies the collection as supplemental material. This tape may not be copied without the permission of Ramunas Kondratas. The collection, except for the Inventing the Cell Sorter program, has been remastered digitally, with 31 motion jpeg 2000 and 31 mpeg digital files for preservation, and 12 Windows Media Video and 12 Real Media Video digital files for reference.
Historical Note:
The cell sorter, an instrument with sophisticated optics, lasers and electronic processors, automated the task of identifying and quantitatively analyzing individual cells, and of separating and rapidly sorting closely related cell populations. By measuring the physical and chemical properties of cells, such as fluorescence, then by physically separating cells while still alive, the cell sorter became an important tool for biomedical research and clinical medicine.

The first prototype sorter was built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1965 by physicist Mack J. Fulwyler by joining a Coulter volume sensor with the newly-invented ink jet printer. The first biologist who clearly saw uses for the Los Alamos instrument, especially for the study of immunological properties of cells, was Leonard Herzenberg of Stanford University. With Fulwyler's plans, Herzenberg obtained the cooperation of engineers in the Genetics Department's Instrumentation Research Laboratory at Stanford to build an instrument to sort live cells using fluorescence. Two successful prototypes were built -- a 1969 instrument that employed a mercury arc lamp as light source and a 1972 version which used an argon ion laser to detect cells tagged with fluorescent markers. Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) allowed Herzenberg and the Stanford engineers to interest the medical products company Becton Dickinson (BD) to convert their prototypes into the first commercial instruments, the FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter) in 1975.

Interviewees included scientists, engineers, managers, and physicians from Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (BDIS), Stanford University, Brown University, and LANL. Bruce Allen Bach received his B.S. in biology and his M.A. in molecular biology from Stanford University in 1973 and 1974, respectively. He was awarded his Ph.D. in immunology from Harvard Medical School in 1979 and a M.D. from the Washington University School of Medicine in 1981. After completing his residency at the University of California Affiliated Hospitals, Bach accepted the position of Associate Scientific Member of the Howard Hughes Medical Research Institute in 1984. From 1985 to 1987 he served as a physician at two San Francisco area hospitals. In 1989, he was appointed Corporate Medical Director of BDIS, and held that position concurrently with his 1991 appointment as director of BD's worldwide clinical trials group.

Mack Jett Fulwyler received his B.S. in physics from Idaho State College in 1961 and his Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Colorado in 1969. From 1961 to 1967, Fulwyler worked at LANL where he developed particle separators and sorters. In 1971, he accepted the position of President of Particle Technology, Inc. In 1977, after completing a two year fellowship at the Max Planck Institute in Germany, Fulwyler returned to the U.S. to serve as Technical Director for BD FACS System Division. He retired from that position in 1982 and accepted a professorship at the University of California, San Francisco. Since 1990, Fulwyler served as Director of Technical Development for the Trancel Corporation.

After receiving his B.A. in biology and chemistry from Brooklyn College in 1952 and his Ph.D. in biochemistry and immunology from the California Institute of Technology in 1955, Leonard A. Herzenberg accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the American Cancer Society to conduct research at the Pasteur Institute in France. Herzenberg returned to the U.S. in 1957 to serve as an officer for the Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics at Stanford University and was eventually appointed Professor of Genetics.

Leonore A. Herzenberg attended classes at Pomona College and the California Institute of Technology during the mid-1950s. In 1981, she was awarded the degree of Docteur des Sciences Naturelles from the Sorbonne University in Paris. During the 1950s, she served as a research assistant at the California Institute of Technology, the Pasteur Institute, and the National Institutes of Health. In 1959, she accepted the position of Research Assistant in the Department of Genetics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University. Subsequently, she was appointed Senior Research Assistant in those departments in 1963 and Research Associate in 1967. From 1973 to 1989, she worked as a Research Associate and Senior Research Associate solely in the Department of Genetics. In 1989, she was appointed professor in the Genetics Department.

Mark A. Krasnow received his B.S. in biology and chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1978. He was awarded his Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1983, and his M.D. in 1985, from the University of Chicago. In 1988, he was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. His research interests include the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and cell to cell interactions in the development of Drosophila.

Nagesh S. Mhatre, president of BDIS, was awarded a B.S. from Bombay University, an M.S. from Oregon State University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry-microbiology from Rutgers University. Before being appointed president in 1983, Mhatre held a variety of positions with Becton Dickinson & Company. Previously, he was with Miles Laboratory for seventeen years.

After receiving his B.S. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1986, Monty Montano conducted research at the University of California, San Francisco on the use of recombinant DNA applied to clinical genetics. Montano began a doctoral program in genetics at Stanford University in 1988.

Wayne A. Moore received his B.S. in mathematics and science from Stanford University in 1976. From 1972, he worked as a lab assistant and programmer at the Stanford Department of Genetics and was later appointed Senior Scientific Programmer of that department.

From 1970 to 1974, Thomas Nozaki, Jr., served as an electronics engineer at the Stanford Computation Center. After receiving his B.S. in electrical engineering from California State University in 1974, Nozaki joined the Stanford Department of Genetics as a research and development electronics engineer.

Richard E. Owen, Director of Instrument Operations for BDIS, joined the company in 1988 as Manufacturing Engineering Manager. Prior to joining BDIS, he was Director of Thorn EMI Datatech Ltd. in England. He holds a Higher National Certificate in Applied Physics from Southeast London Technical College, a B.A. in Management from St. Marys College in Moraga, California, and is a graduate of the Institute of Electronic and Radio Engineers.

David R. Parks received his B.S. from Grinnell College in 1967, and his Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University in 1973. From 1973 to 1974 he worked as a Field Assistant and Project Manager in environmental studies at the Missouri Botanical Garden. In 1975, he returned to Stanford University as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Genetics. In 1981, he accepted the position of Research Associate in that department and held that position concurrently with his appointment as director of the Shared Cell Sorter Facility in 1983.

In 1981 Diether J. Recktenwald joined BDIS as a Senior Research Scientist; he was appointed research group leader and later associate scientific director. Prior to BDIS, he was a visiting scientist at Stanford University and a senior research associate at the Max Planck Institute. He received a Ph.D. in biochemistry and biophysics from Ruhruniversitat Bochum in Germany, and an M.S. and B.S. from Universitat des Saarlandes Saarbrucken, also in Germany.

Marcos Boris Rotman received his M.S. in chemical engineering from the University F. Santa Maria in Chile in 1948, and his Ph.D. in microbiology, organic chemistry, and biochemistry from the University of Illinois in 1952. After completing his degree, he served a year as a research associate at the University of Illinois, and then moved to the University of Wisconsin to work in the laboratory of Joshua Lederberg from 1953 to 1956. In 1959, Rotman became Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the Albany Medical School, and in 1961 moved to the Department of Genetics at Stanford as a Research Associate. From 1961 to 1966, he served as head of the biochemistry section of the Syntex Institute for Molecular Biology, located at Stanford. In 1966, Rotman left Stanford to become professor of Medical Science at Brown University. In 1990, he was awarded the title of Professor Emeritus.

Bernie Shoor completed his B.A. in physics from New York University in 1946. After receiving his degree, he worked for the Army Signal Corps and subsequently the Sperry Gyroscope Company. In 1966, Shoor began working for Endevco Corporation, a small scientific instrument company which was eventually bought by BD. In 1970, Shoor became manager of BD's Mountain View, California, laboratory. In 1977, he accepted the position of Corporate Vice-President of Research and Design at BD's headquarters in New Jersey. In 1981, he returned to California to establish the BD Monoclonal Center. Shoor retired from BD in 1984 but has continued to serve as a consultant for the company.

After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1965, and his M.S. in theoretical and applied mechanics in 1967 from Cornell University, Richard T. Stovel worked as a Research Engineer at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company analyzing the structural dynamics of missile systems. In 1972, he joined the Stanford University Department of Genetics as a Physical Science and Engineering Technician working on the operation and development of the prototype cell sorting machine. In 1976, he was appointed Research and Development Engineer of the Genetics Department where he continued his research in fluid jet behavior.

Richard G. Sweet received his B.S. in electrical engineering in 1947. From 1947 to 1951, he worked as a design engineer on telephone systems at the Southern California Edison Company. In 1951, he accepted the position of Senior Design Engineer at Gilfillan Bros. Inc., developing electronics equipment for radar systems. Sweet joined Stanford University Electronics Labs in 1956 as a research associate where he developed, most notably, high speed ink jet recording systems. After a decade at Stanford, Sweet accepted the position of Senior Engineer at Varian Associates in 1966 and worked on developing instrumentation for classifying and sorting small particles. In 1971, he travelled as a visiting scientist to the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center to conduct research on non-impact printing systems. Since 1986, Sweet has served as a consultant to both the Herzenberg Laboratory and to BDIS.

After receiving his B.S. from City College of New York in 1939 and his Ph.D. in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951, Marvin A. Van Dilla worked in the radiobiology laboratory at the University of Utah. In 1957, he joined the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as the biophysics group leader. Van Dilla left Los Alamos in 1972 to become the cytophysics Section Leader of the Biomedical Sciences Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In 1983, he was appointed Leader of the Gene Library Project at Livermore.

Nicholas Veizades was awarded his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley in 1958, and his M.S. in engineering sciences from Stanford University in 1961. He joined the Stanford Department of Genetics in 1962 and worked in the Instrumentation Research Laboratory on biomedical instrumentation.
Rights:
Restricted. "Inventing the Cell Sorter" film cannot be reproduced. For information about use of this interview, contact SIHistory@si.edu.
Topic:
Biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Biotechnology  Search this
Bioengineering  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Videotapes
Oral history
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9554, , The History of the Cell Sorter Interviews
Identifier:
Record Unit 9554
See more items in:
The History of the Cell Sorter Interviews
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9554

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