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Stevens, Brooks, 1985, 1990

Collection Creator:
Jeffers, Grace  Search this
Formica Corporation.  Search this
Container:
Box 17, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0565-ref457

Brooks Stevens, 1911-1995 [Folder]

Contents:
Folder(s) may include exhibition announcements, newspaper and/or magazine clippings, press releases, brochures, reviews, invitations, illustrations, resumes, artist's statements, exhibition catalogs.
Topic:
Artists  Search this
Location:
Art & Artist files at the Smithsonian American Art Museum/ National Portrait Gallery Library
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILAF_96041

Steven Brooke, Bass Museum of Art

Collection Creator:
Kohen, Helen L.  Search this
Container:
Box 1 (slide box)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1994
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. research facility.
Collection Rights:
The Helen L. Kohen papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Helen L. Kohen papers, 1978-1996. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Helen L. Kohen papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-kohehele-ref45

The majesty of St. Augustine / by Steven Brooke

Author:
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Physical description:
94 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Place:
Florida
Saint Augustine
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Date:
2005
C2005
Topic:
Historic buildings  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Historic sites  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Buildings, structures, etc  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_761450

The gardens of Florida / by Steven Brooke and Laura Cerwinske

Author:
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Cerwinske, Laura  Search this
Physical description:
128 p. : col. ill. ; 23 x 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Florida
Date:
1998
Topic:
Gardens  Search this
Gardens--Pictorial works  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_540775

These Are the Most Threatened Historical Places in America

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 16:58:54 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_be764e311a056f98af4a62a145366212

Vizcaya / text by Doris Bayley Littlefield, photographs by Steven Brooke

Author:
Littlefield, Doris Bayley  Search this
Subject:
Deering, James 1859-1925  Search this
Vizcaya Museum and Gardens (Miami, Fla.)  Search this
Physical description:
94 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Florida
Miami
Date:
1984
1984, c1983
Topic:
Gardens  Search this
Museums  Search this
Call number:
F319.M6 L77 1984
F319.M6L77 1984
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_420757

Industrial strength design : how Brooks Stevens shaped your world / Glenn Adamson ; [essays by John Heskett, Kristina Wilson, Jody Clowes]

Title:
How Brooks Stevens shaped your world
Author:
Adamson, Glenn  Search this
Stevens, Brooks 1911-1995  Search this
Milwaukee Art Museum  Search this
Subject:
Stevens, Brooks 1911-1995  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 219 p. : ill., (some col.), ports. ; 28 cm
Type:
Biography
Exhibitions
Place:
Wisconsin
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
20th century
Topic:
Industrial designers  Search this
Industrial design--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_709491

Miami, hot & cool / text by Laura Cerwinske ; photographs by Steven Brooke

Author:
Cerwinske, Laura  Search this
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Physical description:
232 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Florida
Miami
Miami (Fla.)
Date:
1990
C1990
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Architecture, Tropical  Search this
Gardens  Search this
Buildings, structures, etc  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
NA735.M4 C47 1990X
NA735.M4C47 1990X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_404002

Views of Rome / Steven Brooke ; essays by Bonna Daix Wescoat, John Varriano, Malcolm Campbell

Author:
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Wescoat, Bonna D  Search this
Varriano, John L  Search this
Campbell, Malcolm 1934-  Search this
Physical description:
224 p. : ill. ; 27 x 27 cm
Type:
Books
In art
Place:
Italy
Rome
Rome (Italy)
Date:
1995
Topic:
Historic buildings  Search this
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Architecture, Roman  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Buildings, structures, etc  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_497800

Carrère & Hastings : the masterworks / text by Laurie Ossman and Heather Ewing ; photography by Steven Brooke

Title:
Carrère and Hastings
Author:
Carrère & Hastings  Search this
Ossman, Laurie  Search this
Ewing, Heather P  Search this
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Subject:
Carrère, John Merven 1858-1911  Search this
Hastings, Thomas 1860-1929  Search this
Carrère & Hastings  Search this
Physical description:
320 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 32 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2011
19th century
20th century
Topic:
Architecture--History  Search this
Eclecticism in architecture  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_977523

Deco delights : preserving the beauty and joy of Miami Beach architecture / Barbara Baer Capitman : photographs by Steven Brooke

Author:
Capitman, Barbara Baer  Search this
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Physical description:
116 p. : col. ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Florida
Miami Beach
Miami Beach (Fla.)
Date:
1988
C1988
20th century
Topic:
Art deco (Architecture)--Conservation and restoration  Search this
Architecture--History  Search this
Architecture, Modern--Conservation and restoration  Search this
Buildings, structures, etc  Search this
Conservation and restoration  Search this
Call number:
N6535 .M52 C24 1988
N6535 .M52C24 1988
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_373375

Historic houses of Virginia : great plantation houses, mansions, and country places / Kathryn Masson ; foreword by Calder Loth ; introduction by Richard Guy Wilson ; photography by Steven Brooke

Author:
Masson, Kathryn  Search this
Brooke, Steven  Search this
Physical description:
256 p. : col. ill., col. map ; 29 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Place:
Virginia
Date:
2006
18th century
Topic:
Historic buildings  Search this
Plantations  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_807298

Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials

Creator:
Jeffers, Grace  Search this
Formica Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Faber, Herbert A.  Search this
Loewy, Raymond  Search this
O'Conor, Daniel J.  Search this
Stevens, Brooks  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (59 boxes, 11 oversize folders )
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scripts (documents)
Videotapes
Posters
Samples
Advertisements
Brochures
Blueprints
Photographs
Newsletters
Exhibition catalogs
Catalogs
Correspondence
Date:
1913-2003
Summary:
The Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials consists of textual files, photographs, slides, negatives, drawings, blueprints, posters, advertisements, product brochures, newsletters, and informational pamphlets documenting the history of the Formica Corporation and the use of Formica brand plastic laminate.
Scope and Contents:
The Formica Collection, 1913-2003, consists of textual files, photographs, photo slides, drawings, blueprints, posters, advertisements, product brochures, informational pamphlets, and research notes documenting the history of the Formica Corporation and the use of Formica brand plastic laminate.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Corporate Records, 1920-1992, 2003

Subseries 1.1: Annual reports, 1949, 1966, 1988

Subseries 1.2: Correspondence and company identity, 1920-1988

Subseries 1.3: Corporation histories and timelines, 1949-1991, undated

Subseries 1.4: Newspaper clippings and articles, 1934-2003

Subseries 1.5: Awards, 1940s-1987

Subseries 1.6: Patent information, 1925-1994

Subseries 1.7: Photographs, 1927-1966

Series 2: Personnel Records, 1943-1992

Series 3: Newsletters, Magazines, and Press Releases, 1942-1990

Subseries 3.1: Newsletters, 1942-1988

Subseries 3.2: Press releases, 1973-1990

Series 4: Product Information, 1948-1994

Series 5: Advertising and sales materials, 1913-2000

Subseries 5.1: Advertising materials, 1913-2000

Subseries 5.2: Sales materials, 1922-1993

Series 6: Subject Files, circa 1945, 1955-1991, 2002

Series 7: Exhibits, 1981-1994

Series 8: Grace Jeffers Research Materials, 1987-1997

Series 9: Audio Visual Materials, 1982-1995, undated

Series 10: Martin A. Jeffers Materials, 1963-1999

Subseries 10.1: Background Materials, 1965-1999

Subseries 10.2: Employee Benefits, 1963-1998

Subseries 10.3: Product Information, [1959?]-1997

Subseries 10.4: Advertising and Sales Records, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
Since its founding in 1913, the history of the Formica Company has been marked by a spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship. The history begins with the discovery of Formica by two men who envisioned the plastic laminate as breakthrough insulation for motors. Later, Formica became a ubiquitous surfacing material used by artists and architects of post-modern design. The various applications of the plastic laminate during the twentieth century give it a prominent role in the history of plastics, American consumerism, and American popular culture.

The Formica Company was the brainchild of Herbert A. Faber and Daniel J. O'Conor, who met in 1907 while both were working at Westinghouse in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. O'Conor, head of the process section in the Research Engineering Department, had been experimenting with resins, cloth, paper, and a wide array of solvents in an effort to perfect a process for making rigid laminate sheets from Kraft paper and liquid Bakelite. O'Conor produced the first laminate sheet at Westinghouse by winding and coating paper on a mandrel, slitting the resulting tube, and flattening it on a press. The finished product was a laminated sheet with the chemical and electrical properties of Bakelite that were cut into various shapes and sizes. O'Conor applied for a patent on February 1, 1913, but it was not issued until November 12, 1918 (US Patent 1,284,432). Since the research was done on behalf of Westinghouse, the company was assigned the patent, and O'Conor was given one dollar, the customary amount that Westinghouse paid for the rights to employees' inventions.

Herbert Faber, Technical Sales Manager of insulating materials, was excited about O'Conor's discovery. Faber saw limitless possibilities for the new material. However, he quickly became frustrated by Westinghouse's policy limiting the sale of the laminate to its licensed distributors. After failing to persuade Westinghouse to form a division to manufacture and market the new material, Faber and O'Conor created their own company. On May 2, 1913, the first Formica plant opened in Cincinnati, Ohio. On October 15, 1913, the business incorporated as the Formica Insulation Company with Faber as president and treasurer and O'Conor as vice-president and secretary. The company began producing insulation parts used in place of or "for mica," the costly mineral that had been used in electrical insulation.

Like most new companies, Formica had modest beginnings. Faber and O'Conor faced the challenge of looking for investors who would let them maintain control over the company. Finally, they met J. G. Tomluin, a lawyer and banker from Walton, Kentucky, who invested $7,500 for a one-third share in the Formica Company. Renting a small space in downtown Cincinnati, Faber and O'Conor began work. The company's equipment list consisted of a 35-horsepower boiler, a small gas stove, and a variety of homemade hand screw presses. By September 1913, Tomluin had brought in two more partners, David Wallace and John L. Vest. With the added capital, O'Conor, Faber, and Formica's eighteen employees began producing automobile insulation parts for Bell Electric Motor, Allis Chalmers, and Northwest Electric.

Initially, the Formica Company only made insulation rings and tubes for motors. However, by July 4, 1914, the company obtained its first press and began to produce flat laminate sheets made from Redmenol resin. Business gradually grew, and by 1917 sales totaled $75,000. Fueled by World War I, Formica's business expanded to making radio parts, aircraft pulleys, and timing gears for the burgeoning motor industry. In the years that followed, Formica products were in high demand as laminate plastics replaced older materials in washers, vacuum cleaners, and refrigerators. By 1919, the Formica Company required larger facilities and purchased a factory in Cincinnati.

During this time, patent battles and legal suits emerged to challenge Formica's success. On June 11, 1919, Westinghouse sued Formica for patent infringement on its laminated gears; Formica won. Later that year, Westinghouse brought two new lawsuits against Formica. The first was for a patent infringement on the production of tubes, rods, and molded parts; the second was over an infringement based on a 1913 patent assigned to Westinghouse through O'Conor. Formica prevailed in both suits.

Legal battles did not deter the company. Having to defend itself against a giant corporation gave Formica a reputation as a scrappy contender. Finally, Faber and O'Conor made a quantum leap in 1927, when the company was granted a U.S. patent for a phenolic laminate utilizing lithographed wood grains of light color, forming an opaque barrier sheet which blocks out the dark interior of the laminate. In 1931, the company received two more patents for the preparation of the first all paper based laminate and for the addition of a layer of aluminum foil between the core and the surface, making the laminate cigarette-proof. These patents would allow Formica to move from a company dealing primarily with industrial material to the highly visible arena of consumer goods.

In 1937, Faber had a severe heart attack which limited his activity within the company. O'Conor continued as president, encouraging new product lines, including Realwood, as a laminate with genuine wood veneer mounted on a paper lamination with a heat-reactive binder. With the introduction of Realwood and its derivatives, manufacturers started using Formica laminate for tabletops, desks, and dinette sets. By the early forties, sales of Formica laminate were over 15 million dollars. The final recipe for decorative laminate was perfected in 1938, when melamine resins were introduced. Melamine was clear, extremely hard, and resistant to stains, heat, light, less expensive than phenolic resins. It also made possible laminates of colored papers and patterns.

Due to World War II, Formica postponed the manufacturing of decorative laminate sheets. Instead, the company made a variety of war-time products ranging from airplane propellers to bomb buster tubes.

The post-World War II building boom fueled the decorative laminate market and ushered in what would come to be known as the golden age for Formica. The company, anticipating the demand for laminate, acquired a giant press capable of producing sheets measuring thirty by ninety-six inches for kitchen countertops. Between 1947 and 1950, more than 2 million new homes were designed with Formica brand laminate for kitchens and bathrooms.

Formica's advertising campaigns, initially aimed at industry, were transformed to speak to the new decorative needs of consumer society, in particular the American housewife. Formica hired design consultants, Brooks Stevens, and, later, Raymond Loewy who launched extensive advertising campaigns. Advertising themes of durability, cleanliness, efficiency, and beauty abound in promotional material of this time. Advertisers promised that the plastic laminate, known as "the wipe clean wonder," was resistant to dirt, juices, jams, alcohol stains, and cigarette burns. Atomic patterns and space-age colors, including Moonglo, Skylark, and Sequina, were introduced in homes, schools, offices, hospitals, diners, and restaurants across America.

The post-war period was also marked by expansion, specifically with the establishment of Formica's first international markets. In 1947, Formica signed a licensing agreement with the British firm the De La Rue Company of London for the exclusive manufacture and marketing of decorative laminates outside North America, and in South America and the Pacific Basin. In 1948, Formica changed its name from the Formica Insulation Company to the Formica Company. In 1951, Formica responded to growing consumer demand by opening a million square foot plant in Evendale, Ohio, devoted to the exclusive production of decorative sheet material. In 1956, the Formica Company became the Formica Corporation, a subsidiary of American Cyanamid Company. A year later, the international subsidiaries that Formica formed with De La Rue Company of London were replaced by a joint company called Formica International Limited.

The plastic laminate was not merely confined to tabletops and dinette sets. Formica laminate was used for skis, globes, and murals. Moreover, well-known artists and architects used the decorative laminate for modernist furniture and Art Deco interiors. In 1960, Formica's Research and Development Design Center was established, adjacent to the Evendale plant, to develop uses for existing laminate products. In 1966, the company opened the Sierra Plant near Sacramento, California. Such corporate expansion enabled Formica to market its laminates beyond the traditional role as a countertop surface material.

In 1974, Formica established its Design Advisory Board (DAB), a group of leading designers and architects. DAB introduced new colors and patterns of laminate that gained popularity among artists and interior designers in the 1980s. In 1981, DAB introduced the Color Grid, a systematic organization of Formica laminate arranged by neutrals and chromatics. The Color Grid was described as the first and only logically arranged collection of color in the laminate industry. DAB also developed the Design Concepts Collection of premium solid and patterned laminates to serve the needs of contemporary interior designers.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the corporation continued to produce laminates for interior designers, artists, and architects. In 1982, Formica introduced COLORCORE, the first solid-color laminate. Due to its relatively seamless appearance, COLORCORE was adopted by artists for use in furniture, jewelry, and interior design. The introduction of COLORCORE also marked the emergence of a wide variety of design exhibitions and competitions sponsored by the Formica Corporation. In 1985, Formica Corporation became independent and privately held. Formica continues to be one of the leading laminate producers in the world with factories in the United States, England, France, Spain, Canada, and Taiwan.

For additional information on the history of the Formica Corporation, see:

DiNoto, Andrea. Art Plastic: Designed for Living. New York: Abbeville Press, 1985.

Fenichell, Stephen. Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century. New York: Harper/Collins, 1996.

Jeffers Grace. 1998. Machine Made Natural: The Decorative Products of the Formica Corporation, 1947-1962. Master's thesis. Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts.

Lewin, Susan Grant, ed. Formica & Design: From Counter Top to High Art. New York: Rizzoli, 1991.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Leo Baekeland Papers, 1881-1968 (AC0005)

DuPont Nylon Collection, 1939-1977 (AC0007)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics, circa 1900-1975 (AC0008)

Earl Tupper Papers, circa 1914-1982 (AC0470)

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession # 1997.0319 and #1997.3133.
Provenance:
This collection was assembled by Grace Jeffers, historian of material culture, primarily from materials given to her by Susan Lewin, Head of Formica's New York design and publicity office when the office closed in 1995. The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Grace Jeffers in September 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Plastics industry and trade  Search this
Plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastics as art material -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastics in interior design -- 1920-2000  Search this
advertising -- plastic industry -- 1920-2000  Search this
Plastic jewelry -- 1920-2000  Search this
Laminated plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Exhibitions -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
House furnishings -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Housewives as consumers -- 1920-2000  Search this
Electronic insulators and insulation -- Plastics -- 1920-2000  Search this
Inventions -- 1920-2000 -- United States  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Women in popular culture -- 1920-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scripts (documents)
Videotapes
Posters -- 20th century
Samples -- 1920-2000
Advertisements
Brochures
Blueprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Exhibition catalogs
Catalogs
Catalogs -- 1920-2000
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0565
See more items in:
Grace Jeffers Collection of Formica Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0565
Additional Online Media:

On the job : design and the American office / Donald Albrecht and Chrysanthe B. Broikos, editors

Author:
Albrecht, Donald  Search this
Broikos, Chrysanthe B  Search this
National Building Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
161 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 20 x 26 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
United States
Date:
2000
C2000
20th century
Topic:
Office decoration--History  Search this
Interior decoration--Human factors  Search this
Interior architecture  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_629864

Natchez -- Marschalk-Spencer

Garden designer:
Garbo, William  Search this
Provenance:
Pilgrimage Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Marschalk-Spencer (Natchez, Mississippi)
United States of America -- Mississippi -- Adams County -- Natchez
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes a worksheet, landscape plans, a plant list, copies of book entries and newspaper articles, history of property by Historic Natchez Foundation, and articles about Marschalk.
General:
The garden space of the Marschalk-Spencer House (ca. 1830) is brick-walled, and fits the designation of a "secret garden." The garden is entered by way of a narrow path framed by the side of the house and a clipped hedge. Brick steps and a wrought iron gate give one a first glimpse of the garden and its entrance court. From this court space, three steps and a small wrought iron gate lead up to a terrace with brick paved walks encircling a classic sundial. Low cliped boxwood and mondograss soften the appearance of the brick walks. There are two lead sculptures on this axis. At the far end of the upper terrace, a tiny patio furnished with cast iron furniture provides a focal point terminating the central walk. Trees along the property line of the house to the back property line. Thought small, this garden gives one a feeling of spaciousness. The garden space is approximately 31 feet wide by 72 feet in length.
Persons associated with the garden include: David Wood (former owner); Andrew Marschalk (former owner, 1819); Miller and Jane Stewart (former owners, 1824); Robert Stewart (former owner, 1854-1880); Herman F. Papp (former owner, 1880-1884); Marion Payne (former owner, 1884-1904); Nannie W. Humpreys (former owner, 1904-1927); Mrs. Covington W. Scott family (former owners, 1927-1974); Lynda Mead Shea (former owner, 1974); Bruce and Brenda Fisher (former owners, 1974-1983); William Garbo, ASLA (garden designer, 1987); and Ron and Mary W. Miller (historical researchers).
Related Materials:
Marschalk-Spencer related holdings consist of 1 folder (7 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Mississippi -- Natchez  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File MS033
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref9169

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